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|home Political economy History of Economic Studies - Kornіychuk L.Ya.|
History of Economic Studies - Kornіychuk L.Ya.
Pіslya padіnnya Rome Іmpperії (V century) to be repaired so called Doba srednenovichchya, scho triva even until the XVII century. The economy of the Bula period is overwhelmingly agrarian; panuvalo is more natural than statehood. The poverty of the middle people is of little theological character. The economical thought didn’t dream of self-righteousness at the self. This process seemed to be deprived during the period of the middle age (XVI - XVII centuries). Those who can be discerned by how to manifest economically thought are dried up by the spirit of practicality. There are medium-sized tracts of a number of specific, gratifying, pleasing, practical recommendations, but there are few theoretical pragmatism and testing of economic processes and appearances. U Dobu is not worse than the early (V - X century), and the first navigate of the classic middle age (XI - XV century) so I didn’t show the old theoretical works from the economical food. The main necklaces of the economic thought of the Middle Aged suspension are the legal codex of the church memorial. The economical manifestations of the popular masses were fought in the open "Uresyach" and the economical vimogs of the peasant rebel.
The economic rice of the idea The descent in the middle of the world fell into the dark, which won the respect of the very problems themselves, of which, already in the old hours, in addition to the management of the national trade, the organization of the second handicraft industry. The great infusion on the development of the economic thought of Blizky immediately dealt with Islam. The creators of Muslim authors, secrets in pradesh of Ibn Khaldun, the most significant Arabic numerator of the middle age, often have such thoughts and thoughts, so you can go on and on.
Literature in Western Europe welcomes early Christianity in love with ideas about the equality of people before God, about praise of the future, and about the need to live; Pragnennya bagatstva become aware of a vice, which doesn’t pretend to be a righteous Christian. The community’s problems were identified in “Salichny Pravdy” (Salichniy Zakon) - a record of the long-standing sound right of the tribe of frank francs. The record was pulled from the order of King Khlodvig (481-511), and the zodov was supplemented by the offenders. At a new house there was a better way of frank at the period of the distribution of the family certificates and the main main problems. Mainov roscharuvannya deschovuyuschaya to re-educated people with power over the right volodyynnya and koristuvannya okremikh housekeeping. “ Salichnaia pravda ” to report on the progress of the winery of indivisibility and homeland moisture, reassignment of volodynnia to power. The Franks even delimited, having understood the ruined and the indestructible lane. Ruhome Mayna can be seen at the outpost and passed over to the closest relatives. Kradіzhki yogo were punished with fines. The slaves were respected by the lord of the pan, and for the slaughter of the slave by third-party people, they needed to repay the reward to the lord. Shchodo the indomitable lane, the number of indivisible indivisible rights to freedom was recognized, although the supremacy was awaited for the right to be enormous over the whole land of land. With the non-Western status of the Frankish Empire (Art. IX), “Salichna Pravda” has become practically meaningful.
The first memorial of the Western European economic thought of the early Middle Age “ Capitulary of the Valley ” (cob of the 9th century) of Charlemagne (of the sixteenth century - Ludovika the Pious) gives an indication of the organization and management. From “Capitularіm” all the land of the patrimony of the Bula at the power of the Volodars (patrimony), and the majority of the population became closed villagers. The mother of Mali also lived a “good Maystri”, who shook their hands on remix products. Thanksgiving is not of a very natural character, the king attributing the sale of surplus tolki surpluses, and those who didn’t play at the patrimony, steal the terms in kind and set up the products.
