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|home Banking Books Penny-credit systems and foreign countries - Ivanov V.M.|
Penny-credit systems and foreign countries - Ivanov V.M.
International Currency Exchange є Nevidnym my warehouse economy. Foreign exchange - the whole range of suspension of deposits, which is stored at the expense of the functions of the pennies at the international competition, as well as the servicing of the mutual exchange by the results of the duty. The functional functions and the development of services for servicing the complex of economic sounds, which can be stored between the okrugs of the country, legal entities and private individuals. Idea about servicing foreign trade, providing capital, giving a pose and credit, science and technology exchange, development of tourism and tourism.
The functional structures of currency currencies are incorporated in historically specific currency systems. They look like a form of legal and institutional organization of foreign exchange transactions. Viriznyayut national and foreign currency systems.
The national monetary system - the whole part of the system of pennile vidnosin okremich powers. її funktsіonuvannya regulyuєtsya (s urahuvannyam standards mіzhnarodnogo right) natsіonalnim zakonodavstvom Kraina on osnovі yakogo viznachaєtsya mіzhnarodny status natsіonalnoї currency - groshovoї odinitsі Kraina, vstanovlyuyutsya mehanіzm vzaєmodії natsіonalnih i svіtovih pennies sposіb їh konvertovanostі, kotiruvannya th regulyuvannya Monetary kursіv, formuvannya th vikoristannya mіzhnarodnoї lіkvіdnostі gold and foreign exchange reserves, credit resources, the formation and organization of international razrahunkіv in total. To the warehouse of national currency systems, enter into specialized infrastructural lanka - establish bank and credit and financial establishments, exchange, special organizations of foreign exchange control, and other state and private interstate institutes.
In the process of attenuation of the international pratus and economic zvazyazkv v_dbuvaєsya in addition to the integration of systems of national pennies and currency vidnosin. Functionality between them is known in advance.
Svitova currency system є functional form of organization of foreign currency transactions on the regional average bonds. розї debit is regulated by the secondary intermediate currency pleasures, and by the way, those who want to be protected should be protected by the collective monetary and financial establishments and bank establishments and organizations. Warehouses of the currency exchange system :
• international liquidity resources (foreign currency, gold and foreign payments);
• mechanism of regulation of currency parities and rates;
• international currency markets and gold markets;
• the system of international credit and middle-level credit institutions;
• vіdpovіdnі іninfrastructuralі lanko skinny.
The Svitova currency system in the evolution of European evolution passed the three main stages - gold, gold and foreign currency (dolar) and paper currency exchange standards.
The system of the gold standard was formed on the cob of the XIX century. і funktsionovalu until the 20-30-ies of the XX century. її with the main signs of the boulevard of the function of gold, such as new pennies, the exchange of gold in national currencies, the uninterrupted conversion of gold, the manifestation on the basis of the fixed exchange rates.
In the period of the gold standard, gold was overpriced in the case of the big-eyed carb coins not outnumbered by the old market, and the first one with the most interesting green grins - on the internal market. All the same, the actual value of the national penny and currency systems. Іх відмінність fell into the fact that gold on the private market was outdated by the overpayment for payment.
The exchange rate of national papermoney pennies was defrauded for the rivals of golden gold (scale), which was established by the state. So, as a rule, the American dollar has replaced 1/20 oz of gold, and the British pound sterling is 1/4 oz, then the exchange rate has become 1: 5 (1/4: 1/20 = 5). One pound sterling exchanged for $ 5.
Borders that have reached the gold standard, are guilty of saving security for obvious reserves of gold and small pennies for sale, as well as for the export of gold and export. For additional gold migrations, the balance of payable balances was shipped passively, and the stability of currency currency losses was secured.
The system of the gold standard had an important role to play in developing international trade loans, international legalization. She wondered about the ignorance of the old pennies, their conversion, the stability of the purchasing power of the currency exchange rates, and the automatic (due to the migration of gold) the higher balance of the state powers.
The water-hour system of the standard gold bull is occupied by a hard drive, it is not elastic enough, the road has lain in a vidobutk of monetary gold. Having found the most nonsense at that, think of the functionality of the gold standard, they completely separated the power of the imperial powers from the immense currency-penniless policy. I explained the following type of reaction, which is an immediate reaction to the increase in the number of papermaker’s taxes and national gross pennies from gold for cordon and gold reserves. In addition, the possibilities of the sovereign hand were confined to the sphere of penniless and foreign exchange loans, their regular regulation, and vikoristannya at specific lines of economic policy.
Let me take a look at the meaning of the exchange of the first Persian Light Standard, the gold standard is replaced by the gold and foreign currency (gold and gold). Yogo sluggishness was believed in the fact that the order of the gold function of the international payment interests took on the deeds of the currency of the country. Institutionally, the system of the gold standard for the standard of the pool is established by the decisions of the International Genoa Conference. Proteins of the Genesis ’’ ’’ ’оди ро шов шов май май май 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 їн їн їн їн їн їн їн їн їн їн їн
Shchob zrozumіti, like the gold standard for practical practice, let’s take a look, scho become, if the price of the pound sterling is restored, ponad 5 dollars per pound. Yakshko is an American importer of English fabric, schosh koshtu 100 m. Art., reckoned to pay off the goods for the dolars, then the cost is $ 500. Protein ортер importer є a little vibration, a kind of transfer є buying gold, which can change vitrati. Instead of paying for cloth for dolars, the American importer can exchange $ 500. for gold, transfer yogo to Great Britain and retransmit 100 p. Art. Overpayment of gold to the UK д the cheapest dot, docks wart_ pound sterling re-distribute $ 5 (From the results of small sums to pay vitrats, due to the transfer of gold).
Zbіlshennya pound pounds lead to the growth of foreign exchange reserves (gold) of the United Kingdom and the United States of America's equivalent value. Oscillations of gold at the volodin of foreign currency reserves (gold) are leading to the largest reserves of the grocery market, then the movement of gold from the USA to the United Kingdom is due to the United States of America. From now on, a lavish offer of pennies for the United Kingdom has a lower price for the country, and a lower proposition for pennies for the United States has a lower price. Zb_lshenny ryvnya price in the United Kingdom is torn apart from the ryvny price in the United States to match the znets pound sterling. Tsey process trivatime doti, doki wart_ pound does not turn to rivne, lower, lower 5 dollars. per pound.
The knowledge of the pound and the change of wartost to the level of less than $ 5, on the other hand, stimulate the movement of gold from Great Britain to the United States. Such is the movement of gold for a greater proposition of pennies in the United States and a smaller proposition of pennies in the United Kingdom, and a pound of appreciation of up to 5 dollars.
From now on, with the gold standard, lowering the exchange rate and lowering the exchange rate, bring them to force, and then turn it to parity.
The docs are subject to the rules of the gold standard and to guarantee the exchange of currencies for gold, even though the exchange rate is excessive. The prototype, as I see it in the appendix, adding to the gold standard meant that countries didn’t control the monetary policy more, the fragments of the proposition of pennies were marked by flows of gold between the countries. In addition, the monetary policy was significantly poured into the virobnitstvo and the new credentials of new gold families. If 70-80-ies of the XIX century. because of the lack of gold at a low level, then the proposition of pennies among the people was growing and didn’t overstep the last days of the economy. The result of the Bula deflation is that the price is lower. Gold crest in Alaska at Pivden America in 90s rocks of the 19th century There was a certain expansion of yy virobnitsvo, which, in his own house, magnified the bridal supply of pennies. Riven price right up to Persian Light.