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Model of economics - Vіtlіnsky V.V.

14.5. Payments, budget deficit and virobnitstvo

There is a great deal of excitement for virobnikov and specifically for macroeconomic policies, for example, the power politics of the state. Vidomo, scho zbіlshennya tax on virobnik pidvishchu є vitrati, otzhe, pidvishchuyutsya prices, scho zmіshchu curve of aggregated propositions, sojuzhuyuchi, such a rite, shortened oaths virobnitsva. From now on, tidings vidigrayut the role of a virology destimulator - vid zbіlshennya patatyv i igrazhivati ​​i kotrі zmusheni pay more high price for lesser product liabilities, and virobnik, I need to be quicker. The destimulative functionality of the tribute is guilty of a good deed, and the best way of paying may be victorious as much as stimulating virobi. All in all, we especially have to use the mechanical mechanism for the full support of the economy, which is relevant and important for the country, if you need to be more active in the singing sector.

I’ll take a look at the macro regulation. It’s important that there is an important compromise between the other countries, whether they’re an independent state, or more importantly, inconsistency in the skarbnitsy, and the negative effect is that there’s more activity. Zagalnim principle polіtiki opodatkuvannya Je її uzgodzhennya not lishe of threading fіskalnimi tsіlyami and th s prospects rozvitku makroekonomіki. As long as the economy is relieved on business, the business is high, the rates for real estate are small, then the surcharges can be increased. At the phase of the oath, the overshoots are rolled over bazhano pіdvishchuvati for the "cooling" of the economy. Navpaki, as a rule, the economy is on the decline, then the higher taxes will be more expensive and negative trends and weaken the recession.

Mutual calls between the headquarters and the budget є obvious. No less obvious є їхній non-linear sound. Departure of the obscene oath of patronage security - the rate is lower than the formalization rate like Laffer’s curve, the lack of freedom is simple. Sustainable, superelevated, for example, in parts of the GDP, donate non-linear, non-interrupted, differentiated curve L ( t ), set for vertical [0, 1], higher rates are charged for that. For t = 0, the value of L ( t ) is zero, which means that there are no additional taxes, and the rate is less than zero (if the number is violated). As a rule, the rate is t = 1, then the fee is also dumb, - it’s been a long time ago, since you can pick up the racial donation, it’s convenient to do it again, and you can take more money once. Vidomo (Rolle’s theorem), the function L ( t ) is smooth, the number is constant at the end of the interval, the maximum is reached at the end of the interval, which lies at the middle of the interval:

de L ( t ) - Laffer’s function (the oath of tax protection in parts of the GDP); t is the rate of backtracking.

Theoretically, the maximum amount of crooked Laffer ’s allowance to be calculated is the optimal value for the lower rates, which guarantee the maximum cost of grocery items to the budget. Soundly, by-product and third-party analysis of the Laffer’s function for the collection of data, and identifiable curves for the skin-specific economy.

I’ll take a look at the backward part of the problem of financing the budget deficit. Vidomo, scho zrostannya sovereign vitrates stimulate zrostannya virobnitsva. In other words, for the singing minds of the competitive economy and the low-inflation regime, budget deficit is stimulating. The budget may be positive, the surplus will be deficient in the phase of the last economic cycle, and in the future, the mother will be deficient in the lower phase.

Regulyuvannya budget deficit to lay down the nature of nature and the method of financing. A standard analysis of the reasons for the deficiency of health is a breeze to encourage the “budget of great interest”, which should be provided for those who are deficient in additional support (for more than one active state), and It’s acceptable that I show the Laffer’s curve, that the margin of interest is not far from the optimal value, and if you want to replace the actual rate for a potential deficit, you’ll be sure to see a profit. In such a situation it is natural to allow, because of the deficiency, lack of oath of virobnitz. From now on, as a whole, in the first place there is a decrease in interest rate in the minds of a decline in virobility, then the result will be, moreover, weakened recession.

Treba means, which is more popular than balancing the budget, seemingly zagagli, not right. The budget, for those who want to get more vitrates, is not є neutral, but an incentive є growth of virobnitz. Odnak zrostannya virobnitstva, if the detachment will protect you from the budget balance, є minimalnym. The inefficiency of such a budget can be explained by the irregularity of multipliers of revenue and vitality, which is possible by using simple models for sales and services.

Let the real market go, the goods and services are sold, there is a need to interchange in order to aggregate income Y dear to the oaths, aggregate vitrat E. For a linear model of Keynes’s real market, you don’t get to the core of the system’s behavior, but if you want to get more involved in the revenue function de tents are pulled together fіksovany:

At the point of real income market for income, it’s important that you don’t have to rest in income, it’s the minimum income (the scalar form is simple (14.1)):

For exogenously assigned tasks, such as pose for the model, the value of the investment and sovereign vitrates I , G > 0 is more important than the real income of the road:


In order to achieve a small number of points of interest for the market of goods and services, it is obvious that with the theorem on waking up functions, think about them, as a rule, you get involved in such things as to look around, if there are functions:


To ensure that the income is more parametrically deposited in the form of the state assets and taxes ( G і T відповідно) For a given model of the reaction of the equal income to the amount of budgetary expenses of the budget

and the reaction of equal income to winter income (for fiscal liability, vitrat) -

The reaction rates are denoted by differentials (14.16) for the most recent arguments.

Fiscal policy , yak polyga at zmіnі obyagіv sovereign (government) vitrat і obyagіv tax, wiklikє zmіni rivuzhna important income by the amount

Kotra for this model is written as follows:

Rivne important dokhid be indemnified ( dY * = 0);


Otzhe, neutral for a balanced income є budget with a surplus (surplus). Navpaki, in the minds of the increase in the number of expenses and the level of expenses, that is, to the budget

trivial dost zrostatime, ale in the least admissible oaths, which show rivality:

At the end of the year the multiplier of the balanced budget is more expensive , but it means that the balance of income is higher and the income is higher than real income, but the proportion is less than 1: 1.

From now on, the budget without justification is not є neutral (neutral policy) in terms of income, but є an incentive, even if it’s minimal, up to virobnitz. In addition to budget imbalances, I would like to have the most efficient, but rather convenient way to stimulate the radio, rather than use a quick viro tool.