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A penny is a loan - Savluk M.I.


"Conjuncturny" var. M. І. Tugan-Baranovsky. For example, XIX - on the cob of the XX century With a new power, discus- sions broke out along with the tiny theory of pennies, which were zoomed out by low ob'ktivnyh furnishings.

First of all, all the time, the development of sovereign monopolistic capitalism and the suppression of zagalny criticism of capitalism, as a result of which the active involvement of the powers in the economy of the country was actively committed. In order to ensure the best possible way and the best way to do this, I’ll be natural, and I’m ready to go on a groshova sphere.

In a different way, the capitalist economy itself was overwhelmingly penniless in nature: pennies from a simple intermediary were converted into a key capital form, banks and financial institutions became possible regulators of suspension virobnitz.

In these minds, the mustache of the old was the lack of respect for the old penniless gospel, based on the golden basis, the new needs of the suspended life and the old age, the manifestation of the daily principle and the principle of the lack of money,

One of the first ones, which is to acknowledge the need and to give the most basic theory of pennies, is that of Ukraine’s economist M.I. Tugan-Baranovsky. Naybilsh again argued for a look at the main monetary problems of win wclav in prazі "Paparovі pennies and metal", scho bula published in 1916 p.

Bagato Respect M. І. Tugan-Baranovsky pribliv kіlkіsnіy theory of pennies. On the contrary, I’ve criticized the classic version, which will be in the possession of I. Fishera. Tugan-Baranovsky’s recognition of the correct formula р rivnyannya obmіnu ’, having recognized that Fischer didn’t have anything new in kolkіsnu, got into nothing more, but didn’t complete the work by completing the exact and complete form of mathematics.

The very theory in the classical version of Tugan-Baranovsky is negatively evaluated from such mіrkuvan:

* її henchmen, in addition to I. Fischer, put the price (and the chance of pennies) on the deposits of one factor — one factor, the factors are pennies, and the factor is quiet, which is signaled for the "free talk", I want to be sure that I have the right to pay the money pennies;

* Ignoring the "few" factors, I’ll be very impressed to zoom in on the clemency of the bench about the proportionality of the deposits, the price is the same as the pennies, although I want to justify them in theory, in theory.

Criticism of the classical theory of music did not mean that the theory of theory was such. Navpaki, don’t farted the Tugan-Baranovsky to the very last, and I’ve got a clean cut from the роз роз ’branch.

In the first place, let’s finish, all the way I. To Fischer, there’s more than one factor on the river, but all the factors that are designated as “rvnanny exchange”: most goods, more goods, more money, more turnover, more money. Oskіlki all the high officials are always in good condition, then the good and small pennies can’t be but proportional. The price tag is not of theoretical significance, but of practical value, broadening the front for the advancement of such manifestations, like inflation, monetary policy, tools to fill the river price.

In a different way, the Tugan-Baranovsky doviv, thanks to the fact that there are so many small pennies for the price, isn’t so unambiguous, straightforward, as you recognize the heirs of the classic theory. In addition, one cannot but one after another, and three others by nature:

1) through zmіnu suspension suspension to a comrade;

2) through zmіnu discount interest;

3) through the winter of suspension of awareness about the pennies of the pennies (the higher factor factor will be called the inflation point).

The first order has the largest amount of pennies, directly zoom in the price of money through the growth of income and enjoy the comrade. At another house, the loss of money and pennies should be reduced to the savings of the banks, the wiki is lower than the regional percentage, the increased credit of the economy and the loss of income on the markets. Unsurprisingly appreciating, but immediately stimulated pidpriymnitsvo and expanded virobnitzva. At the third order, the trivale and the good remembrance of the growing number of the pennies of the wicker є the lower estimate of the pennies and the hairs and the stench to remember the sixth and the best, to pay attention to comrade and price. There are three factors at once, protec- tion of energy for the price is not the same. That and the price will not be proportional to the size of the pennies. From then on, Tugan-Baranovsky was not satisfied with the simple stating of the fallow price and the loss of pennies, and having opened the bill to complete the folding mechanism of the real fallow price.

