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Penny-credit systems and foreign countries - Ivanov V.M.

2.3. Groshі i gold

Gold and penny waited for the peace of mind.

In the primordial community, people lived in time, they took the fruits and sang in the wild sounds, the mustache was simply distributed among the members. I’m not sharing the results of this primitive “virobnitz”, but it’s not worth the bully and the penny.

Protea Lyudin felt the taming of stars and the earth to be tamed. Ziraralnitstvo and love for the pastoralism and earthmoving. Postupovo tribes seemed to be engaged in singing kinds of dyalnostі. For such minds, deception has become a necessary element of the life of people. Significance of exchange, if the industry is viral, the craft is especially a galaxy of labor dyalnost. Products viroblyayutsya specifically for obmіnu. The goods are older, and the exchange is regular. The leather goods of pragna have their own affinity for the middle of the goods, for which they are entitled to exchange for the comrade.

Visibility of the ignorant equivalence to a commodity — a product that has a twist on the bi-versatility of the current commodities and the standard terms of exchange for them, - accelerated the exchanges.

Istoriya gospodaryuvannya people іn svіdchit, scho funktsії functionnels at singing regions svіtu vikonuvali іzіnі comra (farmers, ribe, cocoa bean, sіl) і navit people. Among the various types of pennies, there was a constant struggle, some pennies were vitiated. The groshynovs were alone among themselves, not the least of gifts.

The three problems were identified as it should be, if the role of the pennies was considered to be metal. At the old Sparti, for the sons of Aristotle, there were big money. The prototype of the middle of the year saw funktsion of non-trivial pennies an hour, most of which was delivered to the koshtovy stone and gold and silver as a natural aesthetic.

3 lot of zadovolnyaє not the main consumption of people (in clothes, clothes), but another row. It’s very old and penniless. However, pennies from gold do not have the most problems. Potential pharmacies, so that you can sing the song of gold and gold test. So pimped carbuvannya coins.

Coin - the price is guaranteed to metal.

The 3-bit in coins is a bulo with the reversible form of pennies in the early capitalism. The symbol of the golden "calf" , its dominion over people, worship and sacrifice to conduce mankind with the extension of a rosary. 3vіlnennya of humanity vіd hold the gold bulo mrієu drowning social services.

Transition to the gold standard spreading over to the trials period and ending at the end of the XIX century. The price went round to the New Year, the fragments of groshov, one of the skin and leather region, were fixed by the law of gold gold. Three of the coins became more grandfather. Central banks, in which scarby was piled up, were redirected to gold reserves. With a hammer, you can repay the bullet whether it’s a certain Borg, and you have to pay it back.

Tim for an hour more gold was yakroshyvlyaetsya yak as groshovy metal , then the minds for yogo vitisnennya were stored in short. In obigu at once with unequal-denominated coins, they erased the erased coins, as if they had spent part of the masi. 3 'there were spritniks who, as a result of such an economic law, had disappeared in time. The stinks cut the coins, as a result of which the masa metal changed. At a time with a professional carbuvalnik coin of a winicle, a professional counterfeit coin. I would especially like to see the issue of disagreeable and unequal coins of the state. Fasting, why don’t you rob a penny of paper — material, a symbol of a new hour in civilization. At the same time, credit pennies are developing from coins.

On the cob of the XIX century. gold was the irregular form of pennies, but for the time being the sale of the part of expensive metal decreased, and the part of flowing rachunk grew. Ninja gold don’t take part in the groshovoy obigu, and the groshova masa will be stored approximately 1/4 of the production and 3/4 of the production rakhunk.

May you all get humanity the gold materially in the right now. That rinok gold is wider and more folding, lower sales of metal, scho vobobuvatsya shchorіchno.

At the time of gold gold (cream spent) isnu in such forms:

• centralized stocks at treasury and state banks;

• private (tezavratsіynі) ( Gold tezavratsya - reward of gold by private hairwigs at the cigar insurer's insurance fund. Gold is certified at the form of zlivkіv, coins, medals, as well as gold certificates)

Achievement of physical and legal features (company, bank);

• metal, which is a kind of jewelery in jewelery and dental prosthetics, in the middle of the gallows of industrial activity, and in the ancestral room for secondary congestion.

