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A penny is a loan - Savluk M.I.

ROZDIL 11. CENTRAL BANKS

11.1. APPOINTED STATUS THAT FOUND THE ORGANIZATION OF THE CENTRAL BANK

The head of the central bank is designated for managing the grocery turnover by securing stable non-inflationary development of the economy. The Central Bank is pouring in on a penny turnover through the winter of the proposition of pennies and the price of the pennies. Its purpose is to realize that, in the economic system, the role is special, and the role itself:

* mail bank;

* a bank bank, for specific banking institutions, a form of bank reserves and regulation of a bank system;

* to the authority of the sovereign government, a kind of government for monetary policy.

The Central Bank will take forever the fate of the formulated propositional pennies, moreover, the form of the formalized goth component, so the non-prepared (deposit) component. Vin zdіysnyuє emіsіyu gotіvki in order to protect her commercial banks in exchange for exchanges on their reserves, rent to the central bank. Commercial banks post a loan to their clients (depositors) in exchange for their deposits in banks, insignificant amount of money for their reserves at their cash registers. Gotіvka, which is emitted by the central bank, was released to both banks through commercial banks and circulating in the banked sphere, є an important component of penny propositions.

Another, more important component of propositional pennies, vrachovy yo rozmіri, є pennies sub'єktіv ekonomіki, razmіschenі in commercial banks on deposit rashlenki, tbto bezgotovy component. In the form of these pennies, the central bank also has a primary role. Vin zabpepechuє bankіvsku system with supplementary reserves, give commercially available banks pozichki that kupuyuchi they have valuable couples on vidkritomu market.

Bank reserves are divided into two parts: reserves, which are the central bank of vimaga nagromadzhuvati (both reserve reserves), and are the sum of large reserves, which banks charge for the need for excess (excess reserves). Commercial banks in the range of over-reserve (large) reserves, with a significant amount of peace, lay down the standard norms for the reserve reserves, give poems to your client-depositors and use such a term to handle additional deposits. The amount of deposits I am transferring is the amount of reserves that the central bank has given to commercial banks, which is why the credit system of the banking system is in large total multiplier deposits. If the central bank is viluchє from the bank system and reserves - tighten the pointers from commercial banks and sell the price of the goods to the vidkritu market - vidvuvatsya vvdpovіdne multiplіkativna zgortannya depositіv. The slice of the meanings, which is ready, is let out by commercial banks in obig, the multiply-wide extension does not.

Thus, the central bank is a special body of the banking system and I am called for pennies of improved efficiency - for the sake of getting ready and reserves of commercial banks, which can be used as a base (penny) for growing up pennies.

The Central Bank will establish for commercial banks the norm of reserve reserves, ale rozmіr of surplus reserves and the nature of their banks. Commercial banks must recognize on their own, vrakhovuyu pryvzhniy znniknikov:

* underestimation of the excess of deposits; it’s necessary to lay down the behavior of the depositor. Chim lingivnie tide and vidvliv deposit_v, more than excess reserves required by mother banks;

* loan interest, a kind of commercial banks need to be taken to satisfy the need for reserve reserves at the same time because of the lack of reserve reserves. You will be recognized as equal to the official

cent rate of the central bank. Zrostannya ofitsіynoї rates zbіlshuє spіvvіdoshennya mіzh over surplus and obov'yazkovy reserves, more poziki for an hour-long replenishment reserve to melt in price, and on the way;

* interest income, some commercial banks to spend, trim reserves at the central bank. The amount spent on income is identified as a market interest rate. Zrostannya ostnoy zmenshuє spivvidnoshennya mizh between superfluous and obov'yazkovym reserves, and in advance.

The Central Bank may, as a rule, be a monopoly of the right to grant money. Protea masa of preparation, which is necessary for obigu, is designated as the leading order of behavior of the sub-economy (physical and legal aspects), which can be violated, in the same proportion that they can be trimmed with a small amount of money in advance. The main officials, scho to pour on the center:

* Dovіra to the banking system, that is, the ability to pay, the obligations of the banks and banks (the bank card);

* Rates of interest in banks, which may be equal to the deposit interest rate of commercial banks;

* the extent of the economy, the need for a unique test to control the legitimacy of business, as well as a unique test for paying back;

* income of the sub-economy. Gotivka widely vikoristovitsya people with low incomes. Zrostannya income (betaty), leading to the change of income from getting ready and a penny, are paid on deposit rakhnahki.

The Central Bank, regulating the provision of pennies, pouring on the price of pennies, on the other hand, on the level of interest rates. The difference between the pennies and the interest rates is higher than the double-valued interchange. So, in short-term perspectives, if the proposition of pennies is small, the level of interest rates is lower, but at an extra hour the situation is:

* Zbіlshennya propositional pennies can mother stimulating pressure on the economy and to protect the growth of national income. In the minds of growing income, the economy’s income will be spent on pennies for higher income and financial investment. Zrostannya will eat for pennies wiklikє interest rate;

* The increase in the proposition of pennies may be made by increasing the price of the rest of the price in the economy and the retail process, but I also have a small percentage of the money for my pennies, as well as the smaller amount.

