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History of Economic Studies - Kornіychuk L.Ya.

3. The formation of neoclassical traditions. Cambridge school

In the 90s of the XIX century art. in England, the Cambridge Economic School was formally called sovereign, such as the fellow-in-laws of the kind, to finish the house of the economist of the past and the cob of the present table Alfred Marshall (1842-1924). The school didn’t act out of tune with the economical thought, and I started to write a new direct message in the economic theory, so the titles were neoclassical. The best of A. Marshall’s merits in the economy at sunset and the future of the Copernicus in astronomy.

In his native countries, especially in the book “ Principles of Political Economy ” (1890), he wanted to win a different concept of economics, having developed a theory of economics. The most important merit was the development of synthetic theories, the one that got the elements of labor theory and the theory of boundary corridor, which made the science more fully understood. A. Marshall of the collections of superecordial theory of boundary corinosity and theoretical factors of virology and concentrating the main respect on the theory of value. The main theoretical nadbanny vitrimali іspit hour and corridor of popularity and dotper.

A. Marshall (next to Jevons), having understood the vice of the concept of “political economy”, understood the concept of economy and giving full recognition of the science: political economy, but the economy, is the whole of science; there’s a view of that part of the indivisible abo suspension, the kotra “yaknaitysnishe zv'yazan z dribannyam i zhivanennym material attributes of good” * 2. All the suttural recognition was seen quietly, they were given by his successors, as if they divided the subject of political and economic loss about science and technology. Marshall, as if bachimo, to go to the interpretation of the subject is wider. “From one side,” meaning vin, “all the science of bugging, ale of the past, all the science of ludina, like vidchuv’s own factors;” economically, then you won’t appear to be overreacting with motives, like to absorb ... on the behavior of people in the economy of life ”* 3.

* 2: {Marshall A. Principles of Economies. - L., 1920. - P.1.}

* 3: {Ibid., P.14.}

At the Marshall Center for Science and Technology - there’s a price for the product, as long as you look at the most important element of the market economy. The essence of the theory of value is synthetic in synthesized two-group factor factors, which can be added to the market value. From one side, є price You’ll be able to get a good drink for a product, which means that it’s a cinnamon product. The group of factors is in the market. З іншого - є the price of the offer, in order to lay down the virat vitro viola, because it is connected with the viro vii process. The middle price (vartіst) Marshall tract є as a result of the approval, if you take advantage of the market price and position.

A. Marshall, the boulevard of reconstructions, which is the theory of value is fixed on the basis of the factors, the factor, the value, the value. Winning declaring that the fragments of the price are stored in full with food and drinks, I will have to have my servants, I will need vio-summed factors, I’m going to have to keep up with them. I wondered why I would like to eat, so I would like to offer you the same price for understanding competitive competition. The merit of A. Marshall Polyagus is also untouchable, though, having recognized the mind, you need to translate the food into price. At one with a boundary price, a hundred prices were paid, for the yaku bulo the rest of the purchases were added.

Analyze the factors that you need to absorb the consumption of goods on the market by the amount, introduce the main law of food, becoming a textbook: “sell more goods, you need to sell them, you need less money, you need to buy goods; but, in fact, seemingly, in need of goods, there are goods with lower prices and lower prices ”* 4. A. Marshall is one of the first zvazyazav іz with the price of goods elastichnіst eat for nyogo. Win a glimpse of diagrams, in order to show the quality of the product for goods with a lower degree of elasticity: low to high.

* 4: {Ibid., P.99.}

At the context of the present price and corruption, I need to understand the surplus, I’ll give a rose to the amount I owe, I owe you money (5). The author understood that with such butts, such as syllables, syringes and comrades, the price of which, soundly, nizcha for that, people paid for the first time.

* 5: {Marshall A. Op. cit., p. 124.}

Factors of virobnitstva, to the Marshall’s thought, are land, praxis, capital and organisation's health — to recognize the value of the proposition. The visibility of the singing difficulties is in the form of the price of the offer on the deed of comrade and factor, as well as the sound of the so-called fixed proposition. So, the earth is one of the factors, the proposition is fictitious, and the control is in the mind of Marshall, the people are not in the cold. Ale element hour, vvazhaє vin, additional help explain vіdmіnnostі mіzh fіksovannoy and elastichnym propositions.

