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Commodity Innovation Policy - Kardash V.Ya.

Rozdil 1. GOODS AND YOGA AUTHORITIES

1.1. Viznachennya klasifіkatsііnі signs of goods and services

For David Rikardo and the representative of the classic school of economy of the term “ products ”, “ goods ”, “ viir ” meant no more, as a result of virological business, which were available for sales. Also, the product and product are more widely used in marketing marketing. The water-hour of a commodity is more difficult to understand, more complicated is the bug of the authorities, which are the main ones for them, which are the goods for satisfying the song of a consumed hairline.

None of the economical literature is often related to the goods purchased, such as the American B. Stenton’s: “a complex of public and non-public authorities, prior art packaging, color, price, prestige, and retail sale, respect it. "

All-American Witnesses American economist F. Kotler respects the leather goods зас “physical hassle”, which brings to life the problem of the work of the servant of the Orthodox Church of the Corinthians. Vizneshennya otdy product F. Kotler polyagay in this: "All goods are all those who need to satisfy their needs, I will need and enjoy the market by the method of reverence of respect, pribannya, vikoristannya, but anyway live." It seems that, prior to marketable propensity, it is necessary to impose material benefits, servants, additional services, benefits, specialties, property, organization, information and information [37, 38]. From the next page, the whole group is obediently hacking such a zagal.

In the first place , leather goods of low power are leathery, however, the buyer of the best is respect less for those, as I need them more.

In a different way, a leather buyer of vibirae goods, the buy-in of power of a certain kind of security, you may be more satisfied with your price, because of the need to protect your special needs (Fig. 1).

Sufficiency of power of the virobu

Fig. 1. The sufficiency of the power of the viroba, which is to be spent on the effectiveness of

Spozhivach, otsіnuyuchi goods, іstavlyayogo yogo cinnamon and vitrati on dandy. Corinosity of goods, I can see right away, get out of the way, I can help you to solve problems. The water hour of corynsis and corysis cannot be respected by the synonyms. Zrozumіlo, scho korisnіst a specific product for those who are good and who is better. For example, eyepieces є succumbly cinnamon for humans iz vadami zoru, ale voni ni to whom lyudin iz normal zorim. Evaluation of the product’s needs to develop and solve the problem of storing not only technological characteristics, constructive, physical and chemical characteristics, but the psychological process of combining and informing about the product. Success of the product on the market is more than possible, as long as there’s a price for good and good. Spogivach to rob a specific vibration of the mid-competitive proponuvany tіlki on the front of the rosumіnny rozumіnnya іnnіsnyh overwhelming.

From now on, one way to the ambush position for marketing is the importance of the product being identified as the most common type of business (functional, positive) and the actual amount of money for living in that country. Formalization and graphical interpretation of the postulate can be seen in the image, images in Fig. 2.

The price of goods with a look

Fig. 2. The price of the product as I see it right now

We will point out more than two identical commodity proponuvs with good vibe, the price of which is better than one.

H rules comrade klasifikuyut yak spozhivchі (special vikoristannya) and virobnichnogo designation. The goods of the skin group are identified by the nature of living, and by the motives of dowry. Kupіvlya goods of a special vikoristannya - the act of full will to buy any homeland in whole. Pridbannya goods virobnichogo appropriation for health on the part of the collective number of people who need to relocate on the public administrative roads. The goods of a special vikoristannya (good) are most often classified through the peculiarities of a vikoristannya and the behavior of a good.

Depends on the features of the living experience:

1) comrade of a short-hour victoria, I’ll live one day at least (toothpaste, bread, newspapers), after which I have to buy something like that;

2) a comrade of the pre-Gostrokovo vikoristannya, who shine with them at the very end of the trivial hour until the arrival of new ones (blown up, furnished);

3) servants, so that sale is possible at the Viglyad singing days, at the same time.

