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A penny is a loan - Savluk M.I.



The methodological basis of the theory of theory.

There are two clear ideas that can be seen in private economics before the theoretical problems of pennies are solved. Representatives of one of them joke about food for food, about the internal nature of pennies: scho pennies; why did the stink appear in suspension? as if they’re stalking and to whom they swelled tiєi chi нinshoi form; at whom the poleє and the form are formed, the pennies are skinny. For the whole straightforward, it’s characteristic that there is clearly more respect for the internal aspects of the appearance of the pennies and the underestimated aspects of the pennies, which are manifested in the flow of pennies in an economical process. Tsey pidkhid chivod vivchenchennya nature of pennies can be called the abstract theory of pennies. Naibilsh vidomimi the manifestations of such an approach є nomalistic theory, metal theory, state theory, functional theory, Marxist theory and theory.

Representatives of the other directly accept the pennies such that they’re so stinky, that they don’t drown in the nature of nature, joke about food, and because they’ve got a lot of money for the most important process: official, schlo vplivєє on the розї в ї development and structural funds; with your own expressions you are pennilessly pouring on the real economy and on the same process; a specific mechanism, including the penniless factor, on the real economy (the front mechanism); Chi can the power be victorious by the way; its mechanism is at its own economic polity and the same; Like some money, I’ve got a bad credit policy in the country and the country. You can identify the problem of scientific analysis of penniless problems with the applied pennies theory. The literary theory is called the Monetarist Theory.

Clearly carried out the separation between the abstract theory and the monetarist theory of pennies from the fundamental rights of E. Dolan, K. Campbell and R. Campbell "Pennies, banknote on the right and pennantly natural," as well as in general - 14-19 were distributed in Part IV, which is entitled "Monetarist Model: Theory and Practice". Too two podhodi rozіrvanі significant oversight of the book that іnstotno іznichatsya obyazami o vkladu.

The very day of monetarist theory of authorization was signaled by the way of distributing economical theories, in which one allegedly “added the pennies of that singing penniless and credit policy to the economy as a whole”.

Monetarist theory is not only the key to science and technology about pennies and pennies, but the first is to keep the flow of economic theory. Zhodne s science chi primary vidan XX century From economic theories, macro-economies, too, couldn’t have been without an analysis of the impact on the economy of penniless factors - the profit and the penny propositions, percent, financial market and financial. This is also the case for the scientific and methodological base of the pennile-credit policy of the powers with advanced market economies. This year’s year’s squad of foreign countries is not an option to implement their own economic policies, as long as there isn’t much to be dealt with, at some kind of monetaristic recommendations for future budgets.

Monetarist theory can not be unambiguously monolithic, but a little straightforward, something like the appearance of a theory. Naybilsh vidomim, the key is directly monetarist theory є kilkіsna theory, yak, at my own home, fall in view of the роз роз роз роз роз ит ит под под под под на на на ор ор ор уч уч уч уч уч уч уч. Immediately, with the neoclassical directness of the theory of pennies, the idea of ​​self-discipline of self-determination was formed on the back of Keynesian, and then the concept of monetarist theory of monetism was formed.

Literature Keynesian concept of pennies is a little difficult to counter the neoclassical theory and the vision of the alternative theory. Proteus offend the stink to make one methodological basis - I will apply the theory of pennies, which is better than I’m closer to each other, no more roses. Zavdyaki ikh of the near on now happen to form a third straight monetarist theory, who will call Keynesian neoclassical synthesis.

Klasichna Kilkisna the theory of pennies was formed more in the XVI-XVII centuries. I served as the methodological basis for all the fake development of monetary theory, including direct and straightforward theory. The main principle (postulate) by stretching bagatovy development of economical thoughts to a lesser extent was to recognize a certain refinement, sublimation, loss, to be deprived in the main of their own. It’s easy to stare in the most familiar monetarist concepts, why don’t you give me the money, what’s the best Monetarist theory on its own.

I called the name of the theory to those that the founders explained by pouring pennies on economical processes, exceptionally by the bank officials, before the winter of the pennies in circulation. The original newsletter of the theory of those about the sale of pennies and the price of commodity prices is represented by the amount of pennies: the most of them are in circulation, the price of the pennies is lower, and the percentage of the pennies is lower. Vlplyayuyuchi for the price of goods and services, a small amount of pennies for the sake of all and the most economical processes: the growth of the nominal tax burden of GDP, national income, payment for that and that.

