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A penny is a loan - Savluk M.I.


Credit is an economical process that is characterized by the singing head of the element structure (object and sub). Credit to the credit is limited by the number and size of the key, specific laws and key loan of an economical category.

Ruh sub'єktіv to the loan is a special one, the status of the creditor of the clergyman is not foreseen, but a systematic loan. Vіn periodically buvaє either as a clerk, then as a lender, fall into any special features of the resource of resources (capital). You can also win at once by the creditor, by the clerk, by the way, for other reasons.

The way in which credit is manifested is manifested in the transfer of one type of loan to the previous, in the stages of the capital turnover, between regions (regions), and between galleys and areas of economy. What is the broadest scope and the most important direction-laziness of the loan? The most important is the role of the loan in the process of suspension.

Rukh ob'єkta loan a few turns and a spacious vimіri. Hourly vimіr vіdbivaє triviality of the corridor by the clerk of the acquired credit of the creditor vartіstu. In practice, vimir manifests itself in a classic pointers for short lines, middle lines and low lines. Prostorovy vimir rukhu credit do not know broad practical manifest. Classic loans have less than one credit, which can be clearly understood: international credit, a kind of image transferring the required number of cities and towns. Silent in the official statistics of classifiable loans, yak characterized in the mid-regional and mid-term loans.

Stadii Ruhu loan. For the loan day, the most important value is the number of times before the development of credit cards between two sub-accounts, so that is possible. The economic basis of the whole ruh, the vision of the servant of the servant and the servant, is the circulation of capital in the process of extended expansion. The flow of capital in the process of engaging in ambushes of the circuit, which is tied with the formula G - T ... B ... T - G ', in order to protect yourself from the complete set of all stages of the loan and turn to the credit card. Tsei ruh positennogo vartostі can be called vidvoryuvalnym i viraziti formula:

VV - NP - OP ... VP ... VK - PC - OK,

de VV - formality of the loan to creditors;

NP - rozmіshchennya vilnyh koshtіv pozichki;

OP - the gain of dodatsky koshivs in the coffin;

VP - vikoristannya the liturgy of the possessed koshtіv for their consumption;

VK - vivіlnennya koshtіv with the turnover of the posichnik;

PC - povozvenennya posichalnik koshtіv creditor;

OK - gained by a creditor of credits, put on a sign.

Vihodyachi z tsієї formula, it is possible to see this way and that of the loan-credit:

Stage 1 - Formalization of the major wartosti yak dzherela nadannya pozichok (Operation VV);

2-stage - rozmіshchennya vilyno wartosti pozichku (operation NP-OP);

3rd stage - vikoristannya posichnik koshtіv, which was gained at timchasov rozporyadzhennya (operation VP);

4-stage - vivіlnennya vikoristanih posichnik koshtіv in the third turn, but formally in new income, sufficient for turning pozichki (operation VK);

5th stage - turn to the principal to the creditor (operations PC-OK) and interest payment. On the whole, this ends with the completion of a posi- tive bartosti and ends with a single loan by a creditor and a posichnik of a given pozichki.

Rukh u p'yat stadiy zdіysnyuє less credit, but take the fate of the form of capital of the clerk. Whose connection is posed for the possibility of trials for one hour at 3 rd and 4 rd stages of fallow fallow trials and trials of virology and realization. As a matter of fact, the loan does not take part in the form of capital for the clerk, and instead of him being more dearly penniless, then 3 or 4 stages are violated and much easier. The butt of such a loan is a bank loan for financial statement. At the second time the bank has a little need for a little more at the time of the recognition of its liquidity, and there you can see more for a short string (decile Godin).

Vidіlennya stadiy rukhu credit is of little intellectual character, the fragments of the whole stage of one’s are implicitly povyazanі. Zupinka ruhu at the be-the-yakiy stage can bring up the rozviv vidnosin midzh

sub'єkty credit, zagruzhєh ономh their economic interests. Also, such a step-by-step stage of the loan is not limited to a short-term loan, but rather an increase in the mechanism of realizable exchange of sub-accounts.

