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Tsini tsinova polіtika - Tormosa Yu.G.


5.1. See the call prices

The market of foreign trade is a foldable system, so as to have a great deal of great marketability of goods and services, which may change their specifics. Such is the specificity of the zoom of official recognition, as well as the increase in price, the dynamic and dynamic of the historical prices. In addition, the manifestation of a significant number of prices on the domestic market is also summarized by the increased commercial supply of goods, the nature of the trading premises and the last officials. With all the different prices of the available market, you can subscribe to the prices, singing rates, contracts, prices of basic supply minds, export, import and export.

Svitovye tsini - all the price, for such a large export and import operations, which characterize a significant world to characterize the stan of international trade in specific goods. If you are interested in export and import operations, please note:

- on a regular basis, fragments of price of non-traditional lands are not є showable;

- in the minds of a viable trade and political regime, there is more room for closure of economic closeness between the borders (the price of a “closed market”), but they cannot be light;

- in foreign currency conversion.

Prior to acquiring the price of the most reliable and postal managers, I should take a significant part in the obscure liability of similar products, which will be implemented on the mainstream market. Look at the middle of the mind, think about the realization of the real goods.

Occasionally, from the special needs of the international market, as a rule, two main groups of special prices are different: based on the raw resources, I’m ready to prepare production of industrial products.

In practice, the price of the comrade’s comrade is recognized as the highest price of the Ukrainian exporters and the price of the auction. So, for naphtha, with the highest prices for export prices of the OPEC member countries, for wheat, for export prices in Canada and the United States, for papyrs - export prices in Finland, for rubber - prices in London, and for basic goods in London that of the St. Petersburg Auction.

With the best prices for ready-made production of sample production, please say є export prices for the latest products, as well as special offers for the production of this type of product. So, by car, that possession of light and price over European, American and Japanese virobniks. As a rule, there are a hundred of the most important products, which are the most significant number of products, not a quick acceleration, of which there are clearly ready-to-use products for setting a price, a clear view of the required indicators, and a need to synchronize with a number of similar products.

Depends on the type of market prices and prices for trading, prices for commodity auctions and prices for trading.

Bіrzhovі kotiruvannya - the whole price of a specially organized post-market market, as well as the same goods. On commodity markets syrovine is sold, comrades of the Silkospodar and Mineral Traders (pilomaterials, bavovna, cows, grain, chukor, kava, colors and expensive metals). At present, it is possible to engage in foreign trade through sales of over 50 types of goods, and in case of a fall 15-20% of the export of exported goods in the country. Bіrzhovі kotiruvannya, from one side, with prices of real contracts, and from the other - to become victorious as if they were set on a comrade, who would be realizing for petty pleasures.

The price of international commodity auctions - the price of the public sale of the goods (lot) that is usually looked around by buyers, as a rule, for the maximum price. Auction bidding is special for realizing singing goods and being held, call one or the other one at a time. The specialty of the auction is the fact that there are large numbers of customers who have significant number of buyers and one sellers, as well as those who have a view to the operation of the goods with real goods.

The hour of auction trading is open starting price, price of auction croque and value of actual sales. Riven of starting price, from which bidding is fixed, to lay down the form of the product and to the product, the special offer, the periodic bidding and the latest officials. Starting price may be the price of the latest auction. The price of the auction kroku is the price of the price, I’m re-starting the start-up and reluctant to become a potential buyer. The price of the actual sale is the price of the price, the price is higher than the starting price for the price of the auction.

Stayed for an hour the price of auction is to become affiliated with the products of the state and the state thanksgiving, ribalism, country comrades, tea, expensive stones, antiques and objects of mystery.

By the type of price of international commodity auctions є fuchersnі prices. Futures - the price is term for pleasing the sales of singing products for knowing the delivery of supplies at the end of the line. It’s not worth recognizing that there are no other benefits for the minds of consumers and those who are big buyers.

The prices of the auction and the publication are published in special newsletters, as are the appearance of the auction and the auction committees.

The price of sales is the price of the special form of specialized trading, such as choosing the right to supply goods, but excluding the order for the completion of the song for the mind and declaring a special document. By way of drawing such a form of trade, there are a lot of competitors, like to have your own project for the weekend of singing robots, with some kind of deputy deputy who is most important, for that number. International bidding is carried out with technically folding and capital products of machine blowing (energetic and metallurgical installation of steel, light ship, and a vessel). The prices of bargains will cover approximately one third of all export prices by car and ownership. In addition, at the auction they will be evaluated on business days, automobile and public roads, bridges, power plants, hotel and cars.

