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History of Economic Studies - Kornіychuk L.Ya.

5. Shvedska (Stockholm) school

A significant contribution to the development of economic science was introduced by the Swedish representatives of the Stockholm school. Засї the boshn Knut Viksel (1851–1926), the father-in-law, laid the foundations for a new approach to economical thinking, a view of the “undercompetition” theory, theories of credit and penny regulation, and the cycle.

Naybіlsh vіdomі at the scientific news of Vіkssel’s “ Cinematography, capital and rent ” (1893) and “ Interest on capital and price of goods ” (1898).

Social and economic processes of the 19th century characterized by the growth of monopolistic tendencies, the strengthening of crisis realities, the lower efficiency of the funded system. In classic positions it is impotent to explain in an unreasonable way the reasons for the economic crisis, the process of reconciling the penniless nonsense, and the new public manifestations of state practice. Behind his eyes, Vikssel is most closely standing to the Austrian school. Thus, one can understand the theory of value, the first time and the marginal part of the test, and the other, the value is not permanent and not effective. The main factor, a kind of visibility is wariness, є is borderline corinth. For the minds of thoroughly competitive and marketable prices of goods, they can be used in proportionate boundary corinths of their goods. But in real life, there is competition, and monopoly, for the sake of proportionality will collapse.

The problem is the main one, having yielded its respect Vikssel, is the problem of the dynamics of price. The neoclassical theory of prices, which has been guided by the winners, has been presented in two positions: on the one side there is a sub-active psychological explanation of the price of a single product in a marginal manner, and there is a wide range of .

Shukayuchi a whipy hat for revealing the mechanics of the rulers, Viksel dyshov visnovka, scho for the minds of a “fake economy”, since a comrade didn’t want to exchange an old comrade for a long time, and if you’ve lost a penny, the “law of market” doesn’t mean anything. Groshovy will drink more and more goods and goods, and you can get more and more new metals to the market. Formerly іz forbidden to the "law of market" Sey, Vіksssel actually priyshov to the forbidden kіlkіsnoї theory of pennies. And then, he led him to a look at the self-made ideas. If you look at how much time you’re looking for, then you need to understand how much you want to get, after Vicksel, you may have to look at the analysis of the growing factors. With all the vid vidkid ideas, the main cause of the winter price is the winter season of pennies. Vixel of love, especially in a regular drink and offer, you need to separate from one side - drink and offer one thing to live, and from the other - you will need to understand the problem. On one’s thought, it’s not a matter of obsolescence, so that you can offer a pro-posed offer for objects of real and obvious interest that immediately reached.

It is more important for the theory of Viksel to follow the concept of cumulative process (tendency to accelerate the process more quickly). The reason for the cumulative change in price is in Russian interest rates, in non-profit "groshovo" and "natural" interest rates. "Groshova" is the rate of interest on the market for investment capital, "natural" is the interest in capital, which is really functional. Rivnovaga reach, as if having respected the Swedish economist, you are less than the number of rivals of "penny" and "natural" rates. The main problem is that there’s a gap in the world, which can be torn apart by the rates with which you can reason for the change of price.

Vіksssel sterdzhuvav, scho be-yaku zmіnu zіn zumovlyu на zmіna umov, yakі signify the scale and character of investment. It is possible to correct the methods of bank policy. From the concept of the cumulative process of the destruction of the income, the need for investment and investment, the trend is up to the profit price.

The analysis of cumulative processes and the achievement of problems of the destruction of the competition led Vikssel to the development of the economic cycle. The main reason for crisis is shukav at the “real factors” of the economy, although I have not overlooked the significance of the price. The mechanism of cyclical development of the state gift for winnings is announced through the process of capitalization.

The Swedish economist, having spoken "speech" to the interpretation of capital as a whole, one and the same land, is multiplied by the third period. To the process of winning capital, I looked at it like all the great benefits of the singer’s singing experience of the forerunners of the stream of living factors.

Viksel persevere in the theory of understanding "very good" participants in the state process. Analysis of irrelevant situations, having tempted to formulate minds necessary for equal development of economy: jeopardy between “small” and “natural” rates, jeopardy and investment, stability.

