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International markets and foreign exchange operations - Savluk M.І.

PART OF PERSHA. BASES OF ORGANIZATIONS AND MECHANISM OF THE MIDDLE ROSRAKHUNKIV

Rozdil 1. ZAGALNY FOUNDATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONS OF THE MIDDLE ROSRAKHUNKIV

Pislya vivchenny tsy rozdіlu v you can:

  • Explain that there are international rozrakhunki, who want to have a meeting with them, as well as how to pay;
  • z'yasuvati the role of national and collective currencies and gold in international razrahunok;
  • to give a description of the monetary and financial minds of foreign lands;
  • Explain how such practices are available in other ways and how to understand how to use them.

1.1. Understanding and seeing international roses. Payment Methods

Nowadays, the development of the economy is characterized by the lowest losses and the highest number of national economies, as well as the transfer of the most important international events. International razrakhunki - a lot of groceries rozrahunki between installations, enterprises, banks and other specialties, due to the collapse of commodity and material values ​​and the service of the international circulation. The basis for the implementation of international razrakhunіv є the challenge of trading, the frauds in front of us is clearly presented in the form of a greater number of newsletters at the international through the sale of goods, realizable costs and expenses.

International shopping centers include the sale of goods and services, as well as non-commercial operations, loans and foreign capital, including one for business and international customers.

The largest part of all international retail sales is the inter-regional commercial trade. The international trade operation is repaired by selling goods to an exporter to an importer. The sale process is an exchange of goods for a grocery equivalent. From the legal perspective of bargaining - the act, the hour of certain power (goods) is transferred to one party (seller) to the other (buyer) in exchange for the free trade off. Take the basics to the basic formula of K. Marx’s commodity offense “goods — pennies — goods”, which means, from the one side and the razrachunas, to put up the pace bag in the free-running process, while there is a big increase in the price, as well as being locked and rooted. From the side, rosaceae, by the cob stage of the offensive viral cycle, before the mind’s uninterrupted vidtvorennya. The organization of efficiency of sales is efficient, the normal circulation of goods is safe, and the security of realizable products is safe.

At the camp of the international razrahunkіv vplivyє tsіliy a complex of officials, to some of which include: political and economical vidnosini mіzh krajami ; position of the country on commodity and groshin markets ; step victorious and the effectiveness of sovereign visits to the most common regulation ; currency legislation ; International Trade Rules and Sounds ; regulation of intermediate commodity flows , services and capital; riser at the pace of inflation in the okrugs of the Crimea; payment balance mill; bank practice; Think of the foreign trade contracts and credit facilities; currency conversion. In the case of the official official of the international rozrakhunka, you need to see the system in itself, intently bound up with a pile of commodity-material values.

International rozrakhunki health bank institutions. I’ve got a look at the organization-technical look of the international rozrakhunka - for regular payments for penny vimogs and goiters, as well as less than one submission of economic activity.

The main sub'kty of the international razrahunkіv є exporteri and importeri, as well as banks, which are necessary for servicing. We’re able to enter into business transactions, as well as to arrange for documents and operating payments. With all of this, the role of the international rosaries in the banks should be played. The stage of rapid investment is to lay down the scale of the most competitive rates in the country, the purchasing power of the national currency, the special interest rate, the financial base of the year,

For your current and regional international bank accounts, banks must be sure to receive the necessary currency positions in different currencies until the structure of the lines of the payment is made. In general, the banking industry in the sphere of international events is regulated, on one side, by the national legislation, and on the other hand, by the rules and rules, they are put together by the public, we surround the bank’s interests.

Methods of payment. Practitioners of international roses have three ways to pay:

  • Paying with payment
  • advance payment;
  • pay with credit.

Paying for delivery through the bank within one hour passed by the seller of the goods and documents as well as buying the goods themselves. This means that the goods will be paid at a higher time at the time of their readiness to export to the moment of their transfer to the order of purchase.

Depending on the image of the parties to the contract, the form of payment is made in order to be ready for the day, as well as the following: IMPORTER Having won the offer of an exporter confirming the readiness of the goods before delivery; the importer, having understood the vid of the ship’s captain telegraphy about the purchase of goods on board the ship at the port of the dispatch; The importer, having acknowledged the set of trade documents and the right of payment, to pay for the guarantee, but before that, the importer has given the guarantee, I must pay the goods at the port of destination.

Practical payments in the international rozrahunki are practically not to be made for winter payments, as soon as unscheduled payment is not available for payment.

Advance re-payments as a way of payment transfer the payment by the buyer to the contract at the contract sum before the transfer of the documents of title and the goods to the order of purchase. Zdebіlshogo such pererahunki zdіsnyuyutsya і hour hour і navіt to the cob vikonannya zamovlennya. Advance payment payroll role. From one side, in advance, an importer is a loan to an exporter, and from the other side, I will secure a visit to Zobov'yazan and will be recognized by an importer under a contract. Yakshcho pislya vikonannya zamenovlennya buyer v_dmovlyaєtsya v_d prymannya tsogo product, the exporter can vikorasto advance payment for v_dshkoduvannya their zbitkіv.

Advance payment can be made in penny and commodity forms. Advance from the commodity form of transfer є nadannya by the deputy-importer of syrovini and completing, necessary for the completion of the vikonannya. Advance from a penny form must be paid at a contract to a contractual change.

At the international trade advances zadelshogo hope:

  • to the great companies that have been recommended to themselves;
  • when delivering goods, we’ll allow you to get trivial virobnitz and go around for indiviual specific specifications;
  • for deliveries of defective goods, if the advance payment is due to the fact that the defective goods will be delivered to the whole buyer.

The way to pay on credit means that I will pay the buyer, agreed on in the contract, after the opening hour after delivery of the goods, so that the seller will buy a commercial (commodity) loan. Oskilki whose credit is granted to one company, then such a loan is called a firm commodity loan.

Credits can be pressed on a short and big trial period. Koristuvannya credit transferє payment v_dsotkіv the buyer of the goods. The contract is pondering:

  • Wart credit, as we have at credit cards;
  • lines of loan maturity;
  • lines repaid loan;
  • Pіlgovy period, by the stretch of a loan they can’t get together.

A loan is granted only for appearances from a seller of available reserve capital. Between the loan, that is, the maximum yogo rozmir, you can not overtake 10% of the capital of the buyer. The loan is not granted for the whole amount of the contract, but for 80-85%, I decide to pay the contract to the buyer in advance, so I can help the seller to buy part of my vitrates until the buyer repays his goiters for the contract.

With the above-mentioned commercial loan, the catering for guarantee payments is violated. The middle of the way is to pay the defaults and the default payments, the main ones are є guaranty lists of first-class banks, credit cards (reserve) letters of credit, bills of exchange, bank bills, acceptance and aval bills, check.

To give an extended form of a loan є a loan with the option of a non-secret payment. There is no doubt that this way: as a rule, the importer has the right to pay by line for the purchase of the goods, then the customer will have to pay a lower price for the goods, as well as to pay at the time of non-payment. For the sake of umova, call yourself to ponder over the contracts, and also in letters of credit, as a rule, the form of letters of credit is accredited.