In Russia, credit can be seen one aspect, the obligations of the function of the yogi on macroeconomic equality. Mova yde about winter money and credit resources at the scale of the entire economic system. The fragments in the current minds are penniless, they have a credit character, a loan of credit resources and a credit contribution without inflow to the dynamics of propositional pennies and through it to the ignorant market and the flow of economy. The fact that the aspect of ruhu credit is important is theoretically more important and more practical.

Law of credit to credit. The factual nature of the loan is of an economical category, the manifestation of a self-determined internal day signifies a singular legal rule. It stinks without a hitch to borrow on a day-to-day basis, and recognizes the need for an important, efficient and effective organization of credit management in Ukraine. Without completing these laws, the credit will be lost on the first day, disintegrate into the main category, and the role of one will become deformed.

On a micro-economic basis, the main laws of credit are:

- zvorotnіst rukhu vartostі, scho transferred to the pose. The price of credit cards is almost always the same as the budget ones, which are in the turnover of the principal. Vlasni koshti is permanently lost in the turnover of the economic sub-sector. Holding on to a budget doesn’t have to worry, think about the budgetary orientation of the budget, it’s good to know the power of a given sub-project. Acting economically impose the payment of taxes by turning the budgetary budget to the budget. Prototype is not so - donations can’t be bought or bought on a budget earlier than budget, you don’t have to pay for corridors with budget cats. At the end of the year, the concession has been made;

- Timothy change of the number of wartosts in the turnover of the clerk, which means that one of the cycles of one capital is signaled. Navigate for what you need for a new cutaneous cycle of circulation to a person who wants to know what to do, from the next cycle that doesn’t matter if you owe it and turn to the lender. For the sake of such laws, it is possible to realize these types of loans through the organization of credit and credit, with the constant need for credit for the turnover method, or overdraft.

Prote naypovnіche vіdpovіdaє tsіy law_nostnosti crediting timchasovih needs of the clerk;

- saving interest in the course of the process and turning to the lender in full liability. With the centrality of the law, there is no need to save more money, so you can turn the little one by the hand of the мм об алу об об вла вла вла кап кап поз поз ич ич ич. Proteus in such a loan will not be more likely for the clerk, to see the transformation of one day;

- the accumulation of masi nadano pozichki vid obnavnyh obyagіv vіlnyh koshtіv. Tsya zakonimirnist zumovlivaetsya the real nature of the object of credit. Nadannya in a pose of insignificant things inevitably lead up to the imbalance of the market, crisis appearances in the monetary sphere.

On macroeconomic equality of laws, credit is manifested in the following:

- kіlkіsnі parametri the development of credit (for the dynamics of the growth of credit contribution), guilty of being adequate to the dynamics of the GNP. As a rule, speed up the development of credit deposits and keep up with the speed of growth of GNP, see how much money grows, the financial crisis, the threat of financial crisis, investment. As a matter of fact, go ahead with the development of a loan in order to ensure that the GNP grows, save on demonetization, and a crisis of non-payments;

- Oskilki kozna posichkova operation є twofold - like vimoga and yak zobov'yazannya, like asset and yak passive, zagalny sums of credit deposits and available resources at the macroscale, please be balanced. We need a loan for macro loans and a budget for budget funds and budget resources. During the water hour, the threat of over-reprimanding the economy is shouting: banks, including the central one, handing out poems, trying to keep resources, like having a new look;

- zvorotnіst and payment of credit to rob yogo naybіsh adequate market minds іnstrument financial means zapostannya capital in the real sector of economy. Yakraz yom to assume a viral role in the displaced majestic masses of living in the realm of special living coats in the realm of viral living. For this, it is more important to relocate to the government sector from the home state sector to the business sector є by law of credit;

- loan payability and health bring more sub-accounts to recognize such a law as a loan to a loan, as it is directly related to galleys and sectors of economy

low profitability in a highly profitable galuz, see virobnitztva. Therefore, one should directly and economically benefit from the primus - the owners of low-profitable enterprises have an interest in them to have their own clothes and hide on credit ambushes at a highly profitable place. For the sake of legitimacy, the credit to the business owner is important for the secured economic development.

There is a lack of legitimacy to take advantage of the special features of credit. If you give credit, please let us know that the practice of managing credit loans cannot be satisfied with the same interests, and more importantly, the credit should be avoided. Such a link between the practice of organizing credit loans and the rules of credit should be secured by additional sub-loan credit of singing principles, but the rules of credit are the same as for credit policy.

