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A penny is a loan - Savluk M.I.

9.3. ECONOMIC BETWEEN LOAN. MUTUAL TERMS OF CREDIT AND PENNIES

Nutrition about inter-credit є We are completely new to theoretical loan pre-loans, it’s not enough to get in and out of credit. One author didn’t want to talk about credit between the two, but rather took a look at the rule of law and the principle of credit. Inshi’s not just waiting for the reappearance of more active loans between loans, but I’ll have to understand such a great deal, as I can accelerate a little more reasonably and more economically, there’s a new practical value. It’s hard to talk about economy, hours, space, space, interior, macro, space, quality, interest rate, credit and credit. Such a rumor of thought for the whole drive can be explained by a low rvity of up-to-date self-loan and the lack of understanding of the active nature of this process and the process.

Nasampered slіd clearly indicates the very understanding between: credit. On the other hand, this is the same as the development of credit cards for the people of the state, for which they drink and offer for credit, balance while maintaining stable, affordable, affordable interest rates, and positive rates. In other words, the real one drinks on the money, which represents the economic sub-process - participants in the normal business process with a normal interest rate, a large business loan, and a large credit card. For such an approach, the dynamics of bank interest became the main indicator of the maturing of the loan between loans. As a matter of fact, the bank interest rate is very small, the price is too high, because of the lack of a loan offer, the lack of satisfaction of real consumer needs in postal cats, and the lower cost is much lower, but not much more. First, I’m very likely to have a low bank interest rate, I have to lower my hour, let me know about a higher loan offer, more often I have more money, more money, more money.

Pov'yazuvannya between the loan with the market mechanism of yogo rukhu, secrecy with the oath of real credit for the loan, the return of the greatest potential in the theoretical plan and the most significant - in practical. To appear, when you interchange between a loan, you are identified by the behavior of the sub-item of the penny market, and not by the sub-estimates of the analytics and the sovereign bodies. We were underestimated in any way that we didn’t see it. The actual level of credit for the economy, expanding it is underestimated, but it’s not without purpose that the real one will drink poems. Ask in these minds for the sake of increasing the credit of the economy in the grip of the sub-active estimates and in the meantime, invariably invariably appear in the back of the turnover of the paid interests, which negatively affect the cost of the entire state of the world.

Moreover, the regulation of bank interest rates, which is an important tool for a penny-credit policy of the central bank, is a key factor in formulating an economical credit and securing third-party loans from the side of the bank system. As the central bank pursues a policy of lower interest rates (cheaper loans), it will be consumed with zrostatima, and between loans it will increase. First of all, as a rule, there is a policy of increasing the cost of credit, then you will have a drink at the poets if you change, and between loans - you will be called up.

In such a rozumіnnі between credit, I get a total economic cost, fragments of stench are formed by the influx of economic interests (consumer) of legal and physical interests - subprime pennies. Speak about the non-economic aspects of the problem - the clock is spacious, in our opinion, it’s quite enough.

At the same time, it’s economical between itself and can be seen in many aspects:

- fallow of the singing rivie of an economical system - like micro-economical and macro-economical credit;

- surely, you can talk about credit and credit between loans.

Microeconomic intercredit loans to recognize oaths of credit for a loan okremich posichalnikіv - legal and physical features. The stench is formed in full of energy-saving officials:

* Dynamics of market interest rate;

* the nature of the sweat of the clerk in the main working capital;

* I will become a guard of the clergyman with a high capital and the effectiveness of a new victory;

* Efficiency and profitability of projects, for the realization of such a situation.

The first one is from the official - the dynamics of the interest rate - the rate for all micro-economic sub-projects of the credit market, but the excitement is on drinking on poems of the cutaneous skin. The Reshta official at the dermal clerk may even be distinctly for the ix set, so for the need for the set. Sokrema, in some industrial enterprises in Denmark, the moment is consumed by the poets of the season due to the seasonal increase in viral expenses (generous gratitude) and the seasonal accumulated inventory (wholesale trade), and in the past, there is a large amount of it. for financial stupid yakony stink require pre-Gostin pochik.

