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History of Economic Studies - Kornіychuk L.Ya.

5. Post Keynesianism

Partitions in Keynes’s theory of the last message of practical recommendations were actively involved in the economy of foreign countries. Tsey straightforwardly, having recognized the significant evolutions, we will remain at the forefront of economical theories of the 50-60s pp.

Proteus later in the other half of the 60s pp. I especially in the 70th rr. the recipes of the neo-Keynesian model seemed to be more and more super-read about the active laws, and, moreover, the stink to navigate the most acute problems. So, finding the best problems for the current economy is to inflate, the deficit of the sovereign budget and especially - the cycle of development. Social and economic development of foreign countries through the provision of other best practices, since the state is not in a position to ensure that they are free of charge. On the basis of Keynesian concepts and models, there were no problems with realizing and crisis-free development.

The initiators of the criticism of Keynesianism became the best of traditional rivals from a neoclassical school, a view of monetarism, henchmen of the theory of proposition, theory of rational ochikuvan tain. For these minds, the further development of Keynesianism is to be seen as the heading of a new reform, appear new schools and direct. More than 60-70's pp. in the science community there is so-called post-cainism.

Historically, post-Keynesianism has shaped two scientific studies: the English Keynesianism is located at the center of Cambridge, the second hour has lived and most of them have been indebted, S.I. Weintraub, H. Minsk and that.). American sh іz mid-60's pp. They criticized the Keynesian orthodox theory of р newcomers ’to keep busy. The stinks of verdzhuvali, which is a version of Keynesianism, which were scattered by E. Hansen, P. Samuelson, J. Hicks, challenged the essence of Keynes's theory.

Live Keynesians, we’ll find the representative of Yak Bula Joan Violet Robinson (1903-1983), and N. Kaldor, P. Sraffe, they continued to criticize neoclassicism, and especially of the methodological basis - marginalism. Keynote’s main stench was respected by Keynes ’current update and reduction to a logical conclusion of the neoclassical system. For this very reason, the methodological principle was taken not by only the neoclassical, but by the neo-Keynesian theories for their criticism of the livin Keynesians. So, for example, it stinks categorically to see the Hix-Hansen model, treating it as “illegal Keynesianism”. Joan Robinson, one of the first, saw the crisis of orthodox Keynesianism.

Golosuyuyuchi yourself Keynes’s followers, livin Keynesians, prote, didn’t disengage from them by theoretical postulates. We have ideally synthesized the ideas of D. Ricardo from our conception (view of the idea of ​​income and salary, aspect of the theory of wisdom), Keynesian theory of science and law, and we have done this for you.

Live Keynesianism - reformist, other bourgeois bourgeois version of the Keynesian theory, landings for the seizure of interests of non-monopoly capital, farmers, interactions, services and robots. Livin Keynesian hang on to your own reform of capitalism, pragnuchy of economic realistically theorized. It is up to you to serve one of the most comprehensive interpretations of the problems of effective consumption, economical growth and distribution of the product, nutrition of the microeconomics (theory of wartosti, value creation). Roots of evil are the representatives of tsyo straightforwardly sway at the inadequacy of the "effective food", for which there is no such thing as crisis. Protein (on the basis of traditional Keynesianism) is the main reason for the lack of vengeance of the stench to respect the irregularity and injustice of the distribution of national income. Joan Robinson, zokrema, ruined the test of sounding Keynes’s theory with Marxism and incorporating it into non-social-economic factors, including a growing number of national incomes. At a thought, the balance is more than possible for the mindset, often a paycheck for national income is sufficient in high and high order to balance off. To that the problem of “effective livelihood” by J. Robinson is sound for healthy social reforms, for paid wages and for the right of the professional rights to fight for the third, free of charge of the rights of the government.

The concept of livich keynes є progressive, first and foremost, there’s criticism є the dominance of monopolies, the unique commitment to overwhelming concentration of economic power in your hands. Live Keynesians hang a number of antimonopoly vimogs, which made up their minds to see the progressive forces of the western krays, secrecy with a robotic ruch. In a different way, the henchmen of the basic conception seek to develop socially connected social problems, protect the population from social problems, ensure that they are in good health and care.

The names of J. Robinson and N. Kaldor entail the development of a conceptual framework, as well as spiraling into the theory of creation and development of J. M. Keynes. The main element of the post-Keynesian approach to the problem is that you can formulate it like this. In the first place, the form of income is not due to the boundary productivity agents of the agency, and hence, the inefficiency of the partners cannot be explained by the increased productivity of these agents. The reasons for the sacrifice in the income of post-Keynesian incomes are injected from one side, for social and political traditions and sacrifices, and for the other, for secondary forces.

In other words, even pay for it in earnest, as well as more than once, they are recognized immediately with the latest macroeconomic benefits, and the very same: the growth rate of the national product, the speed of increased occupancy, the dynamism.