In this way, on the cob of increasing the proposition of pennies, we lower the level of interest rates, and by the hour of the last factor, we can fix the time in the safe area, which stimulates the increase of interest rates.

Pidsumovuychi, you can sow the gadgets, and the central bank will play a role on a groshny market. Winnings are poured into the economy through regulation of pennies and through the increase of interest rates.

The author of the fundamental American pen-handbook "The Economy of Pennies, Banking Help and Financial Rinks" Frederik S. Mishkin vvazhaє, you can buy three quarterly pennies at the proposition of pennies, you can assign to the USA a large reserve system.

Central banks may have a special legal status, timings, so you should always renew with your own bank and establish a sovereign governing body. Central banks provide bank operations, which bring profit (credit of commercial banks, transactions with valuable folders to the foreign currency market, operations with foreign currency are inevitable), and only if they are not operated in advance. Central banks have a high price and operational tools for managing the grocery market (for the tools of monetary policy), which are more redundant by sovereign interests and the so-called legislation.

The legal status of the central bank can be characterized as follows: the central government body with special functions in the sphere of low-credit loans and bank branches. For the implementation of this functional bank, the central bank must be granted the dominant sovereign and civil legal privileges. Win є self-determined legal special; Yogo Mayo vidokremlenno Vid Mayna Powers; the central bank can order them like a hairline. Win is not a commercial organization.

Organizational status of the central bank of obligations for the most important is low food, which is worthy of one's duty, and itself:

* vizneshennya on the legislative rivnі zavdan і functional bank;

* form of statutory capital bank;

* viznazhennya vzamovidnosin bank with the authorities of sovereign authority;

* the order of the appointment and the call of the other core warehouse to the bank.

Organizational and legal status of central banks in the country of confidentiality in legal acts: in laws on central banks and in their statutes, laws on banks and banking, in currency laws. Zazvichai is the main legal act that regulates the central bank’s activities, the Law on the Central Bank, the de facto buti clearly formulated and the functions of the central bank.

The procedure for formulating the statutory capital of the central bank is not the same for all regions. Statutory capital to the bank may belong to the powers (France, Nimechchina). The power may be partly capitalized, and the part may be changed by ownership of property (Austria, Switzerland, Japan). First, the whole bank was able to use the power of private shareholders (USA, Italy). The order (dzherela) of formulating the statutory capital of the central bank is not of fundamental importance for its function, the remnants of the central bank’s interests are not recognized as interests, but by their entire interests.

The nature of the mutual banknotes of the central banks with the sovereign authorities over their serpent and form in different regions of disagreement. There are two important aspects to this relationship. The first aspect is to relieve the self-reliance, independence of the central bank at the established and realizable monetary policy.

Foreign economic literature doesn’t have unambiguous thoughts about the independence of the central bank. Frederick S. Mishkin at the hand of the “Economy of pennies, bank reference and financial risks” suggest arguments on the basis of corroboration, so be it against the independence of the central bank. The strongest argument for the care of the independence of the central bank is to take a look at it, which means that the central bank is under pressure in the first place to press the monetary policy and the pulse. The main argument against independence is to ensure that mothers are undemocratic in terms of monetary policy, as if they are relying on good skin care in the economy, they are signaled and controlled by the elite group (central bank), as if they are not connected with anything. We’ve been able to understand and conduct scientific research until they’ve completed the next stage of the central bank’s independence and inflation. The stink came to the visovka, which showed indicators of inflation by those who were the most bankrupt in the country to find the central bank’s independence. Until then, with an independent central bank, there is no need to worry about the uncontrolled unemployment of the city, while there are fewer countries with less central banks.

Ninі in bіlshostі kraїn of rozvinenoyu rinkovoyu ekonomіkoyu tsentralnі banks abo vzagalі to Anyone not pіdzvіtnі (Zittau), abo pіdzvіtnі vischomu zakonodavchomu Authority State Vladi (US Yaponіya, Єvropeysky ekonomіchny i ​​Monetary Union) i Je not fallow od organіv State Vladi at vstanovlennі tsіlovih orієntirіv monetarnoї Policies and tools for regulating the penny obigu. Madly, the independence of the central bank cannot be absolutely, even monetary policy, as well as the central bank, the warehouse foreign economic policy of the state. I’m very impressed with the real economy out of the ordinary with fiscal, price, investment, structural policy. As a proponent of monetary policy, the central bank is guilty of collapse in foreign business and law in order to form an international economic policy of the state.

Another aspect is to squeeze together a central bank with a detachment to drive a financial deficit of the sovereign budget. In order to ensure that the government doesn’t have to fix the vise on the central bank, in the country of the central bank the legislative bank is required to pay direct loans for the financing of the budget deficit, as well as the budget for the first time. Operations with valuable central bankers can be sure to enter the secondary market by regulating penniless money.