A wider range of loans between loans, like a real drink for poets, regardless of where the officials, who were buzzing, are guilty of supervising more than one proposition. Such as is necessary to protect us before paying bank loans, as well as to expand credit cards, we will be issued with commercial bills. For the most part, for any reason, there is no need to expand the bank and commercial loans, then those who don’t have a loan can’t normally have their own business plans: they don’t have enough money or money to pay for their work and money. Turn up capital turnover just a bit, lower the temperament. In some enterprises, significant sums of stitched creditors' bargaining will take shape, and in the past - debitorial bargaining. The economy of the land of hostility is so called the crisis crisis. About the whole process of rejuvenating the Ukrainian language 1995-2000 pp. Since the National Bank of Ukraine was able to protect the stable hryvnia by intermingling credit with commercial banks (at a high rate of a small interest rate, at a high rate of a small loan turnover), we had to pay a slightly shorter loan. On the cob 2000 r. the overturned oath of creditors ’bargaining overdone UAH 250.0 billion, and the debitors’ - 180.0 billion UAH., having overtaken the original oversight of GDP from 5 to 4 times more often.

In case of a micro-economic loan, you can break it and go on your side — if you take an oath of a posy (bank and commercial), I’ll re-enter the real world, I will drink for a loan from the pozichalnik. Such a collapse between loans can be due:

* Overflowed by the liberal minds of a bank credit, if banks give pointers on the perch, don’t get into the proper order of principles of credit;

* to obtain more economical sub-accounts for the circulation of pre-paid money through mechanical internal credit loans: through non-security bills of exchange (financial, comradely), borrowed from unsecured loans;

* non-free raffles for non-commercial payments: at the budget, at over-the-budget funds, at earned pay;

* overnight earned money on a penny market for additional help tools (VIP regional loans, VIP bank payouts).

Redistribution in the mass order of micro-economic loans (re-crediting) lead to at least the most troublesome insurance, no lower credit. Behind the racket of worldly pozichkovyh koshtіv pіdpriyamstva will be shut off and reserve, spend on non-rational expenses, crib, provoke inefficient investment so much. The result of this will inevitably become the improvement of the process of creation, the lower efficiency of virobnitsva, and the economical development of the system.

In other words, if there is an optimal financial inclusion between loans, if you turn out to be like under-lending, then re-lending money by adding more credit to the economy.

Svitova practice of credit regulation of virolo tools, for the sake of which it would be safe to secure additional micro-credit between loans. All in all, in the first place, the principle of creditworthiness, that’s what bullets look at at 8.3, and that assessment of credit and loan repayment opportunities. In a different way, there is a regulated interest rate for bank interest in winter, so that you can secure access to the loan fund for all loan-friendly deposit-holders. Thirdly, there is a mechanism for regulating bank loans (refinancing of commercial banks by the central bank, a loan of a bank loan, a reserve of norms of reserve reserves). Fourthly, the whole mechanism of bill of exchange, a kind of development of commercial credit. For the additional help of bank instruments, the system can quickly change money and credit the economy sub-accounts up to credit loans.

Microcredit between the credit is potentially available for the skin economical sub, it’s really possible to see only the Todi, if the win is turned over to a penny market for a sign. Tomsk є in Denmark the moment posichalnikіv, steel іsnuє іndivіdualnyh mіkromezh credit. You can look at all the buying up of one macroeconomic loan, as a sign of an active loan credit contribution from the people of the state as a whole. Protea is macroeconomic between the loan є not just a simple mechanical bagatocho mikromezh, but a little self-sufficiency and form і to form the front with an influx of more economical officials, such yak:

- oaths and tempi growth of GDP;

- structure and financial development of the financial system and the state financial institutions;

- the methods and methods of the sovereign pennant-credit policy;

- development of marketed vidnosin skinny.

