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History of Economic Studies - Kornіychuk L.Ya.

3. Extensive Keynesianism in the Czech Republic

The emergence of Keynes’s conception naturally generated a great resonance in capitalist society, which attracted significant attention to further development of economic theory and economic policy. Naibilsh Active зв при зв х при х х х ую ую ую ую модель модель модель модель модель модель модель call the model with the cob of a new stage in the development of economic science.

Keynesianism took over a month in politekonomії in the bagatokh of the countries of advanced capitalism, especially in the United States and England, and the first three hours of our position. Keynes’s followers had three problems, which seemed to be self-sufficient: the problem of dynamic problems, the problem of problems and problems, and the problem of short-term problems, or cyclic problems. Theories, which are the result of further development of Keynes's theories, are called neo-Keynesianism.

In the United States, Keynes’s ideas were developed at 30 p. Hardest American followers and advanced economies of the Harvard University, E. Hansen and S. Harris. Elvin Hansen (1887–1976) at Harvard University’s special seminar, some government officials and businessmen were promoted. Tsey semіnar vіdіgrav important role in the widespread Keynesian ideas in the United States.

The characteristic picture of economic theories is that those who have clarified the most economical problems should be encouraged to invest. Keynes’s followers come up with the reason for the cycle, and the water hour and the reason for the periodic crisis and unemployment of the rainbow in the “dynamic investment”. “Private investment and state vitrati are the axis of the sphere, and here’s the meaning of the shukati clarified winter employment and income,” Hansen said. Previous theoreticians give capital investments the power of self-reliant, independent land, as well as the ability to lay down ground income.

The development of the neo-Keynesian theory cycle is called for by the names of such economists, as R. Harrod, P. Samuelson, D. Hix. Keynes himself’s praxis,Theory of Employment, Percentage and Pennies, ” has a problem with the cycle of the week. The book has more than one song for the cause of the crisis - a lower standard of income, stronger than the psychological psychological furnishings. Neo-Keynesians did not overlook the cyclical capitalist economies, but they looked at the power of society, and I would be lured by the dynamical system. It stinks to know the reasons for the economic problems and establish the nature of the mechanism of the transition of one phase to the mainstream, the most important category, the more important one ”. Interaction of these endogenous factors in the cause of decline and targeting for the day. To increase growth, I need to increase my income on income, and then, at my own expense, to reduce the increase in investment, etc.

Keynes’s concept of a multiplier from stating up to national income to sound income is higher than national income with an increase in investment.

Neo-Keynesian theorists have added to the cycle the concept of the multiplier with the name of the concept of the accelerator, which is characterized by a good sound and a national income and investment. I’ll show the accelerator, at the time I’ve got better income due to the specific growth rate of national income. As a matter of fact, the mental process of multiplication process is the manifestation of great working strength and unnecessary viral needs, while for acceleration it is necessary to learn more. Growth in national income will require a greater number of working hours and more money (for knowing how much more work is needed for more than one). I’m at my hometown, but I want to keep the pace of growth of income on the income to the decline of the rate of capital and navigate to disinvestment.

The value of the neo-Keynesian theory of the cycle has been greatly increased in autonomy and better. Better investment - so much so that you can extend your share of income to your national income. The same type of investment, take care of the model multiplier - accelerator. The process of economic growth is low in terms of factors, which makes it possible to increase the capital investment, which is independent of the income, and the fact that it is technologically advanced and independent. The very same factor factor and sound autonomous investment. The concept of two types of investment and additional nature is clearly seen from the view of a platform that can support the development of virology.

The Neo-Keynesian Investment Theory cycle is detailed in detail by E. Hansen, “Economic cycles and national income” (1958). The theory was manifested in one of the first fruits of the Keynesianism of Europe. She introduced the basic provisions of Keynes’s theory, supplemented them with deyaki new provisions, the main one of the accelerator’s mechanical mechanism. Rushinoy force, the first cause of virobnitztva, for Hansen, прог technical progress, a kind of need for new capital deposit, for autonomous investment. The result of skin and new portions of autonomous investment є rozgortannya multiplicate-accelerated process. This means that investment will be profitable, a sum of some kind of food, more than "shilin to live." Growth of income leads to a loss of investment, as well as greater national income. Such a way to get better cumulatively, self-consciously on weekends, and on the other hand was given autonomous investment.

To Hansen’s dummy, technological progress is not only an independent investment, but the first sign of a capital investment accelerator. To that, intensiveness and triviality of the process of growth are recognized exclusively by the nature of technological progress.

