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|home Banking Books Penny-credit systems and foreign countries - Ivanov V.M.|
Penny-credit systems and foreign countries - Ivanov V.M.
The problem of victorious pennies and the management of them as a product is the people of the world, selling goods and services.
Skin etap of historical development make yakisni zmіni in suspension vidnosini. Skin suspension, may be historical and cultural, tradition and soundness, national fervor, and a different approach to solving problems. Those who are accustomed to one of the most important economical effects can be brought to the last results in India.
Let’s think more carefully, so as to integrate into the result and the result of reforming the economy.
First of all, reform is more important in the minds of a more acute economic crisis, more of a decrease in economic problems, more intense energy crisis, lower numbers of people living in livelihoods, more frequent shows.
It is economical to introduce a crisis of singing super-hype in reform reforms. From one side, I won’t hurry, I’m speeding up the reforms, and from the first one I’ve got a great deal of disorganization of the government’s life.
In a different way, in the lands of radical reforms, one needs to know more about the minds of political instability, so try to reform the economy, it’s inconsistent, compromise and don’t give any results. Namagan of the forces of open efforts to reform the compromise should lead to praise of the law, on one side, and on the other hand, be able to cope with the reforms, and from the beginning - to falsify them.
In the third place, reform is healthy in the minds of instability. Old administrative important regula- tions have already lost their force, and new market mechanics (competition, bankruptcy, re-capitalization) will not increase regulation.
Appointed to bother with the CIS SND and Europe. To that, talking about the groshova reform, demanding that the factors be taken into account, like that.
Sierodnosti, znetsіnennya national currency є threat to the economic rate of the country with negative social incidents in suspension.
Economic reforms , which should be respected at the territory of the CIS and the European Union, reckoned with the internationally stable, significant economic and structural awards. Stability of economical processes, pershochergov, and the basis for the development of minds and incentives for retraining, completing market transitions. There’s a transfer to us ahead of time of the inflation and the storage of goods, the level of respect for food and food. To reach the price of this type of methodology:
• obmezhennya pitit sub'єktіv gospodaryuvannya;
• change of groshovo masi;
• liberalization of foreign exchange operations;
• Provision of internal conversion of national currency and that.
Popit population obmezhuyut through liberalization price. Підвищення цін зbalansovuє drank and proposition. It’s okay for the government grants to be changed before the establishment of the highest loan rates, the refund of interest rates for loans, as well as the possibility of increasing the rate of inflation. Zmenshiti will drink sub-grants for state grants, it is also possible for lower budget wattages for small businesses, subsidized grants, grants, financial support for capital budgets, and changes in the state budget.
We are important for the official to stabilize internal conversion of national currency, who will be able to buy and sell foreign currency for legal and physical reasons; at tsomu, at random, rozrahunki in foreign currencies will be reserved in half an hour of the official state operations near the country. Internal conversion of nationality to one groshov single, on the other hand to learn from the land of foreign investment.
The policy of stability , the elements of accommodation are comprehensively and synchronously with the protection of the situation in the economy, I called the "shock therapy"
The most important policy of stability was observed at the Polish, Czech and Collegiate Yugoslavia. The main elements were:
• liberalization price;
• shortfalls in budget deficit due to credit from non-bank credit (credit to commercial banks, a reissue of powerful sovereign folders);
• pay for loans;
• Provision of internal conversion of national currency;
• Streaming revenue.
Zdіysnennya "shock therapy" superconducting due to the decline in virobility, lower living conditions of the population, unemployment. In the meantime, in these countries, you must be able to stand up for the economic and social benefits.
It is economical crisis that makes a penny-credit crisis. There you go, think about the trading, bring the exchange rate to the lowest level, and you will see the difference between the countries. To this country, periodically, we ’ll introduce penny reforms — as often as possible, reimplementation of the penniless system through the method of stabilization of pennies and pennies. Groshіy reform zdіysnyuyutsya with the help of different methods fall in place of the economical and political establishment of the country and the stage of znetsennenny pennies.
Rosrіznyayut so groshі reform:
• Creation of a new penny system (transfer of bіmetalіzmu to monometalіzmu and unreasonable credit pennies);
• frequent reimplementation of the penny system (see the order of emisi, the scale of prices, name the pennies, the types of pennies, the organs to regulate the pennies);
• stabilization of a penny by using the stream of inflation. Groshovі reform zbіgalsya with methods of stable currency -
nullification, devaluation, revaluation - and they superconducted up to the golden standard.
Nulіfіkatsіya - the whole country is rewarded with the power of one of the most valuable papermoney pennies (held at times of strong inflation).
