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|home Other disciplines Books International markets and foreign exchange operations - Savluk M.І.|
International Rose and Currency Operations - Savluk M.І.
Practically to the cob of the ХІХ Art. at the international razrakhunok with a plucking zasobom gold was blown. To clarify, in terms of the gold standard, domestic national currencies were not recognized by the exporting powers and the functions of their own pennies spitting over gold.
Winter services in the international organization, concentration and specialization of commodity distribution, as well as the scale of domestic trade links have led to the fact that gold plots have become unhealthy with gold. In gold’s role, as an international tribute to payment, they felt the need for money. With the development of credit credit pennies - banknotes , bills and checks - progressively deducted gold from the balance of domestic pennies, and then from international currency credits.
From the reserve to the gold standard and to the redemption of credit pennies for zhovtiy metal, there is a need to pay gold for international zobov'yazan. The water hour at the time of trading in gold is victorious as a result of supervised pennies with force majeure conditions (vinyi, economic shocks, etc.) or even if they can be won. For example, at half an hour of Other Holy Levova, a part of international payments was won by standard gold fills. When the balance was reached for bagatoral clearing (for the period of creation and function of the European payment union of 1950-1958 rubles), it was redeemed in gold (by 40% against the balance, and by 75% since 1955).
At present, the minds of the country, at times of superelevatory situations, succeed before selling part of the official gold reserves for these currencies, and in certain foreign currency and international contracts for the sale of contracts and credit. Otzhe, i at once gold vikoristovuyutsya in the international razrahunok is intermediated through operations on the markets of gold.
The oldest gold market in the world є London, a certain country is the primary role in the form of price for all metal in the whole world. Another great center for gold trading in Europe from the 1970s is becoming Tsyurich (Switzerland). The obedience to operations on the whole market is to redistribute thousands of tons to the river. There are also gold trading centers in New York, New York, Frankfurt, and Hong Kong.
Vitism of gold from the international payment turnover has spelled the development of credit cards with credit pennies. As a result, creditors were effectively penniless and economically divided, often at the international trading house dominuyuyu.
So, before the First Holy Week renegotiated bills (bills), issued at pounds sterling, 80% of the international razrakhunіvs were serviced. With the development of economy in the country and the second English in advanced positions at the international trade, the share of the pound in the international markets fell to 40% in 1948. і up to 5% on an ear of 90s rockіv.
Pislya Other svіtovo vіyni zavdyaki to a straightforward development of the American economy in the international rozrahunki intensively after the Victorovar dolar. In 80-ies of the rooky section, 75% took off, while even on the cob of the 90s, the rock's rate dropped to 55%. The loss of a positive dollar in the international razrahunok was dealt with by the development of economy in Europe and Asia. Recovering from the 90s rock brand, Japanese brand, Swiss franc and foreign currency have become the same as the previous ones.
In the 1970s, the new cometh in the system of international razrahunkіv was the victoria of collective currency units - SDR and ecu (almost since 1999, replace ecu for euro). Collective currencies appeared in the payment turnover as a result of the process of demonetization of gold, the breakdown of the Bretton Woods currency system and negative accruals of devaluation of national currencies. As soon as new credit stinks, the stench began to become wicked to the extent that there were more stable currencies.
SDRs (special legal rights) and Euro ( European currency unit ) were designated for the ready-made international raffle notes to be registered on special regional markets of the Czech Republic: SDR - to the International Monetary Fund, Europe - to the European Union Umovna wart is one and the same price is based on the average exchange rate, which must be entered before the currency cat (currency cat SDR includes four currencies, including one currency cat euro - eleven currency currencies in Europe).
Victoristannya SDR finish dumbbells. As a result, it’s worth stumbling victoriously in the middle of the rosaries, which is ideal for repaying foreign trade for IMF loans. Ofitsіyno SDRs can be used by banks, banks, private individuals for rozrahunkіv. In the meantime, it’s practically not to bother, because the private SDR market is estimated at about 10 billion, it’s important for the bank deposit form, certificate of deposit and international oblast.
On the other hand, the SDR ро Euro victorious is not only in the official, but in the private sectors, such as the currency and the payment currency. When euro was paid, a large amount of currency was paid to it, and I became in Europe with a single payment. However, the line of devaluation є euro on the cob введ введ introduced significantly pidіrvala dovira to her у with the help of the є European banks in the roses ’you can sell the national currency of such countries as Japan, France, Switzerland.
Perevizhnya national national currencies at the international razrahunki to the best є their deposits and their effectiveness in the exchange rate, economic and currency policies of national currencies. The mill of international rozrahunkіv to lay down in such officials:
- economic and political vidnosin between the regions;
- currency legislation;
- International Trade Rules and Sounds;
- Banking practices in the country;
- minds of foreign trade contracts and credit facilities.