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Penny-credit systems and foreign countries - Ivanov V.M.


1.1. Course subject

"Penny-credit systems of foreign countries" is a theoretical course, the subject of a specific day of pennies and credit systems of the country with a tidy market economy, the main stages of its development, and also there is a greater need for a better perspective.

The course is taught by the discipline of "Pennies and Credit", "Fundamentals of Banking Help" and "Finance". You will have a chance to go through such categories, like pennies, credit, banks, pennies and credit systems. The course is a self-sustaining distribution of economic science, which is especially important for pennies, the essence of credit institutions and institutes, and their organization. I’m looking at the specifics of the drawer when I look at food, I will take a look at the law of penniless loans, interchangeability of credit, credit and currency systems with an economical environment, as well as the addition of special financial and credit institutions for production.

On weekends from the occupied it is possible to formulate the main course:

• the essence of the essence of the main stage of the evolu- tionary pennant-credit systems of the country with a divided market economy;

• Be aware of the processes of integration in the penny-credit sphere;

• show the current state of the penny-credit systems of the ruined country and the mechanism of penniless credit regulation;

• characterize a penny-credit policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan with a divided market economy;

• take a look at the fallout of the joyful penny-credit system and the way to formulate national credit systems in the majority of republican republics of the USSR;

• Prostitution of law and prospect of developing penniless credit systems in Ukraine, which are developing.

For the development of this method, the methodology of systemic approach, dialectics and history is victorious.

The method of the systematic approach to transmitting, reviewing the categories and understanding the course of succession, interoperability with the process of suspension, the internal structure of the most important credit and credit systems, and the analysis of the related systems.

The method of dialectics is grounded in the most economical categories and understood in the process of development, the evolution of the lower level to the point.

The method of historicism is that one can see the skin and skin with a specific historical period.

1.2. Bank system

Banking system - the whole banknote and banking institutes, which should be available at the first historical period and the warehouse credit system, at their own charge.

Let’s see the future of the banking system (Fig. 1).

Banking systems are characterized, as a rule, by a two-way structure.

Budova banking system

Fig. 1. Budova banking system

The first step in the banking system is to become the central (national) bank, a kind of bank for the stability of national pennies and the functionality of the bank system.

On the other hand, I’ve got to change commercial banks, like to get more active (give me a little sign, invest more) and give me more (get more money) operations and give me more bank services.

Proteus є signs, power to us systems, which function at the market economy.

Banks є based on the credit system of the country and intermediaries between thimi, who care for pennies, and timi, who are investing. Deposit, earned by banks (borgovy goiter'yazannya), at once with the highest share capital to include until passiviv. The Bank of Love has its own funds, which are concentrated in the active assets, - poems, valuable gifts, groshny goths and reserves. Warehouse and structure of assets and assets to the bank at the bank of the bank; they have the assets to increase the amount of goiters, yazan and hairy capitals, to the passives.

Suchasna bankіvska right grounded on the system of private reserves. The Central Bank establishes the norm of reserve reserves, so that a portion of assets, such as money, money and money, put a reserve of a commercial bank on a rahun. Zmіnuyuchi rozmіr bankіvskih reserves, you can regulate the flow of groshovo masi through the bank.

Butt. Norm obov'yazkovyh reserves become 20% sum passive bank. Yakshcho pass the commercial bank more than 1000 million gr. od., then the oath of yo obov'yazkovyh reserves is becoming 200 million gr. od. The simplified balance (T-rahunka) has the same kind of wiglyad:

structure of assets and passives to the bank

We are important in terms of the regulatory standard for bank management є the standard for bank and bank payments (NP). You can identify the bank with all the assets (capital) of the bank and total assets:

the standard of payment for the bank (NP)

In the United States, the standard of payment capacity becomes 6%, in Ukraine - 8, and in certain countries - 4%.

I will try to interchange the bank system and pennies. Most economies recognize the essence of pennies through tampering functions - single ones, mischief, mischief, mercy.

From the traditional view of the penny, it’s a specific product, especially for the role of the ignorant equivalent of the wartost.

There is room for food, like a penny, need to analyze a penny rinok, including a penny proposition.