A rosette of economical thoughts of the classic middle age, as in the early period, having been presented with the magnificent flood of the Christian church. With the greatest authority of that hour, hanging a bagato of the most important economical ideas, Buv Thomas Aquinas (Aquinat) (1225/26 - 1274), a certain 1323 p. the canon is canonized, and the 18th p. the bulo is vandalized by the One True Philosophical Catholicism. The main creators of Fomi Akvinsky є "Suma Protect the Language" and "Suma theologii". In their eyes on the political and social structure of the rule of sin, having stepped up for the centralization of power and recognizing the social status, the frauds filed against the “like God in sight” camp. To the nature of the stand-up of the рхєрхрхі Акв вв вв вв вв вв ачв у у For some words, "one is guilty of breaking the word, the other is making life, and the part of the people, being a great kind of human grief, can dedicate to themselves the spiritual praise of salvation." I want to see the Christian doctrine of Thomas Aquinas respecting praci nevid'mimy obovyazkom viruyuschogo, very phisical, hard pratsya, at yogo thought, bull "slave employment." Private power is examined by looking at the necessary institute of human life.
Being a henchman of natural gratitude, a yak could have secured all the necessary products, Aquatine, prote, knowing it, it’s simply unfeasible to do without swap in bagatokh vipadakh. Tom win hanging his problems because of problems exchange, price, trade, profit, pennies and money. So, giving his praise to “fair value”. Obmіn, at the thought of Fomi Akvinsky, I’ve seen without deceit and poison the coriander. Mіzh seller and buyer mabuti "installed dominance scho-to rivality speeches." The price of the product is fair, as long as you have the right to spend on it. “Selling more expensive than kupuvati rich is cheaper, not so bad, by itself is unlawful and unjust.” Ale, on the other hand, is protected by the price of vipravdane, but such a price is not a sound deceit and a buyer can be matte to reproach. Tobto is fair price, since respecting Aquinat, you don’t need to sell more, but don’t sell it, so that you can recognize the seller for sale. At such a time, "it is permitted by right of sale to sell more expensively, lower Won Warta herself, although she won’t be guilty to sell more expensive, lower cost Vlasnikov." The order of understanding the “fair price” of Fomy Aquinasky is a small social compensation, the skin fragments are guilty of the offense for their product of steel, the need is needed, so that they can live in advance.
I have my eyes on trading and trading lodging. Thomas Aquinas vindicating having bargained with the seller’s possession of the trading profit for securing oneself and their own acquisitions for good deed. Righteous respect for the gain and the payment for the price, if the seller has paid for it, and for the transportation of goods. As a matter of fact, a little buve by a single method of merchanting, pragnuchi yogo hello, a merchant not having rowed as any kind of tricks, then such a mercenary indulged in a busy ganebny.
Rozmіrkovuyuchi about the grogginess of pennies, Thomas Aquinas got his hands on thoughts, what a stink winked in the house of people with people. Їх designation - take justice fair exchange. With the whole understanding of pennies that coin isn’t rozrіznyav. Knowing the need for pennies, I want to take trouble, I’ve looked at them and I’ve seen the world of war. “A coin,” wrote Aquinat, “is the world for material life in trade and circulation,” and the water hour is “good in robot”. Thomas Akvinsky view of the "internal value" and "nominal value" of pennies (coins). With respect, I’ll remain able to recognize the state and letting the insignificant insight into the “internal values”, by the way, take out the coins.
Foma Akvinsky succumbing to larchiness. On a little thought, tighten the percent, give a penny in a positok, would mean selling those who are not rightfully not. There is no dignity, and no dignity. Oskilki pennies are to blame for the fraud, "the first and foremost result of the pennies are the pennies of the poor in their living abo vitrati." Through it, it’s unfair, besides turning the pennies themselves, to deny the payment for their bribes. During the water hours, the Aquinat can wait for it, but you can see the percentage as a city for the loss of money and money, as well as your income and money, as well as those who are in good condition. Tim himself, Thomas Aquinas, having taken a compromise position not only on the supply of a trading profit, but on the percent.
The problems of pennies were blamed on “A treatise on the nature, nature of law and law and pennies of pennies,” written by the French disciples Nikolai Orem (Oresm) (bloc. 1323 - 1382). A novym has a little thought, which is penniless with a piece of tools, some people blamed for the easy exchange of goods. Gold and money became penniless beyond their natural powers. A stink of a stink of boolean with merchandise and a little more progressively scored roles of groshy metal. Nicola Orem , an adversary of the coin, oskilki won not є the king’s power, wants to take a portrait with him. Vin means scho zmіna wagi and value coins to charge for trading credit, znetsє reznі penny income. Ozhera, the merit of Orem є a test of discretion, is the essence and essence of pennies, the law of penniless pennies.