Kіlkіsna pennies theory originated in the XVI century. Your time in Europe has accelerated the growth of the zagalny rivnya price, at home in the economic history of the revolution, the price of the average price for the period 1500-1600r. Approx. 3-5 times. Vinikla neobhodimost z'yasuvati tsogo reason to finish the trevoshnogo apparition. It’s obvious that, like this, lying on the surface, the reason seemed to be a significant increase in Europe’s gold and silver from America since the continent in the 16th century. Tse bulo chi not more than masove povdtverdzhennya that, sho wart of pennies, and from the first commodity price, to lay down in their circulation in circulation. At the time of my move, I was talking about repeated pennies - gold and black, which prompted hats to look at a wide-ranging position about those who are penniless to enter into circulation because of an internal, out-of-date formed part.

Pershim, hto visunuv іdeyu about the severity of the river price від кіlкості noble metals, Buv French economist J. Boden. In his treatise "View on the paradox de Malstroi" win visibility, I want to see more and more reasons for this, mainly because of the main reason is the gold and gold value. Economy of the XVI-XVII centuries (B. Davanzatti, J. Montarin, D. Locke), we have a clear understanding of the idea of ​​J. Boden, progressively redefined in the direct and the mechanical version of the theory, which has been replaced by the following: mira zrostannya price is signified by miro zrostannya masa pennies.

An important contribution to the theory of the zrobiv English economist J. Locke. Winning, with a vigilant official, a kind of regulation and a sign-off card for pennies (in this case there is a lot of gold and money), к к к к к к к. Tsei viznovok J. Locke Buve of victorious studies by the ideologists of the industrial bourgeoisie, who started to develop, to criticize mercantilism. The stinks were resisted by the successors of the stagnant solidity, which won’t be able to reward gold and silver by the nation’s baggage, because the result of such a buildup would be more valuable metal and higher commodity prices. To the thought, the rightful treachery of the nation is not with dead reserves of gold and silver, but with the foundries of manufactories, and the victories of their living countries. The idea of ​​ideal theory was based on commercial mercantileism, metallic conceptual pennies, which was hidden from some kind of gold, and it’s because of its nature, it’s penniless.

In the period of the formation of capitalist news, the main ideas are theorized by formulating and absorbing the English economist D. Yum. In the story “About pennies” (1752), the principle was that, in the case of literary literature, it was called the “postulate of one-mindedness”: the victory of pennies

to dig to the top of the absolute level of all prices, bend over a pittance, ale not conceived of the latest and most important products. With his "postulate of one-valuedness" D. Hume gave a start to formulating the concept of "neutrality of pennies" in the market economy and the associated nature of the idea of ​​the large amount of money in advance, as well as a wider range of information.

To his own achievements of D. Theory D. Hume, having scribbled the important contributions to the development of science about the pennies. Він visunuv і obґruntuvav іdeyu about the representative character vartostі pennies, which is more obvious:

* pennies to enter into obig without vartosti, and to incubate to obigu in exchange for the exchange of singing masny pennies for singing masu goods;

* molded for the sake of wartime of pennies to represent the variety of goods, which are sold, which is smart, and the size of which is to keep the number of pennies in the bag: what is more, less than one price is needed.

Here D. Hume, day after day, having joined up with the nominee theory of pennies, having pressed the greatest reality, and having given the theoretical basis for the fake development of the theory of the pennies. Adje present representatives of all directories of the theory of their own penniless mechanics take part in nominee cards of pennies, formed on representative ambushes.

The role of the factor in the classic interpretation was recognized not only by representatives of the nominee theory, but by the first person, but they stood on the positions of the labor theory. Zokrem, the classics of the political economy A. Smith and D. Ricardo, who laid the foundations of the labor theory and ideology, made a significant contribution to the production of raw, commodity nature of pennies, at the same time, we sent them for a long time an intermediary in the exchange of goods, less than the required number of goods, underestimated and important functions, as well as the world’s arsenal of goods and services. It is logical for the whole group that they didn’t see the postulate of the theory of pennies.

So, D. Rikardo Sturdzhuv, since yakby was be-yakіy іz krask Bulo vidkrit gold family, then її sobi obigu underestimated at his own wartosti. All prices were through those that were in circulation and were used for expensive metal. Yakbi will vidkrittya kinship of gold in the krai buv of banknotes bank, close to English, then I need to issue him a great number of banknotes of invitations to the bi until the very result, which is vidkritty gold kinship. Z positsіy kіlkіsnoї teorії D. Rikardo explaining and the mechanism of self-determination: in circulation, the goods Ів simply cling to the mass of pennies, for which the price is fixed. As much as the penny was greater, then the price will be higher, the smaller the lower.