At the stage of independence of the central bank, the singing rank of the bank is the order of appointment and the number of customers in the bank. In bagatelles, a censored country, the central bank has to be designated as the President of the country, as well as to be deprived of the second legislative body of sovereign power, and therefore, to the lines, rewrite the terminology of the most important order (USA - 14 cities, Nimechina - 8 cities, Japan). Prior to that, there’s no way to finish the central bank, but it’s easy to finish, but it’s not possible to fill in the bill.

Organizational structure of the central bank is marked by a significant peace as the form of a sovereign state structure (national federation, national unified state), national traditions and peculiarities of banking legislation.

The National Bank structure of the US Central Banks is the United States Central Bank. The structure of the whole bank is recognized as a federal state power, as well as the traditional choice of the American community, to the centralized financial power, to the supreme power of the authorities at the disposal of private institutions, banks, and commercial banks.

The Central Bank, which is an element of the US Federal Reserve System (FRS), is stocked up for the sake of the clergy, 12 federal reserve banks, the Federal Committee for a clear market and the Federal Advisory Council.

Rada Keruyuchih iz of seven osob osolu Fed. The skin cheruby is designated as the President of the USA after consultation and for the senate of the Senate. Schob izolyuvati Radu keruyuchykh of all kinds of political clutches on the side of the president, the legislature and those who have authority, keruyuchi to conceive of their obligations by stretching at the fourteen-digit line, which cannot be brought up. Head For the sake of the cherished, the President of the Republic of член член член і на ч ч ​​ч ч ч ч строк строк строк строк строк строк строк строк строк строк вдруг вдруг вдруг вдруг вдруг вдруг вдруг вдруг вдруг вдруг вдруг вдруг вдруг вдруг вдруг вдруг.

I’m glad to see a new business card and a real monetary policy, as well as a reward for strict regulation of the banking business and looking at it. Sokrem, I’m setting the norm for the obzovyazkovyh reserve vimog, controlling the official interest rate, directing the federal committee to open the market, and solidifying the bank so much.

I’m glad to see the recent status and priority order of the Congress. Two times to Rada Rada nadaє to Congress calls, to some are given estimates of macroeconomic indicators and groovy aggregates for the first period, as well as forecast forecasts of their indicators for the next period.

Federal Reserve Banks є in 12 districts, with banks in May. The sphere of banking business is not administrative, administrative and territorial support of the country. Inod one state to enter the warehouse of two districts, de jut rіznі reserve banks. Federal Reserve Banks - self-supporting banks. Shareholders of reserve banks є commercial banks in the specialized district are members of the Fed. Reserve banks have money for getting ready, you have to pay for money, you have to pay attention, you are for commercial banks in your district, there are lots of money for banknotes, there are no Mayuvayut a song of rejuvenation of a shchodo bankіvskogo at a glance skinny. To the perversions of the Federal Reserve Banks є access to the foreign capital goals, established by Radu Keruyuchyh, and not just magnate a rent. Significant part of their income (ponad 90%) banks re-insurance to the sovereign budget.

The Federal Committee for a Credited Market - a specific and narrow source of authority of the American Central Bank, for a specific operation on a closed market тому the most comprehensive instrument for conducting monetary policy. The committee is composed of seven members for the sake of five and five presidents of reserve banks, one of them is the president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. A committee with the method of regulating penniless health benefits of buying and selling sales of sovereign wealth owners through the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

The Federal Consulting Council is glad to be stocked up with 12 members, vibraniously shy of one type of skin federal reserve bank. Members of її ї call in the home bank and commercial banks. I’m glad to pick up a couple of times at Rik for negotiating with Raduy keruychih current problems, due to monetary policy.

Japan є a unitary power, which, as I have already indicated, is the singing world of the organisation structure of the central bank. Bank of Japan is the central central bank, which has the right to vidkrivati ​​filiіy, vіddіlennya, representative offices over the years of the Ministry of Finance. The bank often owned the powers (55%), and often privately owned shareholders (insurance companies, financial institutes, private individuals). Shareholders of guaranteed dividends, the rosim of which are fixed on the legislative rivnі. A non-stop litter bank to walk up to a sovereign budget. Kerivnitstvo bank to be paid on Pravlіnnya, as a storehouse for 9 osib. The head and the two defenders of the Head are designated as the Cabinet of Ministers for the Parliament, and the members of the Rule of Law are the Cabinet of Ministers. Усі особи призначаються на посади на п'ять років. На засіданнях Правління в разі необхідності можуть бути присутні представники уряду. Вони можуть вносити на розгляд Правління свої пропозиції стосовно монетарної політики, але остаточне рішення з усіх питань приймає Правління банку. Банк Японії виконує функції, що є традиційними для центральних банків. Метою монетарної політики Банку є збалансований розвиток національної економіки шляхом підтримки цінової стабільності. Двічі на рік Центральний банк подає парламенту звіт про свою діяльність.