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Іstoriya Ukraine - Subtelny Orest

Zanepad Ukrainian Autonomy

After the failure of the Mazepinih plan in Ukrainian boulevard, go to the defensive. That repetition of the Getmanshchini of the Rossiyskoy іperіnіyu bulo we finish and prolong. Not all the rulers of the XVIII century blasphemed with such a source of centralism, like Petro 1. Consumers would have to pay attention to the numbers of the Turks; Protey rosіyani, one by one, were plunged into obscuring Ukrainian self-liberation. For the whole stink, all sound methods of the international politics were staked. For the most beloved of them, the principle of "give and take", the creatures like the hetmans and the elders seemed to be so much impressed. In our own way, the elder was reproachfully beaten by a pidburyuvannya anti-village settlement. The leather pro-slammer of the Ukrainian administration, the leather skarg of the common people for the foreman Vikoristovyvalovalsya the central squad yak privid for the administration of administrative "abbreviations". The new introduction was invariably superconducted by pious declarations about those who basically lay the monarch of secrecy about suspension good.

The Russian Central Policy in Ukraine transmitted the three main metrics: 1) the whole number of Ukrainian and Ukrainian people and ordinary people; 2) ordering Ukrainian language, economy, culture; 3) as much as possible by the people’s and state resources of Ukraine. Please note that Ukraine didn’t become the one to blame for everything, the fragments of the Tsar’s detachment having lost the same policy in the former lands of the world, as in the very center.

Ivan Skoropadsky (1708-1722) . Wanting Skoropadsky and figurizing at Mazepi’s plans and pidtrimuvav the idea of ​​autonomy of Ukraine, Petro 1, having waited on the