On the other hand, the Tugan-Baranovskiy Dov_v, which has been able to absorb small amounts of pennies for the sake of differentiation, is differentiated between fallow and the total number of pennies. So, for a short time, there are insignificant growths of their number that can inflame mothers of excruciating energy for price and wartime pennies. And the meaning of the improvement is

pennies realizuє svіy thrust on the price with a stretch of the trivial hour, and that’s how it is to win unevenly and not proportionally to the amount of goods. By the way, by virtue of the day, having satisfied the postulate of proportionality, giving, we are not penniless, we will forgive the middle man for the exchange, and preparing the basis for the basic postulate of the neutrality penny postulate.

In the fourth, Tugan-Baranovsky rozkriv mehanіzm vzaєmozalezhnostі mіzh zagalnoyu kіlkіstyu pennies in kraїnі, kіlkіstyu pennies, scho perebuvayut pose obіgom in zaoschadzhennyah, i shvidkіstyu obіgu pennies dovіv scho chinnik shvidkostі Mauger vplivati ​​on tsіni in zvorotnomu vіdnosno dії factor kіlkostі directly neytralіzuyuchi the rest of the day.

The efforts of Tugan-Baranovsky have laid the foundation for gaining gentry for pennies for economy and for the mechanism of regulating the flow of water. Tsim win the title of the basis of the so-called theory of regulation of pennies, so I prepared the suspension until the next and the next (golden) pennies and replaced by the non-existent pennies

Rosirvavshi in a university of a number of straightforward, simpler postulates of classic kol'kіsno theory of pennies, Tugan-Baranovskiy ustotno rozvinuv її stosovo to new economical minds. Please look at your name not by name, but by the market theory of pennies, so that you can see what is said to be a simplified variant.

The confusion of the market theory of pennies of the Tugan-Baranovsky Pole consists in the fact that there is an outrageous price, and here is the amount of pennies, no matter how many pennies, but with outlandish minds of a commodity-pennile commodity. In the phase of economical weekday, the lower price is lower and the number of pennies is reduced. And in the phase of an economic recession, the price is reduced and the wartiness of pennies of growth. The number of pennies and the number of pennies in an economical cycle is appreciated by the thought of Tugan-Baranovsky, the price of pennies is irrelevant, and the result is an infusion of black pennies.

His "market theory" pennies M. І. The Tugan-Baranovskiy vibuduv on the critique of classical classical theory of alternative. I’m here to win the opportunity to reach the goals: after all, I didn’t have to capture the classic option, which Keynes called the old-fashioned one. Moreover, the "conjuncturn theory" coined a new - neoclassical - step at the development of the theory. The adjunct factor of the winter price and the wartost of pennies of the Tugan-Baranovsky is not at all bigger, like the most accurate officials, which is marked on the basis of the formula "quick change" in the process of critical positing. Fishera. Zmіna kon'yunkturi rinku to be provoked by officials, what to do from one side to the other and from the side of the proposition. From the side I’ll eat - the whole number of pennies and the oath of income and the shid of the pennies of the pennies, and from the side of the proposition - the total amount of money, the amount of the money and the price.

From now on, the most significant factor in the current theory of pennies of the Tugan-Baranovsky is present, and it’s not the same sound, the most important thing is the big one, the more important thing is the most important , investment, oaths virobnitstva skinny. To the current theory of pennies, on the basis of their own bills, and even on a fundamentally unbalanced basis, as long as the boules are not disproportionate, the price and value of the pennies are not significant. I tsogo not mіg not rozumіti M. І. Tugan-Baranovsky, through the first shutter to complete theories to fill the bullet, is tolerable: “The theory is abstractly fair”, - write one in one. In the last month I’ll clarify my own rational factor: “Commodity prices are not expressed as small pennies per se, but as many as half of the pennies consumed by them”. All the necessary croc at the bib will be analyzed by the analysis of the factor, and not the cross-reference. I zebulo tsebulo in the range of "market theory" pennies.

Awareness of the pennies of science in the field of science means penalties for direct knowledge of the theory of theory. The substitution of a macroeconomic analysis with the sound of “penny” won’t turn to the face of micro-economic aspects in form of pennies, which in turn became a key object.