For the tributes of S. Borisov, to the first category (with accuracy up to 0.1) of an attack of 35.1 thousand. tons of gold, on the other - 24.1, on the third - 31.9, at a time - 91.1 thousand. t [27].

Centralized reserves are called monetary (penny) gold. Fair, all gold is closest to pennies, securing that we have a reserve of international payment cards. Vono isnuє exceptionally in high-quality foreign currency fries.

The most beloved by the shavil of the yellow metal є USA, although the last part has been steadily diminished in the first time rock. For example, 1986 p. US gold reserve becoming 8.2 thousand t, for the remaining rocky winnings may not be expressed. Another stock of gold роз Nіmechchina (3 thousand t.). The third quarter was Switzerland (2.6 ths. T), where ten years were invested by capital from us. For the gold gold, which falls on one ludina, Switzerland nabagato prevailed all the foreign lands.

Remained for an hour deyakі kraїini, scho razvivayutsya, replenished their own gold reserves. Two groups of krains — gold and naphtha shoes — are worth a look.

The most beautiful monster of gold is found in New York, in the cliffs of the skeleton pores of Manhattan. The gigantic chamber of gold of the United States has gold mined (more often than not) at 70 countries, as well as the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

The zberiganny chamber in the Manhattan nadors was tilted at 30 rocks, as long as the Krash baguettes took a shot at the threat of Hitler’s aggression. Part of their stink gold reserves were lost in New York. Vinyatok to become France, yak for traditions and their own policy of gold and gold reserves in the territory of the territory.

The United States’s largest supply of reserves is specially inspected for the entire 30th Rock Fort Knox monster (Kentucky). Part of the national monster is seen at West Point (New York State), in mints at Denver and Philadelphia, and also at San Francisco.

Private (tezavratsіynі) awards can be saved from standard currency diets (all companies, bankers and best hair holders), as well as other oils and uniforms, medals and medallions. At deyaki lands, a secrecy in India, volodinnya gold at the poor peasants sim'yah є national tradition. All the fear of a viaduct I don’t give birth to, spontaneous dashing, twigs and death.

Until 1975 p. The bulk of the United States was buried in gold with Volodia, behind a vignette of jewelery virobism, numismatic values.

Kіlka thousands of tons of gold zbirigatsya in dental prostheses. A part of gold is avenged by the most items: they are covered with church baths, and details are in electrical outlets. At the top of the list of gold in the Republic of electronics in the electronic industry, a cost-effective process has been imposed with the latest technology. Protein in such areas is experiencing the irreversible loss of metal.

On a 70-year gold market, on the cob of the 80s, there are lots of real money, more money for gold, more time for more money, more money, more money and more.

Until 1968 p. order and state central banks bought up all the video gold and controlled the farthest collapse. The stinks sold gold alone to one, as long as they needed to increase their foreign exchange reserves, as well as to private companies, as if they were victorious at promislovost. Nini squad and banks to buy and sell gold "on the ambush of ambush" - not for a firm price, but for a market, "commodity."

Under the gold standard, gold is a bulky penny. However, selling is the meaning of exchanging goods for pennies, and the price of goods as a commodity for pennies. The price of gold is tsilki viraz, in other words - the price of gold is one big penny. I said if the price of gold in the United States was close to 20.67 dollars. for a triple oz, then they rose: the golden war of dolar (legally under the law of 1900 p.) to become approximately 0.048 oz, or 1.505. Sell gold, sell to the seller, for example, one gold of gold for 20 dollars. 67 cents with gold coins and banknotes, they generally rose for gold.

If Dolar has spent spending gold on gold, it has become possible to sell (ale not buy) gold for a new official price - 35 dollars. per ounce.

After the other world news, if the price of the comrade was increased, the US government began to sell gold at 35 dollars. for the ounce, and hto mi, it was the sale of yogo neofitsyno for the price. Winik vіlniy rinok of gold with prices, yaki constantly poured so by itself, as the price of the latest goods.