The process of growth, which is due to contingent factors, the secrecy of technological progress and the cumulative process, may, to Hansen’s thought, appear to be sufficient, but it’s not enough for people to quickly take advantage of the growing resources. It remains to lay down, at your own expense, a certain amount of autonomous investment capacities and boundary capacities before living, which means the value of the multiplier, as well as several times, are required to be allocated.

Hansen called the reasons why you can pin the process of growth and bring to the cob of pad. The Persha group of reasons is due to the proceeds of the autonomous investments: lower standards for a little increase in the world investment, lower prices for capital goods and interest. A friend of the group is called upon to relax according to the already described “cumulative process”, which is caused by the multiplier and the accelerator. Triviality and intensiveness of the day are indicated, smut, by the oath and intensity of the autonomous autonomous investments. Alya "... if you are self-contained, invest, so you can move as well as stimulate living and stimulate investment" * 7. Pripinennya for any other reasons, why to enlarge the growth, to bring to a rapid increase in capital and economic recession. The cob of a new day of reasoning is also automatically dependent on the fact that you have experienced less, more and more for the whole, and there is such a moment if you have to get through so much more. Then, at your own mercy, to bring about a significantly faster stock of capital goods, which will be an incentive to healthy investment. The whole process of developing is quite straightforward.

* 7: {Hansen E. The economic cycle and national income. - M., 1959. - S.602.}

Hansen, current, mabut, article by Franco Modiljani “Overcome liquidity, theorists and pennies” (1944), becoming the main promoter of that version of Keynesian theory, which is based on the concept of income - vitrat.

Rivnovaga of the market system, all the way up to Keynes's theory, transferring the goods to the market as a whole macroeconomic market of goods, pennies, regional and robotic power. Zreshtoyu, macroeconomic rivnovaga to be built up to interact with two markets - the goods and the regional, but the goods and the pennies. The remaining option is to see the model of Hix — Hansen and the most widespread interpretation of the theory of D. Hansen. Hansen, having recognized the Keynesian version as a basis, having included the famous IS-LM diagram before him, having brought to her the current position and presentation on the market.

The Hicks — Hansen Model of Great Productivity Model for Upgrading Product Rates and Pennies. Sokrema, you can come, knowing how much you want, how much you want to do, how to do so, how to change the sovereign regulation, so on, etc.

So, napriklad, Yakscho in perіod rіvnovagi rinkovoї sistemi vіdbulosya polіpshennya іnvestitsіynogo klіmatu scho mozhlive in Dobou masovogo vikoristannya advanced tehnologіy have rezultatі tsіlespryamovanih Act reasonably powers that s іnshih reasons, pіdpriєmtsі, optimіstichno otsіnyuyuchi PERSPECTIVE virobnitstva i orієntuyuchis on іsnuyuchu rate of interest zbіlshat kapіtalovkladennya , vikoristovuyu with the help of a method of manifestly defending.

Zrostannya іnvestitsіy bring to the expansion of virobnitztva, scho, at his servant, zbіlshuvatime oath of total income. For the sake of reckoning a penny rinok, ale the fragments of the proposition of pennies are indemnified, and a part of income is being redirected to dodate, it will be drunk on pennies, then the market is reactive to the norms of interest. Now I am reminded of the mechanics of the market for goods: higher percentage rates and lower percentage rates with a higher standard rate and lower investment costs. There will be a greater degree of investment, higher income and more income, the new system will have a new system.

The rozumіnnya of these processes is of great importance for the sixteenth day of the dynamics of the market system. Viyavlyaetsya, scho, sprymayuchi іmpulsi zzovnі, rinkova ekonomіka zdatna peresuvatsya from one rivuzhny important camp in the last. Duzhe suttvo, scho rushіyny impulse inadvertently give a splash of state activity, and then in exchange for the rink of goods and pennies to extinguish її that stability.

The representatives of the most economical science of modern science are keen to look at the analytic model of the X-Hansen model.

The investment theory of the cycle has become an ambush for inciting neo-Keynesian anti-cyclical programs, which have earned respect for the dynamic capital investment, regulated from the side of the state. Typical of such a regulation was given by Hansen, who called the two methods of struggle with cyclical knives. One method of recovery is to stabilize an unbroken oath of investment and the other is to compensate for private investment by fiscal credit and pennant policies.

Neo Keynesy to maintain, for the minds of the whole community it is possible to obliterate the sweeps of cyclic sweeps, the streamlined increase of the frequency in the phase of the day and the stimulation of the phase of the recession. The authority, which is important, is its power, which has its own orderly bagato, is important for a private private investment in a recession, but a relaxed investment in the economy is over.