At the economic thought of the middle-aged Western Europe, they were also promptly flooded with similarly recognized relations. Єresі, as a rule, with a hitch, I will show opposition to the mood of the singing social faiths. Nezvazhayuchi on the Great rіznomanіtnіst єresey (valdensіv, apostolіkіv, katarіv, albіgoytsіv, lollardіv that іn.) That znachnі vіdmіnnostі mіzh them OOO All stink so chi so zavzhdi mali-feudal spryamovanіst, propovіduvali іdeї rіvnostі vsіh people Povernennya to printsipіv "єvangelskoї bіdnostі" rannohristiyanskogo fret succumbed to bagatism and the unavoidable power of the church is skinny. Dyakі єresі became ideological rebellion of the villagers and other lowlands, all the history of the middle ages was reconciled. The main economical vimogs got up, wait for the boulevards to turn to the community, to the social and main irregularities, private power, to turn over the buried communal lands, to save the panchins, dues, ten tins.
The history of the Ukrainian economic thought of the early and classic mid-ranks is called for by the Kievan Rus - the first power in the Ukrainian territory. Literary dzherelys, scho from them it is possible to come to know about the economical look of the good, the writing, the pleasing, the letter of the princes, the codex of the norms of the holy church law. By the commemorative memorial of social and economic and political literatures of the Kievan Rusi є “ Ruska Pravda ” - the law of the long-standing Rus law of the 11th – 12th centuries Vidom 106 lists of "Russian truth", which are stored in the XIII-XVIIІ Art. The article “Russian truth” viddivayut social structure of the vidnosini of the power of the long-ago Russo-dominance. They’re able to regulate the main economic interests, seize the right of power of the princes and the feudal nobility to land and land; the right to steal taxes, cancel rent; signify the decoupling of the main and special rights of the different categories of the feudally fallow population of that. They knew the image of the organization of the princes and boyars in the 11th century, which were primed on the basis of the first and second praxis. Before the speech, the remaining step-by-step acted productive prazіy people of the people of the fall and cr_pakіv. For the minds of closed natural statehood and the indiscriminate exchange of goods and pennies in Kiev, Russian boulevards are even more coddled, I want to understand the words “Russian truth”, I mean, I’m saying that I’m saying that the percentage is penny; percent itself; Dilyanu land and pozichku, such a purchase (stink, scho zb_dnіv і having beaten the enslavement to the borga until pan) I’ll wipe off the owner of the land-harasser. The words “goods”, “bargaining” (rinok), “guest” (the offer of bargaining) and the other economic terms are also trailing around. At the whole in "Russian truth" the singing world imagined all the basic processes of the economical and suspension life of the Old Russian Empire.
One of the top letters of the Dzherel for the achievement of the economic thought of the dobie of the Russian Rus є Literary Compilation "The History of the Temporary Lit " is a monumental historical document of the cob. I want to be at the center of creativity є nutrition of political history of Russia, economical and social processes and appearances, to be given important significance for explaining historical traditions. The “Povesti Vremennyh Lit” has a look at the dzherel of incomes of the Kiev state: income from statehood, Danina ’and zbori from the population, fines (court mito), trading mito о warna zdobich. Danina was picking groceries, even a grosche. Viplata of Danini Groshima spry rozvitkovі commodity virobnitstva and commodity-groshovyh vidnosin. The list also contains information about the active foreign trade calls of the Kiev Russia with the most powerful countries, the manifestation of the suspension of the rights of the people: the increase in the number of remittances and the development of small crafts. The writer of the shanobliv the shutter is not less than the rosum, but the first to the physical, the offense to the child and the other are equally important for the suspension, for the protection of the fuss and well-being.