The services of the zodіlshogo rozumіyut yak korisnі dії (come in), which is one side of the building is in good condition. The servants can be but as material, so not material, so as not violated in speech form. Kintsevym result of material servants є fused products. All in all, prepared, prepared for dimming, repairing a car, sewn cloth, selling goods, moving a plunger, imposing a zvyazka system, operating with valuable folders, as well as materials in contracts in general, then Non-material (non-vital) servants, as a rule, cherish the seamless satisfaction of the social, cultural, physical, ethical, intellectual and spiritual needs of the indium. Such servants brow, for example, install the patient’s physically; the one in the sanatorium; vidvuduvach restaurant, pool, perukarnі; tourist, passenger, student, graduate student; glances at the theater, vidvuduvach museum. Independently for the whole рhnyu rіznomanіtnіst, well servants can be divided into three categories: povyazanі with rented goods; with the goods; special services. Violation of services is necessary, there aren’t any people in ready-made services and services for the needs of consumers and organizations: maintenance and repair, possession of equipment, protection, protection. It is especially important to follow up with the business servants of the organization management, advertising, regional audit.

Zrostannya odyagіv pressure on the servants from the public economy to clarify the benefits of the population, the best of the hours, the accelerated goods, which require technical knowledge for their services. Unfortunately, the sphere of services in Ukraine is moving to a low level. About the goal of achieving the results of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (Table 1).

Table 1

THE VAGA'S PITOMA PRATSIVNIKIV AT THE RISE SPHERES OF THE ECONOMY (1996 p.)

Territories

Service area

Promislovіst

Сільське і лісове statehood

USA

71.1

26.2

2.7

Great Britain

67.7

29.8

2,5

France

64,2

29.4

6.2

Japan

58.6

33.8

7.6

Ukraine

33.1

45.1

21.8

The services are also available for sale, ale nematerіnіst bagatokh іz them rob vib_r for well then there is a foldable, nib vib_r real product. Virobnik servants make the most of your contact with us, the servant of the servants of the indivisibles, and the nature of the zdebshih did not give the help of them to transport, to pack. I zumovlyuє "shvidke vmirannya" servant, fragments immoderately shut off хhhnі stock. Bagato’s servant took it impolitely to see that he was nad, - a likar, teacher, lawyer (Fig. 3).

Characteristics of special services

Fig. 3. Characteristics of special services

Respecting the patent non-materiality of patent service is also practically impractical. It’s stinky to lie down more than a producer and an hour of nadannya. Besides, after serving as a servant, you have the right to attend services, but before you do not transfer the right of authority to any other services, please. The water hour, from the first look, the servants can change the number of hours of physical objects, the number of strategic positions, the number of product packaging, the long-term segment of the retail market, sub-active and material officials of virobnitstva.

Pridbannya virobіv short-hour vikoristannya that the service is superconducted by the frequent contacts of the buyer and seller. In order to do this, think for the form in the “preference to brand” form. Zrozumіlo, with a new, pre-intellectual change of mind, product and service culture.

Virobi pre-gostrochnyy vikoristannya, and, moreover, greater than virobnichogo designation, to require greater efforts for organizing the sale of the form "conformity to the brand."

On the basis of the behavior of purchasers, living with the sound of a different name are such a comrade (Table 2):

1. Increased consumerism, which should be bought with minimal gains for the same type of similar goods (breadth, special gifts). Dodatkovo Center for:

  • comrade of fast food (like buying regularly - sil, zucor, tea, cava);
  • comrade мп impulsive куп purchase (in order to buy food in vain, unplanned consumption is unplanned, without the first joke and the second one is more than a cigarette, juvenile gummy, but periodically see the distribution tray);
  • a comrade for impudent consumers (buying a parasol’s half an hour of anger, beating for great frosts, having a good time for marriage of an electrician).

2 . Retail vibra , for the convenience of some customers who are eagerly buying the same goods with similar products, such as price, quality, and other characteristics. There are a number of goods (similar (televisions, refrigerators, computers) and dissimilar (flat, clothes, furniture) virobi.

