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Tsini tsinova polіtika - Tormosa Yu.G.


4.1. Vitratny Methods

In market minds, the price, as a rule, is to be established on the basis of the principle of communication and presentation. Ale tse doesn’t mean that you don’t take any part from the established price. Smell, until the cob of realizatsii goods, vrachovuyu yogo yakіsnі characteristics, mayuchi rozrahunkovuyu value of vitrates, know the price of the competition and the living drink on the market, fix the form for the future price of their products. For such a cob value, the goods must be sold to the market, in the process of buying and selling the product in full and in small quantities, and the remaining price will be fixed.

Vihidna tsina maє buti in the range between the midst low price, the yak is not a profit, the higher and higher, the yak streams. To the minimum, it is possible to identify a product of its own, and the maximum - the wisdom of the unlimited power of goods. Prices of goods and competitors and goods of analogue to average the average price, for some need to spiral when installed price (Fig. 4.1).

Officials, what to think about?

Fig. 4.1. Officials, what to think about?

On this way, you’ll almost need to spiral when there’s a problem with the vibrator method of picking up the price. Існує to finish bagato methods іnnіvvorennya, yakі zmіnuyutsya іd idle times to finish folding, ale zhoden from them is not є universal. It’s independent, on the market minds, it’s best to stiffen the method, so as to base your mind on:

- vitrati;

- will drink;

- competition.

Methods of secrecy , scho т Runt on vrahuvannі vitrat are called vitratny. Before them, introduce the method of new vitrates, the method of premiums, the method of total profit and the aggregate method.

Viznazhennya price by the method of fresh vitrates to spiral on the calculation of products, before a certain value is reached a margin (table. 4.1).

Table 4.1



Suma, UAH

Povna sobvartіst virobu






The head of the move given to the method is the ease of rozrahunkіv. Ale vіn maє two true shorts. In the first place, when the price is fixed, the official will not be taken to respect the official and the competition. That situation is possible, if the goods for such a price do not bother with food, how much competition competes for cheap products, but rather for the price. In a different way, visnazhennya vitrat doesn’t mean that we have violated obligations. Ale vidomo, scho zbіlshennya abo change to the release of goods in the wiklikaє singing parts of vitrati, and later on, they have their own single products.

The method of the region of higher vitality is the basis for the practice in our country of the practice of directive decision-making, in the tradition of organizing food production, with the main title, for virobnitstvo, and not for drink. We have a method for victorious in market minds, if you need to set the price for a fundamentally new product, not the same as the analogs, but also to a comrade, who rely on zamovlennya.

The commercial and intermediary organization, when the price is realistically widespread, the method of premiums is widespread, and the main part of the product is purchased before purchase. For раї rakhunok intermediaries to secure a copy of their vitrata and gained a favor. The indicated allowances can be added without a cross between the lower level and one but one (standard). Victoria of standard allowances, as a rule, is ineffective, since it’s not so bad to keep the special features of in-line drink. Protein in the country with a market economy of standard bonuses to pay more for a wide range of furnishings. In the first place, the seller is more familiar with his vitrati, now he will have a drink on the product, but I can help you to help the process of recognizing the price. In a different way, the victory of standard premiums is increased by sellers who are responsible for the competitive price, which is a significant change in competition.

Practice shows, generally, sales, yakі pratsyut on competitive markets, mainly vikoristovuyu rіznі the size of the premiums, yakі zmіnuyutsya fallowy іd group goods, skinny season is thin. By such methods of differentiation є stimulation of the sale of goods. The differentiation of the middle premiums is already not due to the costly cost of getting ready, but the next one is to buy something.

Prior to the new methods, it’s also necessary to establish a method of zero-bit inconvenience and a complete loss, in case you have to set up such a price, in order to secure net income. You have to use the method to scroll to the graph of zero bitterness, a kind of image and vitality of the oath of a virus’s oblique when there is a winter sale. Victory table 3.4, I will prompt a graph of bezbitkovosti for the option, if the price of viroba becomes 40 UAH (Fig. 4.2).

Countless Bezel

Fig. 4.2. Countless Bezel

As you can see from the graph, the permanent vitriages do not change indefinitely in the form of oversight of realizatsii, but the total, so that the total amount of the permanent and vitrified ones are immediately apparent from the oversight of the realizatsii. The curve of the virus is repaired from zero signs and signs to the point that the products are sold.

Mіssets peretinu lіnіy viruchki and the latest vitrates are called the point of free-of-charge. I’m showing you an oath of realization, with a kind of virus I’ll have a little more protection, and a little extra cost is zero. The sector where the right-hand side is located is the point of view of the image, and the right-hand sector is the sideway of realizing products.