In the 60s of the USA and in some of the countries of Western Europe, the financial functions of gold have been magnified as if they were firmly valued, so as to stabilize the gold value of the dollar. By the method of 1961 p. a gold pool has been set up to regulate the market for the additional sale and purchase of gold for the London market, and there is a concentration of operations with live metal. As a rule, the participants in the pool bought up surplus gold and gave it to themselves, and I bought it. The system broke up in the years 1976-1978, so that in the territories that were part of the pool, the inflation became stronger. Vinikli dvіvnevy rinok і dvіvneva price gold. Central banks of the Ukrainian goiters did not undertake to buy and not sell gold to the private market, which was completely sold to the private sector. Otozh, ofіtsіyna the price of gold has shrunk rapidly, and the nabagato has risen slightly.

The result is the glorious light of the gold of the 70s and 80s. Central banks in 1973 Mali I can sell gold for the market with my own reserves, and also the formal right to buy it is distant. Protein basic signs of the old market - obig gold between central banks and a solid price on a new one - it is unlikely to turn around.

For tradition, all the gold was spent to the hands of the middle man - dealers. Gold dealerships - all companies, which are in financial aristocracy, and elite svitu. All the traditional light, until the newcomers do not bother access. Dealerships, such as "weathering" the market for gold, cash in 20. All of them stink with banks, but you can get them in touch: they’re welcome to use gold, spend big pennies. Naistarisha with such company vede sovy rodovid from the XII century, rented approximately 150 rock. We’re at the list of London dealers. We have a bank bank of dim Rothschilds, foundations at 1804 p.

Before the gold dealerships to establish the same "great three" Swiss banks with offices at Tsurіhu. Це гиганські акціонboardі banks of a universal type. Stink to look around us and see bank operations. To endeavor banks to hire management; zavdyaki their own temper and stingy stupidity to lie down to financial oligarchs. Tsі people dіstali prіzvisko "tsurіkhskі gnomi"; дhnya dіyalnist zberіgatsya at tamnitsі that she is seized by the eyes of the public, and Vlad is glorious. Before the "great triyki" include:

• Swiss Banking Partnership (Swiss Bank Corporation);

• Swiss Credit Institute (Swiss Credit Bank);

• Swiss Banking Union (Union Bank of Switzerland). Tsі banks in 1983 p. approved the pool, doit on the market for strong strategy and tactics and don’t give in to London.

At the center of the world, there is de concentrated gold trading. Viddilom of the international penny market є Gold Exchange in Chicago.

None of the most precious Ukrainian gold is sold on the whole with lots of coins and small butter. Coins can be resold in a bagatory way. With a whole stink, it’s not a penny that wraps itself in the market, but a specific product.

Dealers on sale, arranging sales contracts for gold purchase. The strangest type of operation with gold appeared to string strings. It’s stinky to have a big bag of opera tions, as well as healthy grain, colorful metals and goods, as well as foreign currencies and valuable folders. Such operations are possible, so that you can look at one-time chi standard parties and recognize the most important values. Gold is ideally vіdpovіdaє tsim vimogam.

A string of pleas is a contract between a seller and a buyer, for the minds of a certain seller to sell the craps, I’m obliged to deliver, and the buyer accept the song’s number of standard gold parts from the maybutny period in advance for a fixed price. Buyers and sellers є brokers are members of the stock exchange. You’ll be able to understand the operation of the dealer, for the power of the races and the interests of the authorities, as well as the agents of the business and the community, as well as the brokers commissions.

By such an operation, there may be pure speculation, that is, to get the money off and the right to guess the right price, or the insurance risk (hedge). Remained to be safe, if the gold virobnik sells their products for Maybut, they are insured against the possible price. Promislovy firmi, for some gold є sirovinoy, in hitting, you can buy yogo for singing term, so that you can insure yourself for the price of novy.

I sell gold at a singing term іn speculative, like a rose, whilst until the moment of completion please change the price of gold. On birzhah ikh they are called "Vedmedy" (the name is tied in winter, which is the witch’s heel with the paw upside down).

Vidovdno buy gold for singing term rozrahovyut for those who rinkova prіnі pіdvishchissya pryvnyano with contract. It’s stinky to grab on the little one’s and be called “beaks” (the beek of the horror’s bottom is uphill).