3. Prestigious comrade, as it may be, there are unique characteristics, but asocious with the name of the producer company producer (perfumes of the French company, Japanese electronics).

4. Passive consumer goods, for no particular reason, for any other reason, there is no interest (through the higher prices, lack of information, marriage by advertising is skinny).

Table 2

CLASSIFICATION OF GOODS OF LARGE LIVING

Marketing officials

Everyday goods

Viboru retel goods

Prestigious Comrade

Passive Consumer Goods

Povedinka buyers

Part of the purchase without rozdumіv, with minimal effort for the time being

Periodical purchase for significant gains on the most important price, brightness, style of the brand of goods

Great zusilla pid hour of purchase, low price of responsiveness, significant preference to the number of vibration marks of goods

Low information about the product, weak interest to the price and value

Price

Nizkі

Middle

Temple

Різні

Sales for sale

Sales hello to the visually clever for the purchase of goods

Vibirkovy sales at Kіlkoh Kramnice

Exclusive sales in one place in the middle of the city in the vast market

In the winter months

The goods of the virobnichy prizhenennya are classifiable for such groups: basically possessed; additional possession; knots that aggregate; main materials; additional materials and syrovine (Fig. 4).

Classification of goods for the virological

Fig. 4. Classification of goods of the virological designation

As a rule, the profit of the main property is apportioned with an act of capital investment. Prior to the category of goods to introduce generators, importantly, that aggregate is skinny. Mainly possessed by two large groups: uni versal (bagato, standard) cars and special (non-standard) cars. Universally possessing victorious in the baggage halls of the industrial language in the environment for the visibility of professional views. Navpaki, specialized machines are designed and designed for the next fewer technological operations. Constructive non-negotiation of special ownership does not allow for the big deal. By the way, as a rule, the product is ready (ready for use). The product is available on-site. Vnodnosna nunchschist universal oznanannya rozshiruє ryzhmi spheres yogo zasosuvannya, forgive the oaths of the forefront technical and economic analysis and negotiating with buyers of sellers of the first dribannya.

Zrozumіlo, scho vartі additional support is significantly lower for wart_ main. It is explained that the wider range of additional features is standardized, so that you can adapt it for the next high-tech operations. For example, small turnovers, by the way, electric motors, tractors can be victorious at the winter stages of the viral processes in the winter galleys. Tom drank on the subject of ownership to finish a high and not disregard one galuzu. The name of the sale is the transfer of sales rozgaluzhenіshoі zbutovoї measure and the sales of the main possession. Zrozumіlo also, so that you can get the tune of the virobnik (seller) and the buyer will be completely different, we’ll hide the successful form in the form of “frivolity to the brand”.

Zagalniy filed prazі, specialization and cooperation of virology to bring in a safe economy to bring before you don’t need to keep up the regular virobiotic cycle: see the finished virobi. Naichastishe virobnichy process to take on yourself a small number of small businesses, a leather one and a single one of a large number of operations (stage processing material). At the end of the month, until the completion of the complete product of the Kintsev product, the viral processing process, by the day, will go through a warehouse of ready-to-use universities and aggregates, which should be bought from the third-party postmen. The first butt є sochasna automobile industry, television monitoring, electronic and electric technology. As a rule, as a rule, you need to buy the necessary units and aggregates in the bag. There is no need to repair great difficulties, repairing them is standardized (they are standardized (automobile tires, element base, electric motor). Prote virochnik kintsevo products, arranging contracts with shovels, rely on vibrations of such, as a guarantee of the availability of complete sets of elements and their own supply. Ninі with such a garantієyu vvazhayut nayavnіst on pіdpriєmstvah-postachalnikah sistemi upravlіnnya yakіstyu produktsії, rozroblenoї zgіdno of vimogami mіzhnarodnih standartіv serії ISO 9000 Krіm of virobnik produktsії pragne zmenshiti Quantity postachalnikіv, ale zberegti kіlka Jerel nadhodzhennya neobhіdnih vuzlіv that agregatіv. Such pіdkhіd ouzhlivlyuє permanent control over the content of the posters of goiters' terms and conditions of delivery, to keep up to a minimum oath of viral stocks.

