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A penny is a loan - Savluk M.I.


For the sake of understanding the laws and peculiarities of the pennies used in the process of suspension, I will be able to think of a penniless model, speeding myself up for this methodology and encourage revenue models and products, which are widely seen in foreign literature.

For simplicity, encourage models of a penny turnover of the entire largest subgroup of the chotiri enlarged group: company, family thanks, department, financial intermediaries.

Prior to the group “Firmi” there is a presentation of all legal and physical individuals, in order to take part from the target and realizatsii gross national product.

To the group of "Simenі statehoods" include us_ sіmaynі odinitsі, as well as self-sustaining pennies come and go vitrati and keep a separate budget. To such a single can enter as one, so і kіlka osib. The group needs to be protected in the turnover of the group of companies, which is securely provided with resources (working force, interruptions of viral labor) and is shaped by the large income (national income) of the main product

To the group "Uryad" enter legal entities - the state management and that of the structure, in order to protect the distribution and the re-distribution of the national income and the national product, most of which will be left to the realization.

To the group "Financial intermediaries" enter the sub-item of a penny market, such as, in the role of a middle-person, accrue to the whole market of money and money, and they have to pay for their own business.

We have increased income and vitraty of the skin group of the sub-group in circulation and are grouped in economically separate branches of the main grocery streams, so that you can interchange the number of groups of sub-groups. Small amounts of payments are also the same as in the sub-regions of the entire skin group, in the middle of companies, and in the midst of state thanks to the skinny. It’s stinky to become part of a penny worthless turnover; in this model, we see them abstracted.

Oskilki more and more economical sub-objects of health through the markets, in the model you can see the links: product market, on which you can realize the targeting of the national product; rinok resources, at such a firm buy the necessary resources for securing viral resources (I work with strength, land, business); a groshny rinok, on which you can realize yourself in groshny groshі koshti; light rinok. Groshy streams do not bother with each other, not only the entire group of economical sub-sites, but the first one to see the market, which is safe for us by the function of a single open-air space of the country.

By way of simplification of the scheme of groshy streams with the incentive model of a penny turnover, a small number of smartest people have been zipped, but I don’t have to understand the real minds of the transitional economy of Ukraine. Naiystotnymi z them є:

1) in the economic system panu пан private power, that is all the viral resources є power of the state gratitude, as well as sell them through the market of resources to the companies;

2) for reasons of the fact that the company itself is interrupted by the government’s government and that the whole company’s income is kept at the forensic dividend as a fee for resources;

3) I’m in good standing 2) I’ll be in charge of all the taxes I have to pay for all the necessary state donations; the model is covered with only clean sums (clean surcharges), just for the whole amount of transfer bills from the sovereign budget;

4) the department is able to maintain its vitality, so as not to be at a loss for clean taxes, to be safe for the banknote, you can pay for the internal grocery market, so as not to go to the central bank for credit;

5) I have access to permissions; 2) Firms of all their own investments, more than one needs to be satisfied with the mobile phone market for an internal grocery market;

6) at the flows, I’m imagining that I want to protect my family’s gratitude, I’m insured that I’m cleaned up my credit, that’s why I have a little screw of urgent streams, I’ve got a little bit of money for that, and I also have to pay a percentage;

7) at flows, which will allow for internal market for payments, for the payment of payments, for intermediate clean export and clean import.

For seven names, the model of a penny of a penniless turnover can be generated by the income and vitrate circulation of a personal sight (Fig. 2.1).

In the suggested models of a total penny turnover, 16 okremich penny streams have been seen. Pershim (item number 1) is marked with more payments (vitrat) of the company, due to the purchase of viral resources, our work, the land plots, equipment, which have violated the requirements. Nazustr tschuyu flow of pennies crashes in the middle of the company purchased resources, which is indicated by a thin and sensitive line. It’s sound, fellow who’s got money, the company is guilty of the mother of the need for pennies. Do you take the stink sounds? In the foregoing paragraph, we looked at the power supply almost indivisibly to the circulation of the individual capital. It’s acceptable for this whole analysis, since they have to pay a small fee and have successfully paid for all purchases of viral resources. The simplicity of the farthing rubble of pennies in the model (Fig. 2.1).

small 3

Model of penny turnover

The result of a pennile flow is 1 that there will be realizable resources, which are reserved for the market with the same state donations, that they will form a smaller income, remaining in the same model as the second one. Silkospodospodsky products, land dilyanok, Budivel lean), rent, income from shares, shares and that. At the stench of stinks, I’m storing the national income of the country.