Characterized by the process of rewarding capital, Vixel has shown, but during the period of rewarding capital (“visota”), the reckoning is lower than the interest rate. The world’s growing capital is beginning to show a tendency to the bottom of its first border cornosis. It is often a part of capital in the total product that is changed in absolute terms in absolute turn. The water hour will be taken in the course of prayer for the real protection of the living. Tsey process in the economic literature, having denied the name "Vekssel effect". The effect of Vіkssseli and the growth of capital are poured into the ruble of interest rates, because they need to lower their incomes, but they have their own money and money.

Help is available from Depression Vіksssel bachiv at the living heaped capital.

Prior to the economic cycle, they were given the opportunity to see the guests' problems and to increase capital, to analyze the flow of money, to increase the income, to pay attention, to open the middle of the investment and the penny.

Vіksssel bachiv neobhodimіst handing the power into the mechanism of rivnovagi, even though at that hour the idea of ​​the sovereign macroregulatory boule can be finished off foggy. I see the idea, the theory and the percentage, the investment and the bulletin have been recognized more (J. Keynes and the author).

Look at Vikssel celebrated a significant impact on one science one-minded people from Stockholm, but Swedish, school. Prior to the galaxy of galaxies, G. Myrdal, B. Olin, E. Landal, E. Lundberg and лежn belonged.

Basically, the number of meals, which was reached by the representatives of the school, signified "Great Depression" and the sale of clothes. The protest for the introduction of the economical analysis of the Stockholm school did not invoke the single analytic model. Vaughna paganized a number of ideas and poses of the currents, like the little ones of rice.

Nasampered, indicate the specificity of the method of analysis - macroeconomic analysis. Even greater is the significance of a little procrastination to understand, like ex-ante i ex-post. First, it meant that an economical process would be looked at from a glance of perspective, predictions, results, and to a friend from a glance of actual results. From now on, estimates of Maybutnogo have been delivered to the center of doslizhennya bulo. The lack of understanding was made possible by the theoretical analysis of the model, which, in our opinion, was ex-ante and ex-post, and therefore, there was a greater need for power.

Myrdal’s “ochuquan” method means including ochuquan as explicit manifestations of the formal theory of rivnovagi. The report of E. Landal in the galuza of dynamic analysis was included in the idea of ​​the necessary inclusion before the analysis of the same factor and hour. Winning after comprehending the understanding of the “hourly” and “middle-hour” rivnovagi. Remaining meant such a situation, if there is an equal amount of food and offers to pay for, what kind of opportunity should be given to those who have meant that there is a way to live and offer. Behind the “mid-hour” rivovagi method you can analyze the dynamic process.

Landal to the center of the situation, having posed the problem of realizing ochikuvan, so as to get the values, what are planned, and real. Zmіna ochіkuvan, at first thought, є an important incentive for economy, and why the fall of realizatsії ochіkuvan and practical value of economical indicators is formed, new ochіkuvannya form. Viddak the process of economical development of the post є as the last day I’ve got a call, I’ve got to know how much to save.

Gustav Kassel (1866-1945) - one of the members of the Swedish economy, one of them, “Nature and the need for interest” (1903), is used as an important sign in the development of the theory of percentage pennies. Kassel’s first book, “Theory of Social Economy,” will save a lot of problems, respect for some kind of trade and industry cycle. The first author has a clear view of the early years (before 1870) of trading crisis and the most economic cycles of the period of 1870-1914. And later in 1931 p. Win Sturdzhuv, I can’t say the words, because the role itself is to play the cycles in the economic life. Great shock at the penniless sphere, political instability, war borgs, the role of the state, which should be kept in check - the most important factors have recognized the nature of the economic life of the first and foremost business.

Kassel, having examined the economical triviality of the crisis, are in the process of zooming in on the claws of the economic history. It’s possible that Kassel would be better off if the reasons for the need for shukati are not in the nature of the economy, but in the revolution of the social and economic systems, especially in the transition to the old . The economy is not being struck by the structural features of the current economy, but by the serpents in technology.