In the third place, in the initial deterministic process of є investment investment. Violation of the economy in the economy, due to lower rates and lower costs, lower contribution to the process of economic growth and growth significantly more than the average value.

In the fourth place, the degree of prejudice is bound up to the mercy of the owners of the capital for food, but for the quiet, so that I will wipe off the wages. Protein, at the thought of post-Keynesian, intensive process of investing, does not lie down in front of the boundary scheme to protect oneself from a profit, but in view of a comprehensive assessment of the prospects for economic development.

Post-Keynesian theories have given rise to a keynesian postulate about the viability of pure investment and voluntary care. Ale, on the way of Keynes, post-Keynesian, analizuyu mechanics, which is why I want to protect myself and you, especially to invest in the basis of the necessary income, I want to have more So, the system for distributing Caldor’s security to the public is safe. And if the value of the norms of salvation is significant, the function of the social and economic status of income is gained, then you can have more problems in Kaldora and you can have more money, because you need more money:

N. Kaldor, respecting the fact that in the current time of saving the number of viral exchanges, is not an efficient drink, but an oath of obvious viral resources, the same is the problem of realizing the keynote theory, The main factor in the form is the nature of the relationship between the brains and the economy of the world, behind Caldor, the technology of know-how. You must know how to absorb it by the amount of capital coefficient, and by the necessary amount of investment liability.

I play an important role in formulating a theoretical theoretical concept of Keynesianism, like a full-blown “anti-marginal revolution”, cream by J. Robinson, and one representative from the Cambridge School of Law. The concept, wikipedia of the book “Violation of goods for additional goods” (1960), the hangers of the left Keynesianism to evaluate the logic for encouraging new theory of growth. Sraffa vidkid is neoclassical to the theory of formality, breaking the concepts of “boundary cornostity” and “marginal productivity”, turn to the theory of cartography D. Ricardo. Mayzhe nihto, except for Milla and Marx, is not in danger, but I owe you the respect of Rikardo, shukayuchi "nezmіnne mіrilo vartostі", which will be independent of the salary, so in normal income. Sraffa daring to bring, that meta Ricardo rightly can be reached by the other and reached by zv'yazane with glybokymi bows for an ordinary economic theory. Vartіst u Sraffi - ce suto fіzіologіchnіі vitrati pracі on virobnitstvo goods. For a closer understanding of your conceptual vikoristovnuyu proportions of simple and expanded vid-creation.

Sraffa provided our guests with critical criticism of the functional competitiveness, yak, for the stable classics, the protection of the skin from the fact that there are a lot of profitability in the country. Competition in the current economy of the country Sraffa Visna for lack of knowledge. First of all, at first thought, crooked price and income are inadequate, we are crooked over the boundary of boundary productivity, so as not to secure the same minds for virobniks. So, for example, on the great monopolistic enterprises, the magnitude of the virobnitzvit vitality is limited by less, and the longer, the rozmir of the income that they have been denied is greater. I’ll make the most of monopolistic tendencies, so as to build up the market with okrimimi investments.
In a different way, between the further expansion of the product for the product is the problem of realizing the product, which results in lower prices and better vitality. Yakshcho іsnuє zlizhlіn znizhennya price is okremim sellers, підкреслює Sraffa, then dumb mov about the old vіlnu competition.

In the third place, with the classical theory of price, the main intellectual competition. Sraffa, prote, impartial, scho price for comrade є not one privilege for purchasers. Factors that make it possible to vibrate them with that one's best product, one's own brand, are skinny. It means that if you are ready to buy, you’ll have to buy the goods of a singing company for your price, looking for more, you need more. For such minds, the market has the right to disintegrate the goods on the quiet market of the goods themselves, but on the cutaneous surface they are indemnified. In order to penetrate into the international market, the skin-friendly seller needs to get the most out of it, and so to the hairy market, they’ll have to leave the village, which is in sight, in monopolies.

Sraffa, as well as J. Chamberlain shame, now there is pure competition in the present economy, but less competition, but such a monopoly. But from now on, in real economy and two tendencies, it is easy to replicate, one only one. Robinson and Chamberlain mean that competition is monopolistic - it is competition, for such purchases you can clearly see one to one. Robin-dream calls such competition incomplete, Chamberlain monopolistic.

Criticism of orthodox Keynesianism in the United States is carried out for such basic strains. In the first place, “orthodoxes” did not break up theories of inflation, realizing the real processes of the process of price creation. The result of the whole theory cycle and the recipe for anticyclic policies have come to be useless for the minds of stagflyatsii. In a different way, the stinks ignored the role of penniless factors and the financial system for the whole reason, what they did and stimulated economic instability. On these problems itself, I respect Keynesianism.