I sing the role of the kіlkіsny factor vіdіgravav і in the theory of pennies by K. Marx. Win unambiguously recognizing the accumulation of commodity prices and the value of pennies in case of non-exclusive papermoney. As soon as there are renegade pennies, then K. Marx having disregarded, but in turn, they can be more beautiful, the number is more effectively zoomed. As if in circulation, there’s being a penny, then the stink will automatically turn into scarlet, but the win will be defective of pennies, then the masque will catch up with the crunches of scarves, and the price will be indemnified.

In the days of "neutrality of pennies" and the exogenous factor, there was a constant shift in hat development of the theory, and won until the nineteenth century. "circled" in the number of its classic postulates:

* causality, which may be associated with a significant amount of pennies;

* proportionality, in one way to a certain price, the proportionality of the minimum amount of pennies to be paid;

* one-pointedness, for the sake of the difference in the number of pennies in the same proportion, the difference is the price of the entire comrade, and the increase of the price of the convention will be irreplaceable.

In view of the postulate, representatives of the theoretical theory of the trivial hour (until the cob of the 20th century) did not show interest until the clay mechanism was opened, pouring pennies into price, and through them, into the economy. The stinks simply declared the fact of equal proportions of the price of the different times of the pennies, not the same as the mechanics of the whole process and the excess of the price of the mechanical prices of the goods. The nutrition about the front-wheel mechanism didn’t put a penny on the economy yet. Since Ale Yakby won’t be delivered, then on the basis of the most accumulated knowledge, you can have more knowledge of the surface overburden:

small 48

Dependence of the rivia of rinkovy pennies vid sum of pennies

de M - sum of pennies, and P - rіven of rinkovyh prices.

From now on, having poured pennies into the economy, oblivious to the sphere of exchange (winter price), but about the greater degree of penetration into the real economy of nutrition was not set.

The singing lock at the flower of the theory of the other half of the XVIII-XIX centuries. provoked try revizuvati osnovny її principle.

The whole process was also spoken about the active processes, which were sold in the pennile sphere: the most significant position of gold as a penniless product, the transition to gold mono-metal, the strongest possible capital market to the stability of the pennies. I want to ask you to thank the penny theory by having seen the representative of the Bank School in England T. Tuk. Winning recognizing the bagatofactory nature of the valuation, but not repeating the staleness of the price and the value of the pennies. Navpaki, having won the war, I’ve decided to lay down the couch to see the price, to pay the price by the official officer of the day. Prote T. Tuk, having allowed the very same methodological clemency, representatives of the classical kol'kіsі theory - - having ascertained more than the names of the others and the mass of pennies, but without breaking the mechanism of the whole thing. Moreover, having put on the first place a little more, you can go ahead by giving the mechanics an infusion of pennies on an economical process. For the same position, they criticized the theory of theory and representatives of the Marxist economic theory.

The most successful breeder and breeder of the classical and theoretical theory already in the 20th century Buv American economist I. Fisher. Win the winnings by spelling out the classic postulates of theory and trying to mathematically bring them to justice. At his robot "Cupola power of pennies" vin overlooking the formula "rvnyannya obmіnu":

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Рівняння обміну Фішера

de M-kilkist pennies in circulation;

V - identification of pennies for singing period;

R - the middle river price;

Q - physical oversight of goods and services, which are sold for a period.

Fairness of the formula, for whom there is no way to sum, even to be based on a commodity exchange operation, in the case of a penny sum, wait for the price of the goods sold. And in the current operation for the singing period, a groshy component (M * V), please wait to see the product component (P * Q).

The hinted formula is viplivaє

Formula of the Middle Rivne Price

, so that the average price is considered three factors: masoyu (kilkistyu) pennies, shvidkistyuyu obihu and physical obedience to the friable product. Prote himself I. A fisher of such a garment without his formula is not zrobiv. Navpaki, win the driver, give me the opportunity to tell you, please give me the honor, but pay the price for the winter, for the most part, for the most part, Protein doesn’t interfere with the simple assumptions of the invariance of the two most important factors, the remnants of the stink for good measure. Tom I. Fischer to bring, what shvidkіst igu groshey zmіnyuєtsya directly in proportion to their mass and that tilki posilєє kіlkіsniy factor. Why should we relate to the lack of turnover and turnover, then win the price, then get the better idea. For that reason, in vain for the price it is possible to abstract, especially on the trivial periods.

Otzhe, I. The fischer will be more and more absent from the positions of classical and theoretical theories and rightly enter into one of the most important representatives of the country.