By using the most stable method of stable currencies є devaluation - lower the exchange rate of the national currency for foreign currencies and international rooted coins. So, at Nіmechchinі pislya Pershіvі svіtovoj vіyni (1924 p.), The exchange from health is one at a time a new brand for one trillion old.
As a rule, inflation in one country is developing at a faster pace, lower at a slower pace, and then victorious revaluation is an increase in the rate of the national currency in foreign currency.
Pislya Persona Svitovogo Vіyni Masovі Groshovі Reforms Zdіsnyuvalisya Mayde in Usih Europe countries: 1922 - at Shvetsii, 1924 - at Russia (denomination 1: 100), 1930 p. - in Japan. Zdebilshogo tsuli devaluation and the exchange of old pennies at a new low rate, close to zero (in Nimetchinі, Austria, Ugorschin, Poland). Forward to the last penny of reform, it was blamed for the help of the other "stable" positions, the United States, Great Britain and France. In the last hour of economic crisis of 1929–1933, the yak was superconducted by penny-credit and currency crises, as a result of penny reforms, the system of the gold standard was blotted out by the system of non-reputable credit pennies.
After the other svitovo vіyni of the country, they took to their fate, they suffered a blow. Naymershomu’s campsites have fallen back on Nіmechchina and Japan.
In Japan, inflation in 1945-1950 pp. became 7000%. The main officials, who shouted such an inflation, were the recession of the virology and the supreme proposition of pennies. Independently, by the squad of their goiters-yazan (crime of sovereign actions), the majestic budget deficit was triggered by the fact that it was shunned by issues of sovereign regional loans and loans to the Bank of Japan. Promotional pennies about pennies favored inflation. The stabilization policy was gradually graduated:
• 1946 p. - the unit will freeze bank deposits, send a new deposit for power and a new system of financial prices; such a way of inflating bulo is reduced in vdvich;
• 1947 p. - the unit will eat virobnitstvo;
• 1948 p. - re-reading fіksovanih price. Letting you know that I’m having to shave between fixed and fixed prices and reduced inflation;
• 1949 p. - speedy subsidy; rigorous control of a groshoy masa; єDinium exchange rate of currency. The structure of prices was determined by the community;
• 1952 p. - vіdmova vіd control of prices.
In order to regulate groshy flows through the cordon, the Budget system of foreign currency was set up, the law on foreign investment was adopted, which was until 1980 p.
In Niemechchin, the break in wines caused the economy and penny-credit system to collapse. At 1948 p. a separate reform of Groshov’s reform was carried out - a new brand was promoted. The leather giant Mig replace 60 old stamps for 60 new ones, and Reshut - 10–1 for special brands. Behind such claims, contributions from credit institutions were revalued. Immediately from the VIP new groshinovy odinitsy bulo packed obmezhennya p_dvishchuvati prices for the most goods. All the more strongly aggravated the inflation. 28 spring 1949 p. the brand was devalued, the rate is 33.3 marks for 1 dollar. down to 4.2. Tse bula єdina ofitsіyna devaluation of the brand.
1. Understanding the penny system.
2. The elements of a penny system.
3. Rіznodyi bіmetalіzmu.
4. Tipi penny systems. What stink to lie down?
5. Spread the mind of penny reforms.
6. See the penny reforms.
7. Come in with a penny reform.
8. Goods, such as among the peoples of Russia, functioned for pennies.
9. Touch for the gold of gold.
10. Form a pile of gold.
11. Zmіni, yakі vіdbulissya on the 70s gold market - on the cob of the 80s rock.
12. The level of gold market.
13. The species of the land, bound with gold.
Test for self-control
1. Razrіznyayut such tipi penny system:
a) gold and silver standard;
b) national groshny signs, foreign currency, records on bank rachunks;
c) coins and paparovі pennies;
d) the system of metal pennies and credit and paper pennies.
2. The elements of a penny system are:
a) the formation of penniless organizations;
b) groshova odinitsya;
d) the scale of price;
e) see penny signs;
e) emіsіyna system; є) treasury;
g) central banks;
h) the state apparatus, which is a kind of regulation of penniless obigu.
3. Fall as you see, see and see the penny reforms:
a) the reason for the reign of his penniless power system;
b) the creation of a new penny system with a link with the transition to the present type of pennies;
c) a chastkova zmіna groshovoї system with a method in the order of penny obigu;
d) a healthy entrance to a stable penny with a stream of inflation;
d) usі vіdpovіdі correct_.
4. The mind of successful implementation of penny reforms є:
a) zbіlshennya virobnitstva і commodity exchange;
b) liquidation of the deficit of the sovereign budget;
c) the change of groshovo masi in obigu;
d) liquidation to the balance of payments;
d) usі vіdpovіdі correct;
e) correct vіdpovіdі a), b), d).