As a result of bargaining, so much so much to be readily produced, I want information about the month and the term of the latest meetings regularly to be given in official (sound the official) handicap, special newsletters, and other newsletters.

You can also serve our servants as an alternative when formulating the prices of international contracts. Depending on the type of fixed contractual price, you can subscribe to five main types: solid, rugged, offensive, fixed and closed.

The price is firmly established at the time of signing the contract and be indefinitely extended by the long term of the term. Such a price is overwhelmingly victorious in favor of a short delivery line, if one doesn’t have to pay attention to prices. For contracts with a delivery term, as a rule, a prefix should be entered: “price is firm, delivery is not guaranteed”.

Price is called a price , it is also fixed in the contract, but it can be looked at, at the time of delivery of the goods, the price is changed. At the end of the contract, the contract shall be entered as zealous, in the event of transferring corrected information to the new owner, until the time of the weekend please give the price of the goods to the market. As a rule, the contract stipulates the minimum price of the fixed price set in the land, and there is no need to look at the contract price between the boundaries. Basically, the allowable margin of income is 2-6%. With the help of the necessary requirements, the contractual price of the rugged price, the contract includes a dzherelo, of which it is possible to deny the information of the date of the return of the price.

In case of offensive fiscal congestion at the falls, if the contract expires on the contract, it will come out more significantly than the price, because it’s important to convey that value with adequate world accuracy. At such a time in the contract, the price of information is that date, which is the price. Dzherelyami information about the price can be but the list of quotes, price lists of companies, the price of the actual land of competition is very thin. Termіn fіksuvannya tsіn mozhe buti povryna calendar date, day of the goods of purchasers і that ін. Denmark is a way to fix the price, as a rule, to win contracts with a term of up to one fate.

Kovzayuchi prices are locked in pre-contractual contracts for the supply of collapsible goods and unique goods, which can mean the most important terms (rolling mill, ship). Such a price is indicated at the time of the end of the contract by a glance at a glance at the cob contractual price. The reason for this overlook is that there is no need for vitrata on virobnitstvo products, as if they were looking for a stretch of the weekend to please.

Kovzayucha price, the formula of which is identified in the contract, is stored in two parts: basic and regular. The base price for the establishment of the structural units (for example, material vitrati —50%, salary - 30%, invoice vitrati — 20%) is redeemed by the parties when the contract is signed. Zmіnna viznachaetsya at the time of the end of the contract with a hat, a redrawer of the structure of the price, the zoomed-out ziminami at the vitrats. Kintseva kovzayucha price, as a rule, be counted for with this formula:

Kovzayucha Tsina (5.1)

de Central Committee - kovzayucha tsina;

Central Bank - the base price;

А І В - a part in the price of payment for material and payment;

C - invariable part of the price, to which you enter the invoice vitrati, a side of that main warehouse (the sum A + B + C is guilty of road 1);

MP і MB - vіdpovіdno is threaded і base middle price of materials;

ЗП і ЗБ - відповідно itemized and basic base payment rate pratsі.

When a covenant price is established, singed obmezhuvalny minds may be entered into the contract. For example, with such a mental є it was installed at the bank to the agreed price of the boundary, until such a price is not looked at. An interim clerk may also have a border that is limited to a contractual price (for example, not more than 10% of foreign coverage) that is called a limitation.

You can redeem the wealth, but the expansion is not extended to the whole sum of vitrats, but more to the singing element (for example, to material resources). In addition, the price of the contract may not cover the entire term of the contract, but a smaller period, for example, the first half of the period.

In practice, there is a chance to fix the cost, as long as the frequency of the contract is written for an hour, and the form is formulated as a contract. At tsyomu vipadok price is called zmіshanyu.

When the contract price of the singing product is established, the price is the same, as is the basis, the formal obligation is corroborated. To clarify this, the parameters for the product, in order to sort the contract in and out, are likely to be seen quietly, some have formed a price tag. Transition of the contract to the contractual price is recognized as the key to the consolidation of the new amendments. With this amendment, in front of є it is marked by the type of currency, for which pleases will be laid. Zdebilshogo such a currency є American-sky dolar. Ale schodo deyakih goods і іvrahovyvatsya bargaining traditions. So, in contracts for steel, the price is traditionally victorious at Swedish kronor, and on color metal and rubber - pounds sterling.

Dal zasosovyvatsya amendments for payment, as if you can zdіsnyuvayutsya gotіvkoyu, advance payment on credit. The price of the product is contractual, which is paid in advance, but it’s less, less for a sale on credit. As the subject of the contract is the production of a virological and technical designation, then the amendments shall be changed for completeness, serity and that. Amendments to the complete set are staggered when the price is indicated for folding construction, as long as they can be varied, and the amendments to the standard are for the products, so that they can be used in the new installments.