As a rule, sellers don’t want to respect the supply of real (physical) gold at the time of termination of the contract, and buyers don’t be obliged to accept real gold. Offended by the parties to save money to one - a side view of the viewers in the price list. Rozrahunok may appear to be wrong, and the riznitsya unsightly. For the whole time, the speculator pragne is mixed with the rubbing, so as to immediately enter the grill.

The main move of string lands for speculators is that the seller, who is willing to please, is not guilty of obovyazkovo mother in the actual goods, which are for sale, and the buyer does not need mother and daughter to buy the most goods. The stench is pleasing, investing in a small part of the new wartost goods at the viglyad’s margin. The contribution of a seemingly small capital for tidy minds may bring a great profit and a high standard for a capital allowance. In American financial practice, they call the principle of "importance." You have the principle that you can have the same thing with a zvorotnoy straightforward, bringing great zbitki for unpleasant surroundings.

Butt. Yakshcho capital invested in real gold, then at times 250 dollars. per ounce by 25 thousand dale You can buy 100 oz metal. For capital appreciation, the price of gold (for goths) was doubled - up to 500 dollars. per ounce. The whole time of the "important" is dumb. Ale at a price of gold at a maybutniy period of singing 250 dollars. per ounce, in order to buy a standard lot in exchange for 100 ounces (one contract), the investor needs to pay the brokers 900 dollars. Qiu margin broker transferred є bіrzhі. Mayuchi 25 yew dol., the investor can buy about 30 lots (25000/900), about 3000 ounces. Yakshcho price for an ounce of gold to pay a total of 9 dollars. (up to $ 259), then a speculator selling gold for the price of $ 900 for the skin contract "zaroblya", and after that, the stock will be capitalized. The result of an insignificant increase in price is 25 to 50 thousand. dale

At times lower prices up to 241 dollars. for an ounce speculator with a doctor’s margin. Yakshcho vin wants to save the contract, pay less for a lower price, you can bring in a supplementary margin, and then spend less. Zadelshogo investori get reckoned up late to freeze three times, giving instructions to the broker, for some kind of low price to buy gold for singing strings.

Otzhe, it’s more important than ever to get there. At tsyomu abo to abstain a little bit, but to go into the grill, obmeshuyuchy in the third. For a better change of normal market conditions, 99% of the contract is possible. At the top of the page with the trend of mechanics є tendency to the most frequent parts of the land.

Coverage of land at the bargain trade in goods and financial acts is unavailable in the form of operations. One of these forms є opt. Impossibly golden option was seized at 1976 p. one of the Swiss banks, ale ustotnogo znachennogo vin nabuv in 1982 p., if operations with options bulo rozpochato on "Comex".

Option - the contract is for a buyer who wins a song award, a right to sell a song term for a second installment from a seller with a standard batch of goods for the advance price. I’m selling the option to deny the prize and the prize, selling the terminus contract to the contract price is not easily reached for the contract. Buyer rozrakhovaє, who’s overlooking vitrati at the premium and otrima sideway, as much as rinkova price to override option. Is the essence of the form of golden options . Pragnuchi to raise a risik to a minimum, okremі speculators one by one to string with options.

Rosvitok bіrzhovoї trading in gold nabuvaє all-natural character. If you look at the sunset, I look at the prototype of the Maybach markets of goods, capital and currencies, healthy concentrates and the presence of all participants in the world.

The resurrection of gold, as a commodity, a historical character, and an hour. It’s very rare in the rest of the world and to lay the foundation for economic development and social and cultural sounds. Наприклад, сучасне масове виробництво ювелірних виробів істотно відрізняється від кустарно-художнього характеру цієї галузі в минулому. Новим явищем є попит на благородний метал у сфері електроніки.

Проте деякі звичаї використання золота існують сотні й навіть тисячі років. Наприклад, археологи знаходять золоті обручки в різних місцях земної кулі. У Стародавньому Єгипті існував звичай носити їх як знак влади і багатства. Імовірно, це було пов'язано з тим, що в обручках робився штамп і при натисканні ним на віск завірялася справжність послання і гарантувалася його таємниця. У багатьох країнах обручка дотепер є символом міцності шлюбу.