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|home Economy Books Political economy - Krivenko K.T.|
Political economy - Krivenko K.T.
Key current trend of internationalization and transnationalization. Acting in full respect, the principle of transnationalization is a whole new way of international living, which is characterized by a wide range of state-owned factors. Insht treating transnational education in a higher education category - there is only one more, I want it to be, the form of an overt process of international life of the state.
I mean the following, I will show the transnationalization of the two sides - Yakisnu and Kilkisnu. It is clear that transnationalization manifests itself in the form of internal corporate corporations and international markets, so that I can relocate a part of the flow of goods, services, capital and workforce. Kіlkіsno - among the largest number of TNCs and the expanded scale of their duality. Transnational companies одного, on one side, on the side, and on the other, the reason for the increase in international concentration of virology, and later on, for the process of internationalization.
Transnational corporation - a group of enterprises, which can function in different countries, are controlled by headquarters, as if in one particular country.
Transnationalization leads to a high level of interdependence between countries. Being the centers of coordination and dynamism of the high-tech virology and exchange, TNCs form the measure of vidnosin, so as to go beyond the international national gift systems. I am growing from single-element national economies, many transnational corporations have shifted to a small internal diversified complex with an international scale of operations. Stink є the most found structural element of the economy. For mobility, health, before transforming the sound structures and organizational structures, the speed of reaction to the impetus of scientific and technological progress, it’s possible to overtake the national or regional form of state approval. On the other side of the remaining transnational corporations, they are not required to participate in the territory of the country, but rather, they have to be aware of the factors involved in the development of national relations and taking part in the development of the viral incidents.
TNCs are the price, ale is supra-dynamically dynamic in the economy. On the cob of the twentieth century. later, a lot of TNCs disappeared. We’re protesting a large number of people, who’ve signed up for an economical development, stink from the other half of the 20th century.
On the cob of the 1980s pp. near 11 thousand yews. TNK i 104 ths. foreign filials, and for example, the 1990s are already close to 53 thousand. і 450 yew відповідно. For estimates, TNCs control 1/5 to 1/4 of the total GDP, and for trading between the parent companies and their foreign companies, 1/3 of the private trade. Global pledge of oversight і Investment of TNCs (maternal companies and branches) reach 1997 p. 3.5 trillion dollars., And zagalniy oath sale of закхніх transcendental files - 9.5 trillion dollars.
At the present time, there is no need for trading, but the organization of virobnitsa and the sale of goods and the lack of service on foreign markets. The oath of the organization organized by such a sale (that is, the sale of foreign filies) is overturned by the oath of private export of goods and services (9.5 and 6.4 trillion dollars). By itself, private export is even greater than the internal trade of goods and services between the transnational corporations.
Characteristic rice of a popular etapu transnational за :
1) the scale of the scale of operations of TNCs. The foreign assets of foreign filings reached the forefront of the 1990s pp. 13 trillion dollars., And the vartist is ignored, which has been fixed by them - 2 trillion dollars. Approximately 70% of payments for technology є the result of internal transactional transnational transnational corporations;
2) expansion of the geography of TNCs. Most of them (90%) are based in the most developed countries with a market economy. However, for the rest of the rock to the process of transnationalization, more and more will be heard about the frami of the country, now you’re developing, as well as the country of Central Europe. Approximately 46% of usable filial TNCs have been purchased in industrialized countries, 42% in countries that are developing.
3) the first stage of the “international” operation of the multinational corporation is most of the country, which is characterized by a number of foreign assets, sales, taken from foreign corporations. On the cob of the 1990s pp. among the largest TNCs of the USA, FRN, Japan Bulo 1/3 —1/4 assets are intermediate;
4) zbіlshennya cross-border zlity and reproach. For example, the 1990s all processes reached 3/5 of the domestic supply of foreign investment and expanded at the banking sectors, insurance, pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical industries, and in the telecommunication and automotive sectors;
5) expansion of transnational secondary and small enterprises.
The activity of multinational corporations more and more I will translate my gospel statehood into a single market of goods, services, capital, labor and knowledge, the sign-up office of the current state of may and main economy. Internationalization is carried out until the completion of the interchange of warehouse parts of the gospel statehood, to the global economic development. TNCs perform the main rushing force of the whole process. In the 1990s, pp. It’s practically not enough for the region’s land, and not accumulated for viral and investment operations.