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|home Management Lecture notes Management of special projects (compendium of lecture NUPSU)|
Management of special projects (compendium of lecture NUPSU)
In investment practice, as a rule, you need to pick up a bag of pennies, to invest in a project with a bag of pennies, as an investor, you can make up your mind to complete the investment period. For the total sum of pennies in half an hour with a sum of pennies, I’ll be victorious in understanding maybutnya and now a penny for the pennies.
Maybutnya there’s a bunch of pennies - that’s the sum of money, go to yakin guilty over through the hour markings, put in a year-on-month percentage penny.
Rosrakhunok Maybutnoy wartosti pennies povyazaniya with the process of increasing (compounding) cobs.
Narashchuvannya - the whole year of making a sum of money with a penny as a donation to some sum of interest payments.
For the raffle of maybutnoy wartost pennies, the formula for folding percentages is:
FV = P (1 + r) n,
de: FV (Future value) - maybutnya vartіst pennies; P (present value) - cob invested sum; r- rate%, but the rate of income; n - number of periods, for percent interest (1 + r) n is the multiplier of the build-up (compounding).
A foldable percentage is the sum of the income, as the investor as a result of investing a singing sum of pennies is wise, a simple percentage does not get paid for the cutaneous period, but being paid the sum of the main contribution and bring income.
The interest rate is not the only way the instrument is on the increase of the value of the money, the rate is the standard rate of the investment operation.
Multiplier of increase (compounding) - Maybutnya one of the biggest pennies for Denmark hour, invested for the singing period for bid.
The bank will repay 5% of the original foreign currency deposit. At the official rate with the formula of maybutny wartost pennies of $ 100, you will be paid for your deposit on a yearly basis through the public address:
FV1 = $ 100 (1 + 0.05) = $ 105
As a rule, you violated the deposit of one amount for one deposit, then, for example, another contribution to the deposit becomes:
FV2 = $ 105 (1 + 0.05) = $ 110.25,
but for the formula:
FV2 = P (1 + r) 2 = $ 100 (1 + 0.05) 2 = $ 110.25
Nowadays (today) the interest of pennies is the sum of the Maybut’s pennies, brought up to the point of interest for the interest rate, but the norms of income.
Nowadays, the penny of pennies is for the formula:
PV = ,
de: PV (present value) - now the art of pennies.
For example, an investor wants to make $ 200 through 2 rockies. Yaku Sumin is guilty of the deposit on a yearly basis, what is the interest rate to become 5%? It is possible to signify for an additional formula:
PV2 = = $ 181.4
Rosrahunok of present-day vartosti pennies is called the process of discounting Maybutnoy vartosti pennies. The wording of the formula is “discount”, the process of discounting is the process of besting. The quantity r is called the discount rate, but simply the discount , and the quantity (1 + r) n is the multiplier of the discount.
Discount - the interest rate, yakosovosuyut to penny sums, as an investor planє to be approved in maybutnym so that you can see the difference in investment at this time. When voznachennі discount rates vrakhovoyut such principle:
- h dvokh maybutnіh nadhodzhen I look for a discount rate matime te, scho nadіyde pіznіche;
- What are the lower signatures of Risen Risik, the lower is guilty of a lower discount rate;
- As a rule, the interest rates on the market grow, grow and discount rates.
The discount can be changed, as a rule є the prospect of a full business, lower interest rates and interest rates. As a rule, the discount is reduced, then it’s just now the opportunity for income.
Discount multiplier - in- line wart 1 penny for a period n, discounted on a discount r for a leather period.
Rosrahunok maybutnyaya and nowadays vartosti pennies can be zrobiti for the help of a good sound abo financial calculator, as well as for the help of a financial table, as if hovering in the supplements to the given handcuff. The financial tables have horizontal interest rates, and vertical ones have the interest number. On the other hand, you can know the value of the multiplier multiplied by discount.
Obviously, if you see two different projects with the same period of sale, lower discount rates, then you can sign up now and again, so you can completely vibrate them.
In order to formulate effective strategic and tactful programs, the company needs to conduct a regular diagnostic test of the projects and direct the project ahead (I want to see the results of a retrospective diagnosis).
The accuracy of the diagnostic analysis is to lay down the image of the criteria for evaluating the input, the investment rate, the complex factors, the frequency, the time period must be adjusted correctly.
Sufficiency of criteria, which can be used to evaluate efficiency and investment can be divided into two groups: dynamic (such as hourly factor) and static (regional). The classification methodology for evaluating the criterion is shown in Fig.2.9.
Fig. 2.3. Klasifіkatsіya kіlkіsnyh methods ots otsіnki іinvestitsіynih drafts
Dynamical indicators are also called discount indicators, so they stink based on the current value of the discount (discounted) flow of funds, so you can invest the money.