Kassel should read between the virobitzobi intercourses, which can be used as a guide, and timi, which will have to be victorious for “virobnitstvar for further virobnitstva”. Recession of a living citizen to lead up to an individual lack of interest for the benefit of the first group and immediately to the absence of other groups for the other group. In fact - the principle of acceleration.

Among the factors, which mean the collapse of the commercial-industrial cycle, Kassel viokremlyu rate of interest. Yakshcho viddomy ochukuvaniye rivench of secondary incomes in terms of capital goods, then we lower the rate of interest, whichever is the majority of capital. In addition, for the trivial saving of low rates of interest, you can set up weekly contracts, but see contracts for the future, as well as demand a great oath of capital, you can make significant gains.

The rate of interest is lower than the basic capital, and as a rule you get trimmed, then bring to the top of the list. C_ обї arrange to finish, to Kassel’s thought, to spill over the boom to the depression.

6. Mathematical school in a political economy

Mathematical conceptual politekonomії to take a cob from the princes of Cournot ’and, it’s important, to spin on the theory of sub-active corridor and productivity factors of virology. Winning mathematical conception of economical entertainment is made to create capitalism for opening up the system with a great deal of freedom in connection with the same part and all of the elements, as well as mathematics.

Self-determination and constructiveness of the mathematical method of pitching in that time, but not the only method is described, but the first method, which is not less than the maximum, and the maximum.

The order of Cournot first, try and learn mathematics in an economical way by J. J. Seva, Swiss D. Bernoulli, Frenchman F. de Forbonne, and J. von Thünen.

The wide-eyed mathematical theory of economic equality represents the great French economist-mathematician, founder of the Lausanne school of Leon Walras (1834 - 1916).

Head of creativity Walras Bulo opratsyuvannya theories macroeconomic rivnovagi. Rivnovagu Walras characterized as “a stan, for a kind of efficiency he will drink and offer a viral offer of services, be sure to pay attention to the market of products, go ahead, sell the price of travel, etc. Пер Two persuasions ought to be laid down before the rim of the war, the third - before the rivnovag of the virobnitz. ” Q. Tell Walras to visualize the help of the other four systems of interconnection.

Valras himself having spawned the nature of the river in such a way. Lyudina to come to the market with singing goods and singing bajannas for realizing their gifts. As all comrades have spared the realization of these values, then they will drink and offer rivals, and the market will be consumed. Ale yakshcho drank і a proclamation of reznі, then the price will be appreciated, as long as you don’t reach the singing r_vnovagi. Це і є zagalna theory rivnovagi obmіnu, zavdyaki Yakіy Walras becoming vidomim at politekonomії.

1874 p. Vin published his head praci "Element of purely political economy", in a yam a magnet to describe a closed mathematical model of the foreign economic rvnovagi. Vaughn claimed for those who want to discover all the categories of economy on the ground, the principle of sub-active corinas. Walras did not recognize the labor theory of wariness and gave us the most active agents in two groups: those who worked for civil servants (land, capital) and others. Shchodo power, then you are the winner of the third function of the guarantee of bezpeki hullers, zhishnik of their social interests, healthy minds for effective competition in the assurance of the protection of all the same rights.

Walras has hairworms for viral warriors є sellers of these services одно and immediately purchasers of items that have been received. Підприємці, напаки, є purchasers of viral care products and sellers of live products. Violation co-workers appear to be called in for the additional market of viral servants and those living products.

From now on, the basis of the mathematical model of Walras is laid on the market piddid to economical realities. Rivnovag in economy is not limited to market rvnovagi, but you can reach tilka through market mechanism, through exchange.

The main tool for the whole mechanism is the price. Virivnyuvannya pitit and propose goods і vbdvuvatsya for additional help in returning prizes, yakі є tsinami rivnovagi.

Rivnovazhnaya price is established at the exact rvnovagi and the minimum goods and vitrates at the third place. Price є regulator of proportional exchange. I won’t forget about the level of corinosity of surviving wartost. For the purchase price - the criterion for assessing the corinostnity given to the product is the corinosity of the last goods. For the sale of price, it’s necessary to find a reference to the product and the necessary goods for the goods.