Obligations and pace of growth of GDP are directly proportionally absorbed on a macroeconomic credit, the amount of money needed to increase the amount of reserves and expenditures, investment, and consumption in capital. To satisfy this demand, you need the required number of items. Protea za zalezhnost mozhe buti is evenly deformed by the last official. So, in the structure of the financial system, it is more important that there is a small loan for the capital and the role of growth, and the country of powerful loans can help to reduce the amount of money, so I need to pay more money. not to expand, to expand by a smaller world, lower GDP. First and foremost, as a rule in the base period (before GDP growth), the economy of the bank is under-credited, then in the new period of the macro loan the loan is not only the world’s biggest contribution to GDP, but the loan is the same as the “uncontested” loan. About the possibility of real income growth at the dynamics of GDP and credit contribution. More information for Ukraine 1995-1999 pp. (table. 9.1).

As you can see from these tables, the dynamics of the credit contribution of commercial banks is small in size, and there is a constant increase in GDP in constant prices and constant dynamics of GDP in actual prices.

Particularly important is the role of the formulated macro loan in the form of consumer demand in the new credit policy. Peredusim

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The dynamics of GDP and credit contribution to the economy of Ukraine

won’s actively pouring in on the dynamics of the interest rate, in the grip of a yak, as if it was on the cob of the whole hand, the real one will drink on credit. In a different way, a penny-credit policy of a central bank has a dynamo for the mass of pennies in circulation, on the basis of which credit resources of the banking system are formed, the public is pleased to pay for the loan capital.

It’s normal that I’m satisfied with the demand for economic growth, and later - with the expansion of macroeconomic credit in the long-term credit cycles.

I have a note about the role of mobile banking resources as a macro-economic inter-credit. Deceitful rivals are implying that I have to swear at least one oath of their resources, and not really consume low-cost sub-accounts for poetic cats, you can see a small amount of credit, you can’t see any fragments in credit, less so. Protein this time, if I’m talking about macroeconomic interactions and about the banking system as a whole, then you need to complete a logical argument є lacking.

In the first place, in turn, you can get a lot of money, it’s more convenient to reserve a supreme supply of credit resources from banks and banks. As a whole, all the stock in respect of an active boundary loan and direct new entrants, inevitably from now on, a znetsnenny pennies, inflatsiyu.

In a different way, the bank system is open and functional and potent at the right time when there’s a lot of pennies in circulation and increase the amount of credit resources available to banks. First and foremost, you won’t be involved in any function of choice between criteria, then you will inevitably reread the economy with negative negligence about the past. Such a boundary may be better than the real one will enjoy economical sub'ktiv on pozichkov_ koshti.

In the third place, credit resources do not exist only in penniless forms, but in natural ones, to secure commercial loans. It’s stinky to change the pose of banks and not to be included in their resources, so you can try to unacceptable "resource" pidd until you see a macroeconomic credit.

Fourthly, banks do not want to reserve their own reserves (credit resources) more and more clearly in loans due to low credit and interest rates, as well as low rates of active interest and risk to them at all. In order to ensure that real consumption in credit is less than any credit resources of the banking system and there is more active credit for loans, there is no oversight of resources.

Understanding the macroeconomic between credit is abstractly. Tomsk іlkіsno visnositi її oath and, by the way, for organizing credit, as an interim official is practically impotent. To give an estimate of how much you can practice practicing, you can take less than the deceitful interim indicators of the processes, as well as criterion of such an additional recognition. Це - dynamics and riven interest rates; Rivne and Dynamo Inflation; introducing credit contribution to the economy to the gross national product of GDP and to the total financial contribution, which are in the order of economic sub-sectors; spіvvіdoshennya mіzh pace of growth of bankіvskogo credituvannya gospodaryuyuchyh sub'єktіv that GDP and that.

Naybilsh universal iz zih criterіv dotrimannya macroeconomic between credit є dynamics and ryven the interest rate. If you’re in a position to regulate the flow of a central bank with monetary and non-credit assets, your indicator may not be able to reach the exact amount of an additional loan (more details about the whole criterion).