At our application for the protection of bezbitkovostі pіdpriєemstvom need the necessary virobity and vіdpovіdno sell yak minimum 9.6 thousand. virob_v, and for gaining a little extra for rozmіrі 135 yew. UAH yomu treba realizuvatshi 5.4 tis. single products. Such a profit can be gained, realized, and less products, ale for higher value. Odnak pidvishchennya price when you bring up the change in sales and the buyer can not add a change in the number of products. All of this is to lay down the elastichnosti for the price, since the graph is without a bit of bitterness.

I’ll sell out with a bezbitny oath and the highest possible sale, so that I can get better from forecasted rozrahunky, be called a stock of financial security. Vin deducted from vidotskah to ochikuvanogo oath sale. So, in our application, without a bit of money, the sale becomes 9.6 thousand. pcs., and forecasts - 15 thousand. pcs., then the stock of financial safety deposits is 36% [((15 - 9.6) / 15) 100]. What is the best indicator, the type of security еч the situation and the lesser number of products. More information: as a matter of fact, the stock of financial security is less than 5-7% of the total sale price, then there is a great deal of prosperity, but in practice there is no need to take advantage of bazhena, and there is no way to reach it.

The point of bezbitkovostі can be known and analiticheskim. Vaughn, as a rule, is recognized in natural units (most products), but it is possible to turn up and down in penny form. Bezbitkovostі point in natural vimіrі (Tb) is calculated for the formula:

Bezbitkovostі point in natural vimіrі

de suma postіynih vitrat - the sum of the post vitality;

ЗВ - Змінні Vitrati per unit of production;

C - price virobu;

MD - marginal income per unit of production (pet marginal income).

According to the formula, it is possible to identify the additional agreements for the supply of products. Turn around to our butt, let’s assume that you can afford to please 15 thousand yards. Virobiv for a price of 40 UAH apiece. Rosrachunks show that the sum of the permanent Vitrats for the Holy See becomes 240 yew. UAH, and the average Vitrati per unit of production will be more than 15 UAH. For vkazanih minds point zzbitkovostі dorіvnyuvatime 9.6 yew. virobam [240: (40 - 15)]. For the sake of understanding, those who want to have a good deal with such a contract, will be compensated for the fact that they’ll be able to sell their products. Vihodyachi iz tsogogo, marginal income on one unit to solve the problems, by the day is a clean move, the igniter rozmir yak vid sale of 5.4 thousand. single products to become 135 thousand. UAH [(40 - 15) 5,4].

As a rule, you have to compete, if you also want to deny that you want to change the way, and you can give the deputy a chance to understand the reason for the lower value of the products. Ale virobnik was guilty of urahuvati when tsomu, so in order to deny such a hint to you, you need to take care of the greater number of products. Urakhovucci, which means that they didn’t have to compensate for their vitrati, but to take away the entire income (HR), to see the minimum liability, the formula:

viznashennya minima

For example, the violator proponeє to the deputy zmenshiti price up to 35 UAH. For the whole time, the point of the free-for-all will be known in 12 thousand yards. virob_v [240: (35 - 15)], and for gaining a total benefit in exchange, 135 tis. UAH yomu needy virobity 6.75 thousand yew. one product [135: (35 - 15)]. Thus, the contract will need to steer the yak minimum for 18.75 thousand. virobiv.

Prodovuzhuyuchi butt, permissible, scho pіdpriemstvo mazlivost on vilnyh extrusions virobity more than 1.25 thousand. virobiv. Ale taka dodatkova product range can be sold on the market for 26 UAH per unit. Rozrahunki show, what is the price to navigate the news, the price is 27 UAH [15 + (240: 20)]. At first glance, see the virobnitstvo of such a batch of products, bring to them a little bit of zits for cutaneous virobi in the amount of one hryvnia. Ale treba pam'yatati, the whole sum of the old vitrums is already compensated for by the implementation of 12 thousand. virobіv pershії partії. To this end, winnings for virobnitsto single products of pre-paid parties will be more expensive to winnings, and a profit - to marginal income. The result of the sale of pre-dairy products is to gain a net gain of 13.75 thousand yards. UAH [(26 - 15) 1.25].

It is aggregated when formulated to aggregate . Of course, the essence of the test lies in the fact that the price is indicated as the price of the warehouse parts of the goods, to which the vitrati are completed. The aggregate method is stowed, first of all, if the goods are stored with ready-made products (furniture, furniture, tables), and in another way, if products are wired up with items, knotted parts (control panels).