Rinok Marshall, having looked at the institution of organization as a whole, de-drinks and offers and establishes value. At the market in the course of the hour, the exchange of goods with the offer will be sold at the same time. Marshall is a victorista rinok kukrudzi for the purpose of saying that buyers and sellers can bargain and price can be "toss tudi-shudi yak shuttlecock". Yakshcho drinks that proposition approximately the same, one price rises, yakshcho rіznі - іnsha. At any time you can quickly and quickly drink and offer for a given market for one day.

A. Marshall rose three days at one o'clock. By stretching the short period of the offer to the goods, they will share the stock. The price is to become a reserve and not to replace the total liability.

With the stretch of the trivial prom_zhkіv hour of the offer, we’ll deposit the required amount of goods. In the process of virology, we can increase the effectiveness of the first factor factors. At the time of three hours of clockwork, there’s an opportunity to pay for the preparation of work and the availability of goods that are necessary for a complete product. ” So I can bring in the snakes from Vitrati at all stages of the virobnitz. From now on, what’s the shortest period, more time to drink for food, and more - for more time for the product’s value for product.

Dalі the author to be kind enough to see the law of substitution, like a pole in the same, so please wait, if you can, remember the expensive factor and method of cheap. To the world of the possible substitute factor of the significant elastichnost. Marshall is important, but the law can be secured even in all areas of the economy. At the expense of the opportunity to establish the right position for the macroeconomic basis of dalnosti hairline chi kapitalu order.

A. Marshall also had allowances, who wanted to eat and offer a whole lot of money and not to go to the side of the sellers, not to the side of the buyers of several old special houses; Both sides appreciate the price of good, the price of the price and the value of the return. Vin zvertaє respect for the deposits price of the frontal vitrates from the side of the proposal and the frontal corinosity of the side; Vitrati on virobnitstvo border single products _ i vitorg vіd yogo sale will be the same.

The order of the theoretical value of A. Marshall’s sutta value is given to the theoretical distribution. The main moments: leather and factor factors - land, praxis, capital and investment, and so on - as well as promotion and distribution. Victory factors can be seen as mind-numbing minds, often because they are skinned until they are limited by productivity when they become more and more open-minded. The skin factor of virobnitstva will be appreciated, as it is established by the boundary productiveness, and, from the side, the value of the proposition, it is established by the boundary vitrates on it.

The salary is paid up to the salary, the interest on the capital and the rent - to the land are recognized in this way. The adjective, prote, is not possible to analyze so unambiguously, as in returning the input of the most important factors. Vin zmіnyuєt zі zmіnoyu price, і yogo rozmіr appear to be bugging reasons, the middle of which does not have to remain a little to establish the "natural powers" of the administrator of the agent of business. The gain is not тов guaranteed income pіdpriєmtsya.

Capital is invested in business overwhelmingly with the “prospect play” method, as I will appreciate the contributor until the last repair. Contributors may bachiti ymovіrnіst a little bit of such a contribution, don’t go to the pre-string scale. Neobkhіdnі abo minor incomes, beyond Marshall, enter before the vitrates of the virology, as well as clean benefits, too much for them.

A. Marshall, pointing to those land, land, capital as a factor of virobnitsyu vykonuyut sub-function. Stink rival, and upgrade one one; for an hour it’s stinky to become supernaturals at zanyanosti’s pranks; Overseas national income - the result of all the factors and the growth of the factors of the proposition. Factors of virology (including praciu) correlate with the correctness of virology, as it is shown in the proposition. The price for food is limited by productivity. For clarification, the form of the Vartost theory has been fragmented to become a cantor before the be- ing factor of virology. In this way, the theory of the development of additional theory of the theory of war. With the rush of power of the economy, Marshall has respected freedom and competition. Great value vin pushing takozhe pennies.

