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Culturology - T. Gritsenko

Architecture

The middle architec- tural forms of the sutta have been seen in the past. In ancient churches of the classical type, great respect was given to the exalted buddies (exter'єru) and the insignificant to the internal (inter'єru). In the middle of the temple stood a statue of a deity, and all ceremonies that holy baptism took place on the square, on the bust of Budva. It was allowed to go to the middle of the sanctuary only to the priests. The Viryans did not appear as participants in the religious ceremonies, they opened the door for them. The Christian church took refuge as God’s life, a little, de viryani were selected for prayer and a traditional ritual of the ethnicities. To the organization of the interior of the Bula, the head arrogance of architects. As a humble Christian, with a rich spiritual life, the temple is guilty of buti, decreed strict by exter'єrі.

Two religious architecture forms were recalled at the cult church: the basilica and the domed church. Basilica - tse is straightforward, drawn into a dozens of budіvlya, it is divided into columns in three, five and more than one nefіv. The middle nave, as a rule, is the broadest and most lateral of the lateral. In the first part of the basilica, they started to apse, rose in time, and in the past - in. The regular naves intersected with a transept (transverse nave), that is why in the plan the form of the cross is small - the main symbol of Christianity. In the form of basilica often there were Christian churches.

Another type of church is the domed church, the church is square in shape, the interior is divided into nine parts, with arches, and the dome is visible in the center. Dome symbolizuє heaven. Napivtsilindrichnyh zvody, scho to be attached to the dome, perekіkayuchsya, also approve of the rivilateral ridge. The type of the temple-basilica was approved at Zakhidny Evropi, and at Vizanti that on the Skhodi, having passed the type of the domed church, scho became the basis of the architecture of the hour.

A masterpiece of architectural architecture Vizantіi ї Church of St. Sophia at Constantinople , zbudovanii 532-537 rr. for the order of Emperor Justin. Tsey temple є according to two constructive principles - a basilic plan with domed recesses. Yogo is called the eighth miracle of life, because so far є the most gracious behind the idea and the technology of the future, the second half could not be blamed on the average. The gigantic dome of the temple, 32 meters in diameter with a clear warehouse, rests on a drum of forty viknam, in a piercing place it’s sleepy, completely unique view * 12. Bagate izdobblennya stіn and pidlogy to the temple with marmum slabs, different capitals of columns, different colors and mosaics are sacred and sacred. Zdіsnili tse grandiozne budіvnitstvo two architects - Ісидор із Мілет and Аnfіmіy iz Thrall.

* 12: {Temples. Monasteries - M .: Avanta, 2003. - S. 82 - 83.}

After the conquest of the Turks-Ottomans of Vizantiysk empire rose, the city of Constantinople took away the name of Istanbul, and the church of St. Sophia, which may be known a thousand times after the Cathedral of Christendom, remade the mosque. Under the dome, great shields appeared with the bishops of the Quran. Ikonostas and Ikonami cleaned (izlam zaboronyaє image of people), and the order of the temple shook the chotiri of the great minarets. At 30 - rock of the twentieth century. Ayia Sofiya (as the Turks called it in Russia) made a connection to the museum.