This page has been robot translated, sorry for typos if any. Original content here.

A penny is a loan - Savluk M.I.


In the midst of a complex of visits, a healthy recovery and a good deal of penniless turnover is especially important for small-scale reform. It’s stinky to follow the frequent re-awakening of the penny system, to conduct the power by refining pennies, to regulate the penniless circulation of a wholly new socially-economic minds, one at a time.

Groshyn reforms, which were carried out at regular intervals in many countries, significantly appreciated their goals, the importance of reforming basic penny systems, the methods of stable currency exchange, and the preparation of calls for a quick and easy call.

Behind the glibina of reformative entrances, it is possible to see structural and nonetheless penniless reform and reform of the private type.

Structural (refund) penny reform 1 was carried out during the transition from bіmetalіzmu to gold monometalіzmu, vіd remainder to the system of a penny chi credit loan. In these three types of falls, it’s not necessary to replace one type of pennies with the last, but the most important ones in the economy, in sovereign finances, bank and foreign currency systems. Such structural factors are dictated by the peculiarities of new pennies, schoo to be better off, and to be sure to change your mind for a successful function.

The same character is fraught with reform, which is carried out under the new powers, as well as during the breakup of the colonial empires of the superpowers, such as, for example, SRSR, SFRY. In these launches, it’s not necessary to have a new penniless system and their turnover, but the first order to restructure the economy of the new country, so that you could save yourself a self-funded new penny system. In the country, where wins on the SSRP term are structurally accelerated, the fragments would have to translate the economy from command and administrative ambushes to the markets. The butt of such reforms was Groshova reform, carried out in Russia in 1895-1897 pp., Groshova reform in the joyful Russia in 1922-1924 pp., Groshova reform in Ukraine in 90 years.

Reforms of the private type are stuck in the hands of self-organized penniless turnover and reduced to the size of the elements of the penny system. The very base of the penny system and the structure of the economy and pennant-credit loans are not indemnified. For such reforms, the scale of prices, the type and the nominal value of the signs, the mechanism of the small amount of money are so thin. At present, minds, if there are reasons for lack of pennies in our country, need to pay attention to the need for freedom, frequent reforms of the private type are often carried out, є the most common are typical practices. Naybilsh ostentatious reforms of the whole type of bully groshі reforms of 1947 and 1961 pp. at SRSR.

For reform, from your own side, it is possible to classify after the revision of the right of the pennies of the penny system. For the formal reform, for such denominations of one zraznuyut to be denominated in the banknote of the first zrazku, and the scale of price (the size of a penny is one) does not vary; denomination of reform, for any such denomination of pennies at the largest amount of pennies (scale of price). Formal penny reforms were carried out in the SRSR from 1990 p., If they had a new bill for 50 and 100 rubles. The infectious reform is being carried out in SILA, in order to progressively replace banknotes 100 І 50 dollars. As a drive for such banknotes, you can save money and take them up to fake fake pennies.

Denomination of reforms to carry out with a hat a swap of old bills for new and re-dating of all penniless indicators, for singing singly, for whom there is a lot of pennies for both, it’s possible to change it.

Behind the character, the exchange of old pennies for new views of non-confidential and confidential pennies of reform. For unconfessional reforms, for one more share of the exchange of groceries, a greater supply of groceries, more income and more for all economical subdivisions of the same amount, as well as an unlimited supply of old ones So Bula carried out Groshova reform in Ukraine at the time of 1996 p.

For confiscation of the reform of the exchange of pennies, differentiation is fallow: the size of the amount submitted to the stock of old pennies (what is more, less than the amount of money, if the bank is fixed); vid form zberigannya stock of old pennies (deposits in banks can be exchanged

According to a smaller number of factors, lower prices, those who are in need of comment 1: 1); the form of the moisture content of the penny hairline (for the sovereign hairy people of the pennies the exchange is possible for the greater proportion, lower for the private). Prior to the type of reforms, it is necessary to enforce the so-called nullification, if old pennies are not to speak up and not to turn around, but to replace them is worth new pennies. So, on a daily basis, boules were carried out by the penny reform in N_mechchinі in 1924 and 1948 pp. Conducted confiscation reforms in vain in order to get rid of the need for illegal revenues, as well as social justice.

In order to introduce new pennies, single-instant pennies for reform and reforms of the parallel type are introduced.

For one-time reforms, the introduction of new pennies was achieved in short terms (7-15 days), by the extension of which it is technically possible to exchange old pennies for new. As a matter of fact, the reform is confidential, then the lines are blamed for the short term, so that the hairless of the great stocks of pennies have not triggered a "grasp" of confiscation. At the same time, the Groshov reform was carried out in Ukraine in 1996. Alevona Bula non-confiscating, and the exchange was carried out over a 15-day stretch. And as a matter of fact, there were important reasons for not saying that they were worth a penny in the same row, then they were allowed to be exchanged for a stretch of offensive rockies.

For the reforms parallel to the type of launching of new penniless signs in circulation, it is necessary to act in parallel, in parallel with the old licenses, signs and stinks of trials are to function immediately and in parallel. As soon as new and old pennies are emitted by the bank system on the same ambushes, then offending see pennies sprimmayut equally and exchange oneself for the same ambiguities 1: 1. For the umpteenth time old pennies, I have been doing my best to get into the world of banking at the bank. Instead of them banks are already in circulation are new pennies. So to conduct in the USA a new issue in circulation of bills at the border of XX-XXI centuries.

As a matter of fact, new and old ones are penniless in the middle of ambushes, for example, the old ones are direct for the budget budget, and the new ones are for the credit of the economy, but also the new ones are protected (in gold and black). winnings of competition, a great deal of old age pennies to remember shvidko znetsіnyuvatisya. The course of exchanging ix for new to the market will last an entire hour. Koristuvannya old pennies will be untight and all greater, more ripe. The state is exposed to live if you need to come in for special training for the “falling” pennies, so that the stench doesn’t bully inadvertently turn around. And now it’s better to speed up the function of the groshovoy system. The state will be affected if it remains residual old money, having exchanged new ones for a proportion close to the current exchange rate in front of the same exchange. So Bula carried out the Groshov reform in the Russian Federation in 1922-1924 pp. The parallel character is small Groshov’s reform in Ukraine on the cob of Ії in 1992 p., If the Ukrainian carbanovets trivial hour wrapped in parallel with the ruble.

Neridko penny reforms may change the signs of all the different types, on the side of penny reform in Russia in 1922-1924 pp., Penny reform in Ukraine in 1992-1996 pp. that іn.

Chim bi didn’t see the need for a groshoy reform, the most thorough method of awaiting a penny turnover. In order to reach a reasonable price, it is not enough to adopt such laws and legislation, and always need to change their minds. Without anything penniless and reform, reforms can be made worse. To that end, the progress of the groshova reform of the vimaga of the most varied preparations: the piling up of the gold and foreign currency reserves, the renewal of the significant change in the growth of the grocery supply, the improvement of the state financial management.