An important official is the organization of effective management of the economy, behind Marshall, є human capital. Marshall got his hands on thoughts, which are good people є so very important, as if you were picking up a viola, as well as being a kind of capital. The life of living, preparation, training for health and capital gave yogo smogu a new way to improve the dynamics of capital, which was based on underestimated declining boundary productivity of capital. The final result, according to Marshall’s thought, is to lie down in the way of knowing knowledge. Yakshcho kapital to potter to hands of bewildered people, then stink to multiply yogo, yakshcho nі - stink of yogi to know.

Otzhe, Marshall differentiated by going to the analysis of the dynamics of capital. Decline in marginal productivity of capital in sound, improved form and performance, which tend to be quiet in galleys and types of virodity, a natural factor plays a big role. In technologically folding galleys of trial production, in which the role of vidigra lyudina, the law of growth of capital is significant.

Tsey principle, secrecy, visnacha є reznitsyu mіzh great і malim bіznesom. Small business people want to save on the price of a close proximity to the market, a small accounting staff, deputy chief employees, and a full-time employee. Great pidprіmtsі, from his cherkom, toggle overruns far beyond the scope of virobnitsva, special_pracial praise. At the whole, to rob the marshall’s gowns, at the same time overtake even the most important.

Analogous pidkhid zososovuyutsya shchodo vikoristannya knowledge (інnovatsій). The main function of the business process is to take care of the Marshall - to take comfort in the great principle of the great principle of replacement.

Contributed by A. Marshall in the development of economic theory of justice. One book, The Principles of Political Economy, was one of the most significant works of economic theory for the remaining one hundred, and I justly respect the classic.

Arthur Pigu (1877-1959) - Representative of the Cambridge Economic School, one of the post-graduate students of A. Marshall. A. Pigu is the author of the concept of the economy of Dobrobutu. Yogo conception of rozglyadє sotsіalny dobrobut as a bag of goodness okremikh іndivіdіv. The basis of social goodness is economic goodness, which can be interpreted as being satisfied, which can be violated in a penny equivalent. I’ve been developing my idea, Pigu Sturdzhuvav, because of the “economic” reasons to do it for an economical goodness of a not-be-krai country, not directly, but through a well-established virgin country of an efficient, supplementary, good-natured income. National income, so it is an economical kind of good, є part of the ignoble kind of good, who rightly is tied to being tied to penniless bells, and є such part of profitable income, which means penniless.

The book “The Economic Theory of Dobrobutu” (1924) Pigu rozvinuv principle of “the best good for the best people”. You can reach a good level of income with a better distribution of income, although you can negatively put in a premium capital and a viral energy supply.

On a regular basis, based on the principle of decline in corroboration (such as expanding to the dynamics of income), then behind it the amount of satisfaction is higher, the needs of the population is higher, the lower is lower, the rate is more active halfway. Winning down the need for a progressive tax system, yak transfer, lower transfer rates are proportional to the increase in income, as well as a significant increase in income tax. Vin having analyzed the form of the sovereign hand in the economy: it is straightforward and mediated. Persha transferring sovereign control over prices and liabilities to the latest products, the other - vicarious income and subsidy yak tools for regulation of the economy. I wondered why I won’t think that there is a lot of competition for sufficient methods, and because of the stronger monopoly in the economic life of the winery, there is a need for direct involvement of the state.

I mean respect for having come to the problems of the busy population, for the sake of sounding with regular pay and a real drink for pratsyu. As long as the nominal salary is higher, lower prices are lower, then the salary is real, which leads to better food and drink. Universality of the whole world is occupied either, as a signatory to Pigu, the national income is an overwhelming oversight of goods and services, which can be used in a long stretch of life, as long as you can have a good time for them

Ralph George Houtry (1879-1975), an English economist, a representative of the Cambridge school, the theoretical development of such a distant school was not only the scandal of science, but the practical restraint. There are more widespread problems to be achieved with them - international trade and work and business; tariffs and subsides; penny that is economical Vlad. Naibіlsh vіdomі yogo pratsі "Good foul trash" (1913), "Capital and borrow" (1937). Having examined the economic dyalnost at the same time, I’ve got a mutual understanding of politics and ethics, the rule of the state, and psychology. It is a meritorious bulletin of confidence, but the treachery and income of being distributed among people is irregular, and as a result of this is the indivisible principle of economic management. Having respected Tom Hautri, which is ideal, such an economic system is like a vikorist's life to people with collective dyalnosti.