Significantly, a small part in the concept of American neo-Keynesians is to call the so-called stabilizers, so as to automatically lock in the low-cost and low-cost policies for the regulated cycle. For a little thought, for the minds of a shy economy, you need to increase the number of taxes, to weaken the function of “living” and stream of investment, and for periods of lower, lower, and lower costs, One of the factors, one is also guilty of taking home food, the power of living, and securing the purchase of goods.

The order with the Neo-Keynesianism of the Wiktionary and the vernacular of the theories of sovereign regulation, in which Keynes had a significantly lower flow. Before them lay the foremost so called Stockholm school. A representative of a flow of economically unlawfully blown up on Keynes’s followers, fragments of 30 in r. a group of young Swedish economists, regardless of their appearance, of similar visnkovs.

Pid hour of economic crisis 30-rr. Shvetsia, as a result of the national crisis, has relied on a financial collapse. Vitrati on invested it seemed to hasten to grow and know every year. Restrictive groshova policy (deletion of groshovy emisy, quickened number of pennies to obigu) lowered the purchasing power of the population and sprouted the growth of unemployment.

The protest crisis in Shvetsia Bula less trivial, even in the lower lands, fragments of structural national economies at that time have already taken root. New promising galleries and promises from new technologies have protected the Shvets to increase their economic potential, and through two rockies, the country has gone over to expansionary policies. 1932 p. on vibrators to the parliament, Social Democrats were overpowered by zavdyaki, even later on, in the program of economic vodrodzhennya.

The economic program of the Swedish Social Democracy was based on the ideas of the Stockholm School of Political Economy, the main representatives of the Yule Bulik Yerik Lindal (1891–1960), Gunnar Myrdal (1898–1987), Bert_198, 1918 (1891–1991) . The conceptual theory is analogous to Keynes's hangers. So itself is i Keynes, the Swedish economy is more fun, and the most effective way to address the main problems of the economy. The essence of the first pole is in that, the power is guilty of getting involved in the state life and carrying out active economic policy by way of knowing that there is no need for this and that. The main object of the sovereign hand in hand is the abusive oath of drink.

E. Lindal and G. Myrdal were inspired by the model of penniless land, as it demonstrated the deposits of economically vivid assets and the value of resources. B. Ulin obgruntuv neobhodimost of the sovereign investment and huge robots yak zasib vid of unemployment. And the last representative of the Stockholm school, E. Lundberg, prompted special models for analyzing the size of the unemployment and the inflation.

The division of the ambushes of the economy concept of the Stockholm school and the program of the Swedish Social-Democratic Party Bulo was laid by the detachment as the basis for the form of economic policy of the 30s. The main principles were based on the following principles: a strong power regulates the economical process, a victorious mechanism for self-regulation, an advanced groshov sphere; promising direct development - enter the economy of the proposition to the economy of the future; The social sphere is based on a strong and stable economy, development is regulated and controlled by the state.

The policy was carried out and controlled by the Ministry of Finance of Shvets, who enlisted Ernst Vigfors (1881-1977). Vigfors recognizing the power of investing and huge robots can help people buy and sell people, change the scale of economic crisis and ease social welfare.

The whole idea was first presented in the draft budget of 1933, and Gunnar Myrdal was in front of a dodder by submitting theoretically deceiving new “anti-cyclical” financial policies. Sweden, with such a rank, has become a feather in the world, which has turned around the active political policies of stability.

The main butt of the broader idea of ​​Keynesianism is the program of capital economy, the index of planning, and the development of France has been widespread, and I have widespread regulation of the whole world.

French concept of indicative planning having opted for Francois Perroux. Not insignificantly, the importance of the market mechanism and competition among the regular capital economy, the henchmen of the conceptual indicative plan of the second importance imposed on the sovereign regulation through the program of economic development of the country. The basis of such a program was the system of national rakhunkіv and sovereign plans іndindicative (rekomendtsіyny) nature. I want to take part in national plans to develop the necessary ideas for Perra’s Duma, for the benefit of the Uzgodzhen, compromise of the “social dialogs” of the best classes. Such a system of indicative planning included the mechanism of short-string (market), so the pre-string (structural) regulation of the national economy.

The concept of Perru has made a significant impact on the practical implementation of the program of the economy of France. 1947 p. The first pyatyaterichny plan was adopted. This is the practice of tripping in offensive rock.