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Penny-credit systems and foreign countries - Ivanov V.M.

5.3. Credit system

Lane of the largest banks in the United States of the 90s rocky in the table. 7.

Table 7

Naibilshi Banks USA

Bank

Assets, billion dollars

Asset usіkh commercial banks,%

Citicorp, New York

217

6.4

Bank America Corp., San Francisco

111

3.3

Chase Manhattan Corp., New York

98

2.9

JP Morgan & Co., New York

93

2.7

Security Pacific Corp., Los Angeles

85

2,5

Chemical Bank Corp., New York

73

2.2

NCNB Corp., Charlotte

65

1.9

Bankers Trust Corp., New York

64

1.9

Manufacturers Hanover, New York

62

1.8

Wells Fargo & Co., San Francisco

56

1.7

At once

924

27.3

At 1990 p. only one American Citicorp bank entering the top ten most profitable banks. In 1997 p. - There are also three banks: Chase Manhattan Corp. (capital - $ 22594 mln.) - a friend of the company, Citicorp ($ 212111 mln.) - the fourth of the bank, Bank America Corp. (17,293 million dollars.) - Сome home. Nine ponad of 100 American banks may be in vain, and their total assets should be reincarnated 500 billion dollars. (in 1960, ix of the Bulo was Vіsіm, and the total assets became 4 billion dollars).

Also, you can zoom in on the efficiency and functionality of the US economy and on the banking system. Between 1950-1970 the bankruptcy of bankruptcy became 75. For rocky crises 1980-1994 pp. 1617 banks and 1295 special FCI were banked. The Federal Reserve System is aimed at helping to develop and develop the banking system in the 90s (1995-1996 pp. - bank bank-bankrupt, and in 1996 - one bank).

Non-bank special FCIs play an important role in economical roles in direct delivery of insurance to prior identification (Fig. 9).

Institutional scheme for the sector of intermediated penniless market

Fig. 9. Institutional scheme for the sector of intermediated penniless market

At the sector of interim financing of a penny market, there are fewer sellers and pennies buyers to realize through financial intermediaries; You can smell it yourself visuimi vimogi and proposition, yak є self-contained objects (tools) penny market.

Significance of non-bank financial institutes in the field of financial processes of financial innovations. Zdіsnyuyuchi innovatsіі, FCI join (80-90-ies of the XX century) with direct competition with banks, more than give clients the same services, which cans. Rozglyanemo funktsiononuvannya major FCI USA.

Insurance companies specialize in selling insurance policies, in order to secure the payment of insurance sums at the time of death, and at the same time, to pay insurance through insurance (insurance companies), but without the need for insurance.

Insurance companies , such as banks, to function with the financial intermediary business, and I will rewrite one type of asset for suspension for suspension. Insurance companies; insurance; insurance for out-of-pocket insurance; in order to invest in such an asset, such as regional insurance, special offers, and the above position. Income vіd tsih assets vikoristovuyut for the payment of insurance vіdshkoduvan for policies. As a result, the insurance company will protect your clients with inexpensive insurance services and you can earn income from your own investment, so I won’t take a ride.

Insurance companies at the forensic company or other mutual companies. Vlasniki Aktsionernih companies є Aktsіoneri, and in return - vakникамиnikih insurance policyholders. On the cob of the 90s rock XX century. nalichuvalosya nearly 2 yew. a company with life insurance (founded in 1759 by the Presbyterian Ministers Fund in Philadelphia існує дотепер) i ponad 3 tys. company with insurance main (the most є State Farm insurance and Allstate insurance).

Pension funds can save money in the middle of redevelopment of assets and guaranteeing suspension. One more way to save money is to pay income for your pension. Retirement care systems can be set up for private, work hours, private individuals. The pension system takes care of cats for out-of-office and income-sharing investment accounts at the dostigrokov price lists (half of the assets become regional shares).

Naizhavlivshoy system of pension care є social care of the state - an insurance fund for the elderly, who have fear чно practically all of them, taken from the private sector (since 1935 p.). At 1974 p. Congress adopted the law on the guarantee of income in pracіnnikіv, so they went to retirement. In addition to the law, the Corporation for the Guarantee of Penny Benny is also authorized. Corporation "Penny Benny" insurance pension payments up to 2250 dollars. for a month, there is, for example, a pension system for companion companies in bankruptcy and a hereditary insurance system, but if you won’t be able to stay in full pension benefits.

Financial companies can buy money for an additional issue of commercial offers, but they have to buy and sell money for sale, please give me a great deal.

