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History of Economic Studies - Kornіychuk L.Ya.

1. The emergence of Marxist economic theory in the 40-50s pp. XIX century

Karl Heinrich Marx (1818-1883) was born in Tіrі as a lawyer. Pislya zakіnchenchennya gimnazії 1835 p. joining the University of Bonn, with the benefit of going to the Berlin University at the Faculty of Law, a kind of lawyer 1841 p., having rejected the teachings of the Doctor of Philosophy Sciences. At sichnі 1842 p. Marx was asked to Cologne to delineate the Rhine newspaper. The very same thing is to know Fredrikh Engels, who’s a whole year to look at Marx’s problems of social and economic development.

Frederick Engels (1820–1895) was born near Bremen as a manufacturer. Not ending gimnazії, 1838 p. win buv protests praciuvati in the Bremen Trade House, ale constantly engaged in self-awareness. Z 1839 p. yogo statistics about the problems of the robotic class, the Telegraph magazine.

Z 1841 p. Engels vidbuvav vіskovuyu service in Berlin and there, having joined until livogegelyantsov. However, already 1842 p. having broken with them respectful political scholarship, reform is not enough for the awakening of suspension, the social revolution is necessary. Win initiative is active literature at Reinsky Gazeta, although I already live at that time in Manchester and Pratsyu in the trading house of my father.

1843 p. Prussian detachment zakrivaє "Reinsky newspaper" and hung Marx from the country. Win a visit to Paris, one after another with Arnold Rugen's new magazine, The French-German Shchorichnik. St. Viishov’s lice has one Shchorichnik number (1844 p.). Nyu’s bulo has a glimpse of Marx and Engels on power, law, religion.

Water time Marx and Engels to take a fate from a robot revolution group in Paris. Parisian period vidigrav virshalnu role in the life of Marx and Engels, the stench became on the hats of professional revolution dyalnostі.

With the cut rice of the early science prax of Marx and Engels, the boulevard of magnetism will sooner come to new philosophical bachene from the social theory, to bring the necessary serpent of suspension fret. At the entry to “Criticism of Hegelian Philosophical Law”, Marx writes that theories need to be tempted by the need for new powers and that theories can be redirected to the grim power, as it’s only because of the Masami. Qia thesis became the original for further creative joke. Marx and Engels were put under the guise of a fellow for a meta to get the power of the revolution to look for the additional economical and theoretical achievement of laws of development of suspense.

It is economical and ideal in the early days of Marx and Engels. Wisnowski, in order to rob the author, one way or another is to bring the most economical development of capital suspension to the collapse, and the revolutionary re-creation є are necessary to accelerate this process.

The "German-French Shchorichnik" bulletin published the article by Engels, "Draw to criticism of the political economy" (1844); , incentives for private ownership.

Engels wrote that for the minds of the removal of private power, do not mess with the sense of the category “national economy” and “national economy”, because everything is suspended in the interests of the owner. The monopoly of private power є the cause of the crisis and the lack of protection, the protection of the government, the market in suspension. In the case of private ownership, the problem of super-transcendence will be resolved, mostly because of competitive competition and before competition.

At the right price, Engels took a look at the supply of private power, wartost, price, competition and monopoly of the birthplace, pay and pay. If you want to take a look at these economical categories, they haven’t been blown away by theoretical knowledge, but they won’t be different from the rest of the economy.

Pratsya Marx's “Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844 to Rock” did not appear before Druk, ale bula is an important stage in the formation of new economic glances. In Nіy Marx, having bent to the problem of vidnosin and prazeyu kapitalom, yaku recognizing the head in suspension vidnosiny. I have a context in which there is a rosy look, as I have accumulated a foreign stranger. Increase revenue, learn more about suspension, and exploit nature. Less pay is the result of the harness of a hired robotic worker, but the capital of capitalism is permanently changed, corroded by its monopoly on power, it’s possible to take advantage of the law.

The basis of the life of Marx’s suspension is ubacha in material virobility, the form of which is enlarged in the form of moisture. For capitalism - all the power to take care of virobnitz and working power. The development of private power in such a form leads to the death of the bane, and later, to the future peace.

In the “Economically Philosophical Manuscripts,” Marx Sturdzhu, scho dos polіtekonomіya, as a science captured the essence of the way, vidpovidala yogo needs. Ninі її subject to change the article vidnosini mіzh praceyu and capital.