Principles of Credit. The main, most important business в such is the principle of credit:

- tsilovve poznachennya posic;

- string transfers to the creditor to the clerk;

- turn to be a posichnik koshtіv to the creditor in full liability;

- safety posic;

- pay for crawling with cats.

Tsіlove priznachennya pozichki polyagaє in fact scho ekonomіchnі sub'єkti scho viyavili Namir vstupiti in kreditnі vіdnosini, povinnі zazdalegіd chіtko viznachiti on yak tsіl will attempt vikoristanі pozichenі Costa. I am familiar with the same guilt, however, they are rosimistic and appreciated offended by the parties, waiting for credit. All the best, the basic change of mind with skin care and interest at the present and realization of credit.

The string is the transfer pointersє, the creditor’s majority is transferred to the principal on purely line identifications, which are the parties to the agreement at the moment of entering the credit line. A string of benefits from the whole signpost of a posy and the servant herself of a change of mind for a fiddling drawdown of credit vidnosin between the parties of a posichka: pay a sign for paying for a fixed cost, the order of turning the cost is thin. Concrete lines okremich pozichicha appear in the fall of the trivial circulation of the capital of the pozichalnik, at the form of a certain fate, there is a positivity. It’s economically primed to identify the line of pointers that are most important for securing interesting subcodes, effective visibility, and for changing credit risks.

Turnaround to a creditor means to the creditor, but the guilty party is guilty of turning to the creditor the whole oath taken into the credit card. Tsey principle viplivaє z forward - building-kostostі pozichki і tisno povyazyvaniy him, but the whole principle is self-sufficient. The visualized string of pointers when stacked is not required to guarantee that you won’t be able to pay off the terminology. It often doesn’t happen to rotate a little pose. Ale yakshcho navit won out to pay off in the terms of use, do not mean, what all posich wart turned. Devaluation of currency, poems, inflations can bring a single groshnitsa to that main sum of groshny pozichki, to that with a regular nominal sum of pozichki creditor zaznaє zbitkiv. If you double the matime and when you turn on the goods at the forefront of the material values ​​themselves, most often the price has fallen for the period of the posture. For this subordinate loan, you must transfer special offers and come with a secure turn of the cards for the most part: quick term for the interest, increased interest rate for the interest, variable floating interest rates.

The safety of the pole is accepted by the lender when given the pointers of the pre-paid entries to the guarantee that the pointers will be rotated at the marked line. Dodatkimi come and see the principle of complete straightforward and string pointers, as for their daily spirits to rotate poznichki. But there’s often a lack of clouting, pointers and turns do not turn around all the time, and you don’t turn around without responsibility. To the creditor’s invasion of an unverified boss, an unprincipled clerk and servant, the principle of securing a posichok.

To protect the poses, you can get the mayo (non-ruffian, ruhome, price tag, currency value), take out an outpost, and also goiters of the third person, repay the borg to the creditor (guarantor, guarantee). The rozmіr of the main protection of the memory will soundly join in the rvnі, shcho rozmіr pozichki, on the viaduct of the lower rinkovoy price signs.

The principle of security vіdіgraє is important for the role of those who have secured credit risks - win є with the rest of the barrier to the hat of the inscribed risik. Do not wait for a reprotent protest (for example, if you make a bankrupt guarantee). To those creditors not to re-evaluate the significant security position

Chok, and more to pay a premium on the effectiveness of the project, which should be credited, that credit and nadіnіst posichalnik. As the insurer is insanely mad, then the creditor can’t do it without paying attention to the donation.

Paying a fee due to a posy’s pitch is to the extent that the pozichnik turner to the creditor doesn’t only pay the sum to the borg, but rather pay back the added percentage of the form. To establish this principle є vagomі ekonomіchnі pіdstavi. Adje if the creditor transfers the money to the donation, then it’s conceited at the end of the day:

- in the case of a part of the income, as a result of which part of the money, which has already become a loan, was converted to it;

- doctor’s overturning that skillfulness, the power to make the most of the turnover of liquidated forms. Moreover, in addition to overstepping the margin of reserves, liquidity is superconducted by the appearance of a credit loan, tied to the top of a posichka, and that of a zbitkіv seen pozichki.