It is economical dyalnist, saying vin, є svіdomoyu dyalnistyu, і sub'єkt to enter the market with a specific method - to grow pennies. Pragnnee zbіlshiti power capital є the main factor in the economic behavior of people, and in the center so that there is little but a penny. We will ambush for the analysis of the Bagati havity, understanding, understanding the corinosity. There are two benefits to living: good, some kind of poles for compensating psychological and creative works, good ones, just kind of nice, just like that, just give satisfaction. For people with high incomes, we are characterized by є interest in the interests of another class, which is an important aspect of the issue of civilized people.

Basically understood in the Houtre system, which means a little profit. Sidewalk сл on the side of the trading buildings, so that the sales of comrades. Zbіlshennya masi to a profit reached zbіlshennyam turnover. All of this will require a working capital, a kind of important intellectual market operations, and a win-win is needed and a capital market. Oskіlki naygolovnіsha funktsiya kapіtalu polyagaє u virіvnyuvannі funktsіy іnpіtі i predpozitsіі pridіdnyh іnvestuvannya funds, pennies rely on the very center іkonomіchno іінії і ніалілності.

Hautrі chіtko rozmezhovuє factors virobnitstva and get away with them. Dokhid on capital, for yogo strenzhennyam, including the prize for risik. Percentage - the price of the vineyard for the corridor capital.

I use the system to understand how they are permeated with the idea of ​​a credit and penny policy. For example, if you look at the problem of paying wages, bring the winnings, the penny policy and putting the suspension to a clear advantage, the main factors that make it clear that this is the case. A penny-credit policy with a little bit of a snap; ni nadto expansionist, nі obmezhuvalnuyu; The policy of paying a higher salary is more proportional to the larger supply of pennies and more proportionally more profitable income. Політику у сфері заробітної плати і кредитно-грошову політику треба тісно зв'язувати між собою, бо тільки так можна забезпечити грошову рівновагу, стабільність заробітної плати й ціни.

Хоутрі належить пріоритет у створенні теорії, яка зв'язує споживчі доходи й витрати з економічним циклом. Кредитна система є важливою складовою його моделі, тому що саме приплив грошей з банків для задоволення потреб торговців веде до підвищення доходів. А звідси випливають доходи й витрати споживачів, включаючи чисті інвестиції. Але основного фактора, який стимулює кругооборот доходу, потрібно шукати у зростанні споживчих витрат. Це кумулятивний процес, що відбивається у зростанні рівня цін.

Хоутрі спромігся ефективно поєднати свою кількісну теорію з рухом рівня цін.

Стосовно негрошових факторів він розглядає їх настільки, наскільки вони можуть спричинитися до змін у структурі капіталу. Нагромаджені багатства дорівнюють заощадженням за відповідний період. Недостатність заощаджень означає надмірне споживання і в кінцевому рахунку скорочення оборотного капіталу. Розширення капіталу випливає зі сподівань на отримання нормального прибутку. Це процес, за допомогою якого конкуренція вирівнює прибутки в різних галузях.

Намальована Хоутрі картина дій торговців і споживачів нагадує скоріше суто торговельну економіку, а не економіку, в якій великі промислові корпорації мають достатньо власних коштів, щоб не звертатися щоразу до банків.

Економічні потрясіння в концепції Хоутрі спричиняються переважно змінами грошових потоків, а не порушеннями процесу виробництва. Вирішальні фактори Хоутрі шукає не в галузях, що виготовляють товари виробничого призначення, а в тім, як банківські процентні ставки зачіпають запаси торговців. Унаслідок зростання грошових доходів підвищується попит на гроші, а це змушує банки збільшувати процентні ставки і тим самим припиняти бум. Спираючись на такі міркування, Хоутрі вважав, що за допомогою самих тільки грошових маніпуляцій можна поставити економічний цикл під контроль.