The concept of marginal corinosity of tolka with pershy krok at the development of theories, home of the Walrasian system of zagalny rivovagi. The yogo system, on the basis of the iid systems, which the yokes are interchanged with, including the whole sphere, I will show the vartosti value.

Walras admitting thorough competition and the same price for the minds of the given market. Win, a victorious mathematical method, having shown that you can reach the rest of the world for this reason, you will need to complete the song rules. In the first place, for a kind of indivisum іsnuє krivosnostі krivnostі skin product or servants put on the market. In a different way, іndivіdum maksimizuє korisnіst goods or services to the gentry obmіnu. Thirdly, win the maximum amount of satisfaction, as a rule, rallied for the exchange, the proportion of the marginal corridor of the purchased product. Fourthly, the proposal for the skin product and the servants to pay for them, and the price of the skin product for the servants — to the expensive vitamins, is also tested in the process of completing the virobnitz.

The basic laws that allow for the safe rest of the city:

1) a friend of one class on the market of guilty mother tilka one price;

2) the price of the product will be protected and protected;

3) The price is maximally satisfying both buyers and sellers.

Diya Tsikh Zakonіv to secure a rivnovag. Їx it is possible to zasosuvati to the goods, for the servants are not deprived of a living room, and the room of a virobiotic.

Treba, prote, respect, the theory of Walras - the theory of economic statics, the fact that it doesn’t matter the factors and the inconsequentialness, the cycling, the technical innovations of the skinny.

Vilfredo Pareto (1848–1923) is an Italian economist and socialist, who also made a great contribution to economic science. Golovna ’idea, having propagated the yak of win, laid down on the basis of economic theory,“ cleansed ”to understand the value of corinosity.

At first thought, the economy is economical, the mechanism of establishing the needs of the people and the sharing of resources for the satisfaction of the people. You are supposed to theoretically load up the model of interdependence of all economic factors, which can absorb the virality and coexistence on the slurry, which is widely browned by mathematical methods of analysis.

Pareto rozvinuv the theory of good things, but, as a rule, I call it, the theory of economical optimum, the essence of such a pole in the optimal distribution of economic resources and benefits, which are violated. For Walras, as vidomo, as a result of an equivalent exchange of leather, the participant will deny the maximum corinth. Consciously valorizing the theory of the economically irregular rivnovagi of Valras, Pareto, specifying the criteria of the rivial rivnovagi, formulating the umi minds, and rejected the term “Pareto optimum”. Рівновага трактувалася ним як економічний стан, за якого неможливо поліпшити становище когось з учасників обміну, не погіршивши становища хоча б одного з них. Рівновага настає тоді, коли діаметрально протилежні сили та бажання й усі численні перешкоди буде збалансовано.

На відміну від Вальраса, він розглядав стан рівноваги в часі, а також допускав коливання коефіцієнтів виробничої функції залежно від розмірів випуску продукції, намагався «очистити» теорію рівноваги від «психології», виключивши етичні мотиви економічної поведінки суб'єктів господарювання.

Парето обгрунтував неправомірність визначення сукупної корисності як суми індивідуальних корисностей. Корисність можна виміряти, але не кількісно, а шляхом оцінювання ступеня пріоритетності для покупця. Це означає, що споживчі вартості («корисності») ранжуються за критерієм переваги, за рівнем пріоритетності. Корисність для окремої особи чи фірми не рівнозначна корисності для всього суспільства.

За споживацькими перевагами здійснюється й порівнювання результатів і витрат. Коли економіка досягає оптимуму, то дальше поліпшення будь-яких важливих показників, за Парето, можливе лише внаслідок глибоких структурних зрушень. На підставі цього він зробив важливий соціальний висновок. Для того щоб підняти рівень мінімального доходу або зменшити розрив у доходах, необхідно забезпечити прискорене збільшення багатства порівняно з кількістю населення. Отже, стверджував Парето, проблема поліпшення умов життя найбідніших верств населення є насамперед проблемою створення багатства.