In the furthest national income, it is divided into three parts, the skin is of a kind breed and the okremiy is a penny. The greater part of the country is being spent with state sponsorships for residency, with which we must pay for the purchase of products for the internal market for products and for the private market. Tsі platezhі stvoryuyut 3 that flows 10. Pevnyi Chastina natsіonalnogo income splachuєtsya sіmeynimi Gospodarstwa Uryadov in viglyadі podatkіv scho stvoryuє potіk 4. Tsey potіk іstotno vіdrіznyaєtsya od poperednіh potokіv - vіn not suprovodzhuєtsya zustrіchnim peremіschennyam real tsіnnostey, tobto vіn nalezhit to groupies Sotho fіnansovih potokіv. It is not spent on living that payment of patches a part of national income to become forgiving family gratitude, so as to go on a groshny rink and do something 5.

For the benefit of the population in this model, I want to use a perennial dzherel to buy money for a groshny market, and now to a perennial dzherel invest in the expansion of the virology sector in the "business" sector. All this is due to the fact that, to our best interests, the whole company path is to be reached by the bestowed gratitude to the family members of the forensic dividend that percentage, which is to enter the warehouse of national income. That is why companies don’t have a lot of money to expand their capital and stink to mobilize them for a penny market.

There is a penny for 6 in the form of a bond, credits that have been insured, borrowings from financial intermediaries, and income from valuable folders (share and regional shares).

Mobilize on a grocery market of companies invest in expanding virology, for which you need to spend more on purchasing material values ​​(alarm materials, possessions, additions, etc.). A new payment pen is formed at the call with payment 7.

Before the services of the penny market, apart from the company, the order is also turned over, as long as you have enough money to cover your vitrates. Rosmishchuyuchi to the penny market for their own goiters (regional, bond, treasury bills tozno), a small postal item to pay for purchases on the product market. Mobilizing a detachment of money to a penny market I will cause a penny flow to appear 8, and the next step to pay for the sovereign purchases to zoom in the form of a penny flow 9.

Thus, pennies, yakis won a share of the state thanks to the flow of national income, by distributing gifts and singing transformations, they came to the market for products 3, 7, 9, which formed there an extensive oath of drink. Yakby family sponsorships, all purchases, bonuses for their living, were welcomed on the internal market of products, then there are penniless cost, you should be able to go to the price of the market for all the required goods, there are a lot of goods Possessed by the viruses, the virulent formulated the remaining groshiy potik (on the diagram of the designations number 12), a kind of "Closing" bi circuit of groshovyh koshtіv. Obsyag tsogo flow viznachaєtsya obsyagom realіzovanogo gross product natsіonalnogo i dorіvnyuє obsyagu natsіonalnogo income vіdobrazhenogo in pototsі 2. Balansuvannya vkazanih potokіv - dohodіv fіrm od realіzatsії natsіonalnogo product (12) that natsіonalnogo income obsession sіmeynimi Gospodarstwa (2) - Got virіshalne values ​​for normal funktsіonuvannya penniless turnover and the entire economic system, to ensure the security of pennies and the market.

Protein is allowed a little less for a closed economy. Fragments of the economy of Ukraine к зв зв зв зв зв зв зв з з з з св св св ри ри ри ри роз роз роз роз роз роз роз роз роз роз роз модель модель модель, модель шов модель модель модель св модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель модель оном оном оном оном оном оном оном оном оном оном оном оном оном оном оном оном оном оном оном оном оном оном оном оном оном оном оном. There’s one more name for one of these streams (10), a kind of servants living with one’s family thanks for the import bank. In response to the flow of family thanks to the government, it will be less likely to drink on the domestic market of products and switch it to the traditional market. A part of the pennies has contributed to the sphere of domestic circulation and not to the internal product market.