From the memoirs of the long ago Russian literature, you can learn about them about the economical warehouse of suspension of life, you can also call Voluntimir Monomakh's “Reaching Children” (cob of the XII century). In order to take revenge on the most important of the gospodarsky people, keep it up and down the road, showing them one by one by the earthclasses and the fallow villagers, let us gladly share the social adolescents, since we can have a good time, and we have a lot of business.
Galicia-Volinsky Literature of the 13th century rozpovіdaє about the economic policy of the Galician and Volyn princes, who wanted to see the development of crafts, trades, jobs, asking for the whole remisnikov, trading people.
Pochinayuchi s XIII art. Kyivska, Chernigovo-Siverska, Pereyaslavska, Volinska, Galitska, Podilska lands, as well as Bukovina and Transcarpathia became the main territorial base, and Ukrainian people developed. Beyond the Middle Naddnipryanschyna, Kiev land earlier, lower beyond the last lands of Pivdenny Rus, the name “Ukraine” was closed, as it was known from the 17th century, it was considered to mean the territory of Ukraine. On the border of XIII - XIV century From the old Russian base, the Ukrainian mov is seen. The national documents of the XIV - XV centuries. (acquisitions and letters of honor, inventories, chandeliers to the skinny) images of the form of ownership of the property, the system of duties, the effect of trading, the loss of money, the provision of land for business,
З XIV Art. in Ukrainian lands, initiative is given to Magydurzke’s law - Moscow law, which wines at the 13th century. in the city of Magdeburzi (sound name). Behind him, the governors voted to the court of the Grand Dukes and Kings, because they gained the right to self-determination. Magdeburzze’s law established the order and functions of the Moscow self-determination, the court, the merchants, the shops, regulated the supply of trade, the opt-in and the silence, which signaled the prejudice for the revelation of the wickedness. 1339 p. Such a right was won by the Syank of the Galicia-Volinsky Principality, 1356 p. - Lviv, 1432 p. - Lutsk, 1494 p. - Kiev. Stretch XV - XVI Art. Magdeburzzke’s right has expanded to a greater extent in Ukrainian lands. Mista, who had tried to defend the irrevocable jurisdiction of the Polish King as the Grand Duke of Lithuania, did not pay for the land, and the citizens were blamed for the duties of the feudal lord. The citizens rallied more than the sovereign surrender to trade and employment. It’s stinky Mali, the right to vikoristovuvati for the consumption of a large amount of money, established by the government (magistrate), a donation of browns, malting, waxing up, mines, land prices, small valuables, and a lot of trade. However, for the sake of the flood of Polish feudal lords and Catholic churches in the Ukrainian lands, we will endeavor to nationally-discriminate against Ukrainian citizenship. As a result, we have fought for liquidation of marriage and for the unlimited participation of the Moscow samovryaduvannі.
At the 80th rock of the XVI century at the time of the struggle against Catholicism cynicism, this is the name of the polemic, as in the bagochno aspects, there are a lot of economic problems. For the full look, the important є create Ivan Vishensky (1545/50 - 20 rock of the 17th century), who was a bit naked on the problems of social rivality. Saying Vin, be it yakatism, so much the freedom of the clergy and yak stench “devour”, on the side of the “pracey i sweat” krіpakіv. І. Vishenskiy showing the main form, for the benefit of some of the most significant results of the pratsі peasants and remіsnikіv: panschinu, dues, taxes, trade and livvarskoe trip thinly. At first thought, at once with the zostrostnyam of bagatism and rozkoshіv panіv, gentry, merchants to settle for evil krіpakіv, bіdnyakіv. Win rosum, scho lane-social socialism of people is not like nature and not God, but a form of earthly injustice. У цілому полемічні твори справили величезний вплив на формування та розвиток самосвідомості українського народу, на розгортання національно-визвольної боротьби на чолі з Богданом Хмельницьким.
У найбільш закінченому вигляді економічну думку пізнього середньовіччя репрезентує меркантилізм.