Besides, in order to protect yourself from the front position on the market, the creditor is to stash the fee for putting a donation on the koshti. Without a pre-requisite, poems are redirected from a commercial credit operation to a sponsor and to a lender to recognize the economic motives of a positive credit, to develop a loan.

Paying for poses is more important and for posichalnik. There’s an incentive to a greater degree of commitment that is more beneficial to borrowing pointers, strict adherence to the most important principles of credit, and an effective way to save money. At the interest rate, which means a payer, pay for a sign, the interests of the creditor and the principal are crossed, it is important for the normal development of the loan, so that the loan is satisfied as the lender, so the principal.

Strengthen the principle of credit more and more by yourself, how much money you can get on a loan, and how much you can save in real estate complex. In addition, for an effective credit, I’ll need to accept all of the principles є obov'yazkovim.


1. The reason for the win loan loan is the need for one merchandiser to sell his goods, and a buyer to buy one if he didn’t wag a penny for his goods. In order to increase the number of loan officers, you need to enlarge the necessary credit: belts of large clothes in some sub-branches of the state grant and need to consume them from them; Consumption is required for cats and drafts; their form is the same as for legal and physical laws and powers; nadannya in the timchov koristuvannya koshtіv pіd maybutnі, v_ddalenі in the hour, come.

2. The complexity of the loan is not in the majority of the number of cards, but in the quietest economic interests, such as tying a card with a large number of cards in ambushes of reversal and payment. In general, they are characterized by low specific rice, so that they are more likely to be loaned and they are more and more economically viable.

3. Credit арт on-premise category and I’ll see the big bag of money with the most economical categories - pennies, finances, bargaining, capital so much. At the same time, we have the right to self-categorization, as a function and special purpose in the economic life of suspension.

4. Натуралістична теорія кредиту трактує сутність кредиту з позицій його ролі в забезпеченні руху реального капіталу в натурально-речовій формі, недооцінює відносної самостійності руху грошового капіталу і його впливу через кредит на розвиток суспільного виробництва.

5. Капіталотворча теорія кредиту трактує сутність кредиту як механізм творення капіталу, переоцінюючи самостійність руху грошового капіталу і можливості банків у його розширенні в інтересах розвитку виробництва.

6. Кредит - явище руху, який здійснюється у різних напрямах і на різних рівнях. Рух кредиту у зв'язку з його участю у відтворювальному процесі проходить п'ять етапів:

- формування вільної вартості;

- розміщення вільної вартості в позички;

- використання позиченої вартості на потреби позичальника;

- вивільнення позиченої вартості з обороту позичальника;

- повернення вивільненої вартості кредитору і сплата процентів.

7. Рух кредиту здійснюється за певними закономірностями, які зумовлюються особливою сутністю кредиту. Ці закономірності є визначальними чинниками в організації управління кредитними відносинами. На їх підставі формуються принципи (правила) кредитування.

8. Основними принципами кредитування є: цільове спрямування позички; строковість позички; поверненість кредитору позиченої вартості; забезпеченість позички і платність користування позиченими коштами.

Запитання для самоконтролю

1. Що є загальноекономічною причиною необхідності кредиту?

2. Які передумови виникнення кредитних відносин?

3. Яку абстракцію застосовуємо для того, щоб довести, що необхідність у кредиті залежить від коливань у джерелах формування капіталу?

4. Яка суперечність вирішується з допомогою кредиту?

5. У чому сутність кредиту? Які існують дискусії щодо сутності кредиту?

6. За якими ознаками відносини між економічними суб'єктами можна віднести до кредитних?

7. Що є спільного між кредитом та грошима, кредитом та фінансами?

8. Які існують сутнісні відмінності між кредитом та грошима?

9. У чому полягають сутнісні відмінності між кредитом та фінансами?

10. Що таке структура кредиту, які її елементи?

11. Кредит - явище статики чи динаміки? Обгрунтуйте свою відповідь.

12. Які стадії Ви можете виділити у відтворювальному русі кредиту?

13. Назвіть основні закономірності руху кредиту на мікро- і на макрорі-внях.

14. Назвіть основні принципи організації кредитних відносин.