Two praxis, written by Marx and Engels completely (1844–1846), demonstrate the view of economical laws and the prospect of developing capitalism. Tse "Holy Family" and "Nіmetska Ideology". Being philosophical by the day, I’m going to have a number of visnos and determinations of suspension I will arrange a pan form of moisture. Marx and Engels maintain, that capitalism itself has its own ruin in the particular proletariat, a great deal of power, a bourgeois sense of principle, and a strong commitment * 1, because the evolution of forms is called upon to develop the productive forces of suspension. Sounds of a witch’s gown, especially suspension of power, leads to a faster progression of productive forces, as well as to the formwork of the most virulent vidnosin, so you can wait a little more time. Super-emphasis between development and dzherelom rukh suspension: if you stink to reach the apogee, then you can get the most of the revolution of the rebuilding of suspension.

* 1: {Marx K., Engels F. - Create. - T. 2. - S. 27.}

The essence of the stink of power is to recognize the dictatorship of an economically class class, and the categories of profit, rent, and percentage should be called for by private ownership. The dictatorship of the proletariat, which is to privately possess power, to give them a little thought, is to protect the suspension of a new type, but in the future, you will need to take care of your needs, and power will become suspended. At that time, Marx and Engels did not recognize the reforms of the gentry in the transition to communist slurry, but they upraised such a transition through the proletarian revolution.

1845 p. Engels publishes his praci "The Beginning of the Robotic Class in England". I’ve seen a vision of the development of capitalism, showing that I’m more likely to be kind to tooth class, so that we’ll be able to deal with it.

Two praxis of Karl Marx “Evil Philosophy” (1847 p.) And “Naiman pratsi i kapital” (1849 p.) Boulevard with their first crochet to the hat to create a solid economic doctrine. It’s stinky to talk about those who look at me more and more.

Pitonya, on yaki get hold of the date of Marx, polemic with Proudhon's Philosophical Evils, to tackle the problems of the possible thoroughly capitalistic suspension. Analyze the category of virology - income, pay, rent, win, pay attention to the economical manifestation of the form of moisture, and equal development of suspension. Їx is not possible to completely remove, chi vіdmіniti.

The essence of economic vidnosin in capitalist suspension is natural, the essence of capital, at first thought, is understood by the understanding of vartosti. From the point of view, beyond Marx, it is possible to explain all the economical manifestations, the most advanced business experience. Vin rozkriva the essence of capital gain and yogo supply, earning pay as much as the minimum amount of labor, in return for the elimination of the genetic clue of pennies that product criticized nominee theory. Marx has come to the point of competition and to bring, in its form, monopoly.

“Naimana pracja ta kapital” has become a further development of economic ideas, foreclosure at the forefront. With all of Marx’s creative work, turning to the problem of paying wages and salaries, getting money to pay money to the place of the robotic class, adding money to the law, the laws are broken. Winner is a better indicator of the level of exploitation, that is, pay the paycheck, analyze the money you need to pay the paycheck, let me know that I have to pay for it You will be able to drink that proposition.

The early praxis of Marx are not only small, socialist, but also the revolutionary, the idea, the water clock, and the first attempts to systematize economic theory.

He is especially special in the theoretical decline in the loan period “Manifest of the Communist Party” (1848). The most systematic cycle of a special class calendar. At "Manifesty" the characteristic of capitalism is presented, the role of historical and progressive role is marked out, the open super-emphasis. Polytechnical aspect of the creation of the pole in the perspective of capitalistic and first transformation into communalism. Zokrema, the characteristic of the class structure of pre-capitalist formations, the stage of development of capitalism, was shown, it was shown that the capitalist virology of the business was driven by the progress of productive forces, and then they began to lose their strength.

The "Manіfestі" okresleno takozh golovnі RISS Economy maybutnogo komunіstichnogo suspіlstva, pobudovanogo on suspіlnіy vlasnostі, she Roads Ahead Yogo Embrace: eksproprіatsіya zemelnoї vlasnostі, a temple Progressive podatok, Derzhavna tsentralіzatsіya loan that transport zbіlshennya State vlasnostі that її vdoskonalennya through tsentralіzovane planuvannya, obov'yazkovіst pracі for all, the end of the earthquake with the promises, the liquidation of the middle between the village and the village, the shout of children for a rash of suspense. Before the proletariat is placed the order of the conquest of political power, like the first crook to the downfall of the power of the bourgeois and private property.