You can also see the following financial companies :

• Who should give posits to salespeople for buying goods from other traders who are working;

• scho to give poses for buying okremich goods (furniture, side-by-side technologies, repair of a vein, definansuvanny okremich borg_v);

• Who should give special forms of credit to firms, buying and selling debts (sums, debriefs) and lower ones (such form of credit should be called factoring).

Mutual funds є financial intermediaries, yak, shared resources of other investors and sales of shares, cash prices for the purchase of valuable folders. Mutual funds invested exclusively in sound deals, ale in the 90s of the 20th century. bagato from them felt special_alizuvatisya on borgovyh tools.

Mutual funds from the United States are divided into two types:

• funds with a type of credit - shares can be repaid at any hour for a price, which is available for the asset of the fund;

• funds of a closed type — fixed number of unbroken shares is sold at an open-ended position, and then they can be traded at an over-the-counter turnover with standard shares. The price of the share fund may not be lower (but better than the lower) for the active fund.

Federal credit establish in the USA in such areas:

• h metoyu pіdtrimannya zhitlovogo budіvnitstva zasnovano three uryadovі Install, SSMSC zabezpechuyut Costa rinok Zastavna through oblіgatsіy sales of vikoristannyam koshtіv to purchase Zastavna: Federal natsіonalnu іpotechnu asotsіatsіyu (Fannie Mac), Uryadovyi natsіonalnu asotsіatsіyu іpotechnogo loan (Ginnie Mac), the Federal kompanіyu іpotechnogo loan zhitlovogo buddy (Freddie Mac);

• the credit system of the state gratitude, which can be stored in banks for cooperatives, federal middle-sized credit banks and federal land banks, VIP loans, and most of them for positing farmers a pose;

• Student's social network posture (Sallie Mac) will provide you with health cats through your student poses and private financial institutes that guarantee student program poses.

The financial and credit institution is important in the US economy. Vidnosniy rozmir tsikh intermediary і value of іх assets і on kіnets 1970, 1980 і 1990 r. shown in table. 8 [70, p. 84].

Table 8

Assets of the main financial intermediaries

Financial intermediary

Vartіst assets in Kinets rock, billion dollars

1970 p. | 1980 p. | 1990 p.

Depositary Institute

Commercial banks

517

1357

3356

Sorry for the positivities

171

614

1098

Mutual Banks

79

170

264

Credit cards

18

67

215

Contracting Institutions

Company Life Insurance

201

464

1409

Company insurance insurance and extraordinary services

fifty

174

528

Pension funds (private)

112

470

1169

State Pension Fund

60

198

806

Investment intermediaries

Finance companies

64

202

574

Mutual funds

47

62

609

Penny funds of a penny market

0

76

499

Control food

1. The form of pennies in the United States.

2. Warehouse US groshovoy masi.

3. Federal reserve system.

4. The structure of the Fed.

5. The main importance of the control of the overwhelming mass of pennies in circulation and credit from the side of the Fed.

6. The main rice federal policy of the United States.

7. Basically dzherelo incomes of the state.

Testi Evil self-control

1. Groshovy obig from the United States in the XVIII century. Mav takі special features:

a) inflation dolar from 1701 - 1717 pp .;

b) dolar at the XVIII century Buv svitovoy reserve and rozrahunkovoy currency;

c) having served the English penny that was regulated by the legislation;

d) everything is wrong.

2. The federal reserve system in the United States has appeared to have taken over:

a) Federal Reserve Act of 1913;

b) the law of Aldrich-Riland 1908 p .;

c) the law of Woodrow Wilson, 1912;

d) the law of Leslie M. Show 1972;

e) correct є відповіді a), c).

3. The Federal Reserve System - to:

a) the Central Bank of the country;

b) the state organization, which is good health insurance bank deposits;

c) the local center of the country;

d) everything is correct.

4. Dolar yak groshova odinitsya appearing:

a) in 1792 p.;

b) in the years 1861-1865. (greenback);

c) at 1900 p. (gold standard);

d) in 1785 p.

5. Organizational structure of the Fed:

a) Parliament of the Federal Reserve, 10 Federal Reserve Banks and commercial banks;

b) Parliament of the Federal Reserve, 12 Federal Reserve Banks and commercial banks;

c) Council of the Federal Reserve, Federal Advisory Council, 12 Federal Reserve Banks and Commercial Banks;

d) Keru Federal Reserve Council, 12 Federal Reserve Banks and member banks, FOMC, Federal Advisory Council;

e) correct є відповіді c), d).

6. The official offer of commercial banks is introduced by law:

a) 1980 p .;

b) 1979 p. ("Freddy Mack");

c) 1960 p. (amendment 1966 p.);

d) 1963 p.;

e) correct є відповіді a), c).