The sound of the national economy with a new market can not be shunned by import, but inevitably including export, like a part of the frizzy national product, can be used on a new market, minutely internal. Payment by foreign purchasers of export deliveries of farm goods is a new groshiy potik 11, for such a thing as the domestic turnover to increase the amount of grocery grocery. You can buy nothing in the form of national currency, it has been largely converted and widespread in international razrahunoks, but also in the form of foreign currency. In the remaining company mix, sell the whole currency to the foreign exchange market for national pennies, which are available for the first time in the current turnover 11.

Yakbi's obligations to import and export in Ukraine were balanced, then groshny flows 10 and 11 were balanced, because at the domestic circulation the export channels turned into a penny style, the price of vibrations went through the channels of import. Protea such rіvnіst is possible tіlki vipadkovo. As a rule, okhs ıkh do not balance, but I am trying to cope with difficult work in penniless circulation and in realizing national product.

As long as I take an oath to import I pass over an oath to export, then, in the amount of pure import I go to a penny from an internal market after stream 10 to re-export a new one from a domestic market to a stream 11. I have a lot of money to buy a quicker food in krai.

There are two ways to liquidate the number of deficiencies in the payment platform for the product market:

1) pre-loan credit, managers of a company and that department can mobilize for a groshinka (flows 6 and 8) more than a penny, lower than that for the flow of gratitude of family states (flow 5);

2) to healed pennies at the internal turnover of the market.

The first way is to overdo it, you can drink pre-docile drinks at a glance, without losing the national product for paying interest to non-residents. Ale Tsei is able to avenge the threat of an inflationary price. In addition, the liability for clean imports is decreasing in currency reserves of the country оп на на вал вал national currency to fall behind the cordon в at the same time we can buy in order to purchase a national product, but bring up the balance of the supply of goods.

To those who want and don’t want, I’m not so quick and cheap, like the best,, another way is to get money on your own financial market. It’s very possible to have a great idea at a foreign bank to pay for purchases by import or to sell them on the backward markets of national financial assets (stock, regional money), but at once. A new groshiy potik 13 is formed in these vipads, for an additional grocery market, an additional capital should be taken to the internal groshny market. To the sum of these benefits, the company and the order can mobilize the money for a better market, lower costs, more than one wish to receive more than one offer, and to buy and sell more products.

As a matter of fact, I swear to export export, I swear to import export, because I have pure export, then I have to stay at the internal grocery store after stream 11, I’ve got more grocery bags, I have to pay 10 times. For the sake of secrecy, there is a greater flow of money for the domestic market, lower needs, for the sake of formulating a platform, will be available for the product market, which is sufficient for the realization of the most part of the national product, as well as for the domestic market. The winery is a threat of imbalance in consumption and positioning on the product market and growth price. Uniquely threaten two ways:

1) up-to-date stock of pennies through circulation channels, which is due to the fact that the pennies are needed for the pennies for the 11th pillar in the current state of the company and the state gratitude and will not be presented to the penny market and not to the product market. At tsyomu vipadok new flows of pennies do not bother;

2) to the direct parts of the penny clothes from the internal penny market for the private. It’s possible to have a good time with the same ways that some importers of a given territory posed for koshti on foreign markets: on the bank notes of foreign importers and buying assets of foreign financial assets.

Fragments of the first and foremost means for thinking of living with a penny on the domestic market, yogo vosaguvannya vimagє і ст от от пол пол пол ек оном оном оном оном оном оном,,,, в в в в в в в в в в в в Укра. That’s real є another way, as long as it’s good, we’re ahead of the currency, pick up on the private markets. At such a way, it is possible to formulate food for the penniless capital for the cordon, which is the designation for the model of penniless turnover with the number 14.