The main materials бо for organic storage of ready-made products, as well as their own availability to be immediately transferred to the processing process (for example, chemical catalogs). One hundred percent of the main materials є the original system of sovereign or standard standards, which means you can use the latest language, methods of control, rules for saving and transporting. To that, the main officials to the seller of the main materials є vіdpovіdnіst cih materіalіv to the technical minds of virobnitsva and rozumnі price.

Also mean the same, most basic materials, especially high-tech and trivial victories, try to consume the needs of the servants. Dependent on the authority of the virobu consume in the service can transmit:

  • transport and storage;
  • installed installation;
  • technical servicing, servicing and maintenance servicing;
  • purification and vidnovlennya zovneshnogo viglyadu;
  • ecologically adequate disposal.

Supplementary materials do not become the material basis of the finished product. You’ll be reassured that you’ve got an hour of virology processes, but you’ll feel better to manage and manage them. Before them, you’re most likely to introduce farby, cute and cute, skilled materials, clean materials, office supplies. Widely, the wide range of subsidiary materials at the winter galleys is able to fix the methods of sale, analogous to the marketing of sales of goods.

Sirovinny comrade - the first comrade for promislovost. As a rule, the violinist of Sirovini is more likely to have more operational operations than to bring them to Russia, but to bring them to us from the standard standards. Syrovine may natural mineral. Prior to mineralizing, it is energy-energetic (naphtha, natural gas, vugіllya, uranium), hirnicho-hіmіchnu (ore, natural sulfur) and syrovine. HERE also lay syrovin for virobnitstva of weekly materials. Natural syrovine impart natural decorative materials, products of the peasants' statehood, products of rosini, products of cattle, livestock, as well as silver and ribbons. The very same commodity purchasers especially appreciate the value of the post-scholar.

A detailed description of the goods of the virologic designation (Table 3) can be seen in the words of J. R. Evans and B. Berman [24].

Meaning also means that, as a rule, it will be consumed with a comrade of a promisional designation of a maє sovy (secondary) character. At the same time, the rinkovy ekonomіtsi will have such a healthy meal — we’ll have a good meal for good friends and servants, for the sake of the need for such facilities, units, aggregates, syringes and materials. Zrozumіlo, scho kon'unkturnі kolivannya of the first r_z-

Table 3

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOODS OF VIROBILE APPOINTMENT

Indicator

Type of goods

Promislové

Dodatkovo possession

Sirovina

Components

Vigotovlenіdetalі

Reserve, as necessary for the regular function of the organization

Riven accept

High

Middle

Low

Low

Low

The lowest

Vidnosnі Vitrati

Temple

Middle

Nizkі

Nizkі

Nizkі

Nainizhchi

Shvidk_st residency

Duzhe is low

Low

Visoka

Visoka

Visoka

Visoka

Chi enter the Kintsev product, yak yogo organichna chastina

So

So

So

Chi form in the process of virobnitstva

So

So

Головна вимога споживачів

Trivial health care process

Ownership

Stability, performance, price, performance

Stability, reliability, specificity, specificity

Stability, performance

Стабільність, відповідність ціни

новиду товарів та послуг спричиняють адекватні зміни випуску продукції виробничо-технічного призначення. Попит на товари, які використовуються для ремонту та технічного обслуговування промислового обладнання, залежить від загального рівня ділової активності і визначається збутом усього асортименту промислових товарів. Проте попит на обладнання менше залежить від коливання цін, ніж попит на матеріали, вузли, агрегати тощо. На відміну від товарів широкого вжитку головними чинниками, спонукальними мотивами, які визначають прийняття рішень щодо придбання продукції виробничо-технічного призначення, є його якість, рівень технічного обслуговування, ціна.