Ideas, found in the early praxis of Marx and Engels, demanded a theoretical primer і from 1850 p. for the direct affair of Engels and for the yoy material pridtrimki (Engels appeared to finish off with a good pidprimtsem) Marx rozpochinaє robot for the creation of a fundamental economical meeting.

Pratsyuyuchi over posed problems, Marx pidgotuvav so ranks chornovy manuscript. Zgodom vіn pіdkreslyuv, scho wrote your manuscript not for publication, but with the help of a systematic systematic statement about the Maybut theoretical system.

Proteus “The Chorny Manuscript of 1857-1858 Rock” will be completed by the completion of the work, the fragments of the past are already in the principles of principle, which Marx had cherished in his offensive approach: the form of the subject, the method of abstract communication, the initial presentation of the video that specific, historical and logical in the economical. You praised the need for a systematic analysis of problems, ale Marx points out that nutrition, that is, buty can be achieved, so that you can easily make an economic and theoretical picture of suspension life.

Prior to this, there’s an abstract representation of an ignorant character, categories that characterize capitalism: capital, Naiman prac, land tenure, class, credit, offense. Winnings cannot be ignored by the problems of national economies, to save money, and to restore them by analyzing the populations, classes, natural resources, viola gnuses, open trade. Here you can compete with the influx of a historical and historical school, which is more important, and with the national characteristics of suspension.

Twir bulo is devoted to two main problems - the last day of pennies and capital. Marx z'yasova’s genetic nature is similar to pennies ’and є дж єєєєоєо су су су су су су су су су роз роз роз роз роз роз розк розккккккккккриририририририририририририкккккккк розкover роз роз через через через через через через через через через через через через через через через через через через через через через через через через через через через через через через через черезVIEW through the analysis of commodity and virobnitst товару goods), which prohibits the idea of ​​Proudhon stupidly“ thoroughly ”by the way.

The main part of the manuscript is the understanding of understanding capital. The Marx tract is penniless in the form of rukh kapitalu, and the new war is in the form of a change of mind. Here proanalіzovano categories dodatkovoї vartostі, її Masi is the norm, ekspluatatsії naymanoї pratsі, robochoї Sealy (pratsezdatnostі) obіgu kapіtalu, Pochatkova nagromadzhennya kapіtalu. The analysis of this category is lost on the basis of the historical method of restoration and repair of the previous forms of formal formations.

In the irrigated rice in the manuscript, the process of the virology of the Dodatian vartosti, absolute and vidnos form. For the sake of the category of Marx, the sound of the nature of permanent and permanent capital, the main and reverse capital is visible. Marx analizuє also the process of rebuilding the Dodatka Wartosti to the side and the assertion of the average norms to the side.

Pratsuyuchi over the manuscript, Marx sklav plan of offensive theoretical-pre-dlіdnitsky robots. The main idea of ​​the whole plan was laid down in the dark, so that I could increase the theory of capitality and a detailed analysis of the pre-dictum wartosti, expand all the economies, bring in the capital, and also change the function.

Having stepped up to the prince over an economical creature, having appeared before the vision, Marx is already 1859 p. having let out two hands of the first book with the title title “Before criticism of the political economy”. The first one of them - “Goods” - was awarded theories of labor wartosti. Nyu’s critically analyzed look at the problem of successors: Pettі, Smіta, Rіkardo tіnshikh. Another “Gro-shi, but simply simple obig” has a look at food, which’s bulo has been recovered from black manuscripts. Here, too, suttva respect comes from the critics of the theory of “working pennies” of Proudhon, but the positive part of it is spelled out and updated by the analysis of the functions of pennies in the name of the sutty. Pіznіche, with Kapitali, a problem, Marx significantly speeding up the completion of the most important material, which at the name of the publication is actually okremim fundamental fundamentals.

After a short break, Marx must turn again to his own honor (1861 p.) And 1863 p. finished the manuscript “Before criticism of the political economy”, by the way, by the day, as well as with another handwritten version of “Kapitalu”. The people, besides the fact that they’ve already looked at food, have seen the theory of development, having redirected the profit to the middle profit, the cost - to the price of the property, absolutely rented out has been analyzed. Zmist Maybutnogo, the fourth volume of “Kapital” - “Theory of the Pre-Duchy’s Wartosti” - even later the Bulo is contained in the whole manuscript.

The third manuscript option “Kapitalu” (1864–1865) was designated for publication, and the material from this Bulo was submitted to a more systematic view. Zmіstom yogo becoming a theoretical theoretical analysis of capitalistic virology.