Rivness and dynamics of inflation can characterize pre-maturity of inter-credit - their growth is guilty of account for over-repayment of inter-credit, and low is about reduction of inter-credit. Here is the indicator of inflation, which can be manifested by the manifestation of lower, non-credit, processes, such as the cost and structure of the budget, the cost of budget and that. That’s why there’s a sufficient criterion for inter-loan credit, a lower indicator of interest and interest dynamics. Especially unreliable is the indicator є for the minds of under-lending to the economy, if the central bank lowers its inflation to a low level with its monetary visits, and the percentage is too high. In addition to the name of the indicator, you can achieve a one-sided characterization of the development of the loan and you cannot be more universal with the macro criteria between loans. For example, in one country in Ukraine, the credit contribution of banks in the economy to the gross domestic product of GDP is 15%, and in the other - 20%. Ale Tse zovsim does not mean that in the first country, the economy is under-redeemed, while in another it is re-credited. All to lay down the loan of an active macro loan to a leather company from Ukraine. As a rule, first and foremost, lower than others, we can show that with 15% credit to GDP, the economy is normally credited, and at 20% it is not credited.

There are two aspects to the nutrition about macroeconomic credit between loans.

- like є itself is ob'єktivnaya the boundary - well-received by the wide, wide untwisted, high school;

- how much credit practice I want to touch between, which has been effectively folded up, - I’m transferring money to the non-Victorian people in order to secure the economy with poetic cats.

Naybilsh is helpful in developing the economy of the country є the situation, if the loan is good, wide enough, and the loan practice is optimally matched with the price, the unique over-credit and the lack of credit.

Before we saw the credit between yavische kіlkіsne, oath-ve. Ряд авторів говорять також про якісну межу кредиту, яка відокремлює цю категорію від інших економічних категорій як самостійну сутність. Звичайно, так можна ставити питання, проте його дослідження не слід відривати від кількісних меж кредиту. Ці дві межі нерозривно пов'язані, і їх слід розглядати в єдності. Наприклад, якщо кількісна межа порушується в бік перекредитування економіки (чи окремого підприємства), то частина кредитів не буде повернута. Вони втратять свої головні родові ознаки - зворотність та платність - і перетворяться в інше економічне явище - примусове безповоротне фінансування, а їх якісні межі будуть розмиті. І навпаки, якщо при наданні позичок порушуються основні принципи кредитування, що випливають з родових ознак кредиту, то неминуче буде перекредитування підприємств, а отже порушення мікромеж, а можливо - і макромеж кредиту.

Питання про взаємозв'язок кредиту і грошей, їх єдність та відмінності, вже розглядалося в розділі 8.2. Тут зупинимося лише на взаємозв'язку кредитування з грошовим оборотом.

Як зазначалося в розділі 2, кредит як економічний процес створює самостійні грошові потоки, що є складовою єдиного грошового обороту і постійно взаємодіють з його іншими потоками - фіскально-бюджетними та грошовим обігом, обслуговуючи процес суспільного відтворення. Проте кредитні потоки займають особливе місце в грошовому обороті. Завдяки емісійній функції банківської системи через кредитні потоки в оборот "вливаються" додаткові маси грошей, необхідні для розширення інших його потоків. Це дуже важлива передумова для успішного функціонування всього грошового обороту та економіки в цілому. Після проходження по всіх потоках сукупного обороту гроші повертаються в кредитні канали і через них вилучаються з обороту через погашення позичок.

Інтенсивність і обсяги надання позичок та їх погашення безпосередньо впливають на масу грошей в обороті. Якщо інтенсивність і обсяги надання позичок вищі, ніж погашення, маса грошей зростатиме, і навпаки. Складається враження, ніби сам кредит через форму позичок здійснює оборот, який стає кредитним замість грошового. Тому деякі економісти вважають, що кредит у сучасних умовах замінив гроші, а ринкова економіка з товарно-грошової перетворилася в товарно-кредитну. Проте така заміна принципово неможлива, гроші і кредит залишилися окремими економічними категоріями зі своєю специфічною сутністю і функціональним призначенням. Тому одна з них об'єктивно неспроможна виконувати функції та призначення іншої.