Front-wheel mechanism for the sake of pennies on the real economy on the basis of the "Conjunctural Theory" of the Tugan-Baranovsky can be lodged with such a viglyad:

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The infusion of pennies on the economy of the “conjunctural theory” of Tugan-Baranovsky

de M-kilkіst pennies, K - market conditions, P - price, B - virobnitstvo.

"Cambridge version". Some of the most recent acquisitions for pennies from micro-economic positions of profesori professors of the Cambridge University A. Marshall, A. Pigu, D. Robertson, J. M. Keynes (at their earliest praxis) theories of Kasovih surplus ", but" Cambridge version ".

Like Fisher, representatives of the Cambridge school vidstoyuvali the thesis about the pouring of winter mashi pennies on the river price. Prote, on vidmina vid I. Fishera, іх підхід before the problem, it’s not macro, but mikroekonomіchny, and I tried to stand in front of a penny. Cambridge economies have concentrated the main respect on the motives of a heap of pennies in the okromich of economic sub'єktіv. It’s stinky that they’ve been tempted to give food on such a basis: why do people want penniless, see what kind of officials to fall for, pay for pennies, and what kind of officials to lay down to receive state-sponsored subaccounts for you.

The important Cambridge version was blown away by those who didn’t want to pay more money to pennies. by the authorities. With such motives, the accumulated stench of pennies was respected:

1) I will require in stock the amount of money and the payment for healthy payments (transactional motive);

2) I will need in reserve pennies to cover the non-transferring needs (motive obachnostі). I took it from the important point of introducing the Cambridge school to the monetary theory of zagagoli:

* in the sphere of the specific applied analysis, booleans are included, they’re not only pay attention to the payment, but pay attention to the payment;

* at the understanding of the number of pennies, all obvious pennies began to be included - such as, when you are servicing, consume something, so if you are piling up;

* for the dermal part of the on-the-spot masa of pennies, the basic form of the form is reflected - the motives of the economic sub-sectors of the stock of pennies;

* the need for pennies for the buh has been expanded for the inter-consumer needs and began to include the need for pennies for the needs of the pile;

* the bulo is expanded as well, having understood the twiddles of the pennies for life rachunas such as shoveling, the pennies, the little ones with a little shvidkstyu.

New approaches to the problems of the penny theory have given us the ability to formulate a new monetary indicator - a certain indicator, which characterizes the part of the total income, as well as the economic submission of the form (last). Behind his serpentine is the indicator є the most conservative indicator of twiddling pennies and the signified yak k = 1 / V. Vin vidomiy takozh yak "kofitsіntіnt Marshall", which characterizes the level of monetization of GDP.

The accumulation of pennies in economical sub-regions (in favor of pennies) is an oath of obedience to the product that is tied to the development of their motives before the form of the remaining excess of the bank is violated, but the name "Cambridge" has been extended.

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Cambridge Rivnyannya "I will eat for pennies

de Md - drank a penny (cash surplus);

k - koofіtsієnt, which bends part of the secondary income, yak sub' зkti zberigayut u lіkvіdnіy formі (koofіtsієnt of Marshall);

R - the middle river price;

Y is the oath of virobnitztva in natural virazі.

Behind the traditional signs, the formula "Cambridge Rivnyannya" Nagadu the formula "Rivnyannaya Obmіnu" І. Fishera. Adzhe yakshcho ko-fіtsі knt k zamіniti on 1 / V to transfer the indicator from the left part

Rivnyannya, then the formulas are appearing better. Prote on the day of the reek of a constant revelation. They also have different indicators of M: the first formulas (I. Fishera) have a lot of pennies, actually serving staff consume commodity goods, and in the other they have the total amount of money for pennies. Kіlkіsno not zbіgayutsya pokaznik i k i - Tsikh formulas oskіlki koefіtsієnt k in "kembridzhskomu rіvnyannі" viznachaєtsya on vsomu stock pennies and pokaznik - at formulі "rіvnyannya obmіnu" - on a stock pennies, scho obslugovuє require obіgu (transaktsіynomu stock). The fall in price of small pennies for the Cambridge Rivne has been accelerated significantly more, the lower for the rivals, and later, the Cambridge version has been revised and updated. Fishera. The third-party authorization has gone beyond the universities of classical postulates of the theory and theory of education to the scientific achievement of effective processes, which form a penny for pennies.