From now on, through the mechanism of improving the clean import of groceries and accessories, the export of groceries by the inter-domestic market makes them easier to understand, so that I can make them more balanced

When balancing penniless turnover, and since it’s more normal for func- tioning, there are two key streams to protect — national income and realizable national product. Among these streams is the internal sound and cliches of the process of suspension of creation, and I am creating an active basis for their development. For the sake of completing the wiklik form in the process of distribution and vikor national of two kinds of grocery flows, yak of the national income can be called flows of food (two times) and flows of food (іn'єktsі).

Prior to the flow of money, there are: clean tidings (pot 4), protection of the state gratuities (pot 5) and payment to the import (pot 10). Prior to the flow I’ll introduce: investit_finance companies (pot 7), powers to purchase government structures (pot 9), export support (pot 11). As a result of the flow of food, the country will be able to vary with the national gains from the national income on the domestic product market, which means that I can sell the nationally manufactured product. As a result of the flow of supplies, there is a need for pennies on the domestic market, the stink does not turn around in the mainstream of its own waste, but it’s expanding the feasibility of realizing the national product. As long as there are overshoots of flow of food and food of pennies being urban, then the flows of national income and realizatsii national product are unbalanced.

When the flow rate is increased, the flow of pennies and the addition of pennies will not automatically be secured. Won can be reached tilki through the mechanism of a penny market. Tsei mehanizm vikonuє dvі important: showers for leveling the flow of functions:

1) the transformation of the patronage of family statehoods with the new kind of pay-as-you-go consumer (company and government structures);

2) collection of market conuncturi (for consumption and propositional pennies) to zoom in on food supply of pennies to the sweet market; or to add food to the pennies at the tip of the deficit of propositional pennies.

Zavdyaki these two functions, a groshyn rinok will take care of the balance of national income and national product, as I need a better mind than a successful implementation. The detailed mechanism of the function of the penniless market has been discussed in Chapter 3.

Якщо грошовий ринок не розвинутий і не виконує зазначених функцій, або виконує не повністю, то в процес балансування грошового обороту змушений втручатися центральний банк. Йому доводиться забезпечувати регулювання обороту "вручну" - шляхом додаткової емісії грошей чи вилучення зайвої маси грошей з обороту надзвичайними заходами, зокрема валютною інтервенцією. У такій ситуації в моделі грошового обороту з'являється ще один суб'єкт - центральний банк, та ще один грошовий потік - або поповнення обороту додатковою масою грошей шляхом збільшення кредитування центральним банком комерційних банків (потік 15), або вилучення надлишку грошових коштів шляхом скорочення кредитування (потік 16).

Обидва ці потоки, балансуючи оборот грошей у поточному відтворювальному циклі, містять у собі загрозу порушення балансу в наступному циклі. Такі порушення можуть виникнути як унаслідок зміни обсягів виробленого ВНП, так і зміни співвідношення між обсягами експорту та імпорту. Якщо, наприклад, замість чистого імпорту в наступному циклі складеться чистий експорт, то з обороту доведеться вилучати не тільки відповідну масу грошей, а й масу грошей, яка була додатково випущена в оборот для компенсації платежів по чистому імпорту за потоком 15 у попередньому циклі.

Зауважимо, що між потоками 13, 14, 15 та 16 існує зв'язок як між такими, які взаємно виключають один одного. Наприклад, якщо при чистому імпорті сформувався потік 13, то потоків 14 та 15 взагалі не може бути. Потік 15 може виникнути лише за умови, що обсяг потоку 13 недостатній, щоб збалансувати потоки відтоку та притоку грошей в обороті національного доходу.

Якщо ж сформувався чистий експорт, то відпадає потреба в потоках 13 та 15, а балансування здійснюватиметься потоком 14. Потреба в потоці 16 виникне лише за умови, що потік 14 взагалі не був сформований, чи обсяг його виявився недостатнім для збалансування національного доходу та валового національного продукту.

Хоча при побудові наведеної моделі зроблено цілу низку умовних припущень, в цілому вона досить грунтовно розкриває рух грошей у процесі суспільного відтворення, його послідовність, причинну зумовленість, механізм збалансування та інші характерні риси, що дає можливість глибше зрозуміти це надзвичайно складне економічне явище.