The new type of amendments when establishing contract prices is the basis of supply. With them, you can think of the way to buy and sell the goods (buy and sell) the price of transport, transport, insurance, insurance and goods at the time of the opening of the first border of the city.

Kozhna Kraina is a member of historical, economic and economic minds of its own rules of trade. In this case, when signing up for international trading lands, you may be able to understand the unfortunate reasons you need to understand until they understand. By way of unique recognition, the International Chamber of Commerce has broken down the International Rules for the Enclosure of Commercial Land - “ Incoterms ”, as bullets were first published in 1936. These rules establish the basis for the supply of goods, to identify the requirements for the seller and the buyer, for sale and for the sale, as well as for the completion of the contract.

In Ukraine, the basic way of delivering is regulated by the rules of Incoterms at the editorial office of 1990 p., Although I want to have the same practical rules as before at the editorial office of 2000 p. The rules include 13 basic delivery minds, which are irrelevant, the seller and the buyer goiters. The reason for the delivery of the goods is the same as the price for the delivery, but there are several options: E, F, C, 5.1.

Persha of the “E” group to pay only one umu (EXW) - “ex works”, for which it’s practically all the way and delivery of goods until delivery is carried out by the buyer. I’m selling only the goods at my factory (warehouse) and I don’t have to carry the goods for the first time.

A friend of the “F” group (the main freight of non-rallies) has about three basic options (FCA, FAS, FOB), it’s only the seller who is responsible for delivering the goods to the merchant, who is a kind of visitor. If you are a re-carrier, you can’t get not only a company, but a shorter delivery of goods, but a freight forwarder, a shipping office and a transport.

The third group “C” (the main freight of rallies) to take revenge on some of them (CFR, CIF, CPT, CIP), for some sellers I will pay for the goods transported before the contract is paid, I don’t have to pay for the tickets, but I’ll have to pay a fee .

Up to the fourth group of “D” (arriving) enter five basic delivery minds (DAF, DES, DEQ, DDU, DDP), which characterize the maximum requirements and the maximum sales force. For these minds, vin nese vse vitrati and riziki, yakі pov'yazanі with the delivery of goods to the edge of the country.

Table 5.1




Umovi Incoterms

Transport (type of transport)

International name is spoken

Ukrainian Equivalent

Be yaky



Returned goods


Franco-factory (mіsstazaznachene)



Basis of transportation not paid


Franco-translator (mice assigned)



Free vzdovzh board of the vessel (port of delivery of meanings)



Free on board (port vіdvantazhennya meanings)



Mostly paid


Vartіst and freight (port of appointment of values)



Vartіst, insurance freight (... port of appointment)



Moved paid up to (... Miscellaneous assigned)



Moved and insurance paid up to (... the price is higher)



Delivery of goods


Delivery to the cordon (... m_stce assigned)



Delivered ex-sling vessel (... port of destination)



Delivered to Franco-embankment, mito rallied (... port for the designation of meanings)



Delivered, mitone rallied (... a special appointment is assigned)



Delivered, mito rallied (... Miscellaneous appointed)


The Incoterms rules also mean the type of transport (type of transport), which may be more vivid with the usual con tracts, which are laid down for singing minds. “Incoterms - 90” provides the basis for all basic supply minds. So, FOB (aboard on board) is a good idea, for example, only for water transport. Won means that the seller for his own money is guilty of delivering the goods to the port specified in the contract and loading the ship on board. Zobov'yazannya shodo delivery to invade the goods on the basis of the fact that the goods are crossed by the ship's handrail. At the whole moment, all the necessary goods (freight, mito, tax) and the cost of the goods, but to take the goods for yourself, take the buyer.

Umova DAF (delivered to the cordon) means that the seller will repay transport vitrati and take on the costumes to the point on the cordon designated by the contract, but before entering the “mitniy cordon” of the country. Crossing the door to the seller until the purchase of a good-to-snooze at the time of arrival of the goods in the value item. You should be able to stagnate, with the leading rank, when transporting goods by automobiles or by motor transport, but you can be victorious and when transported.

Umova DDP (delivered in the month of appointment with the payment of Meat) will expand on all types of transport and mean maximum goitre sales. Vin nese vі vitrati і riziki, including meita, taillights and gifts, delivery of goods. Transition of goods to the seller before the purchase at the time the goods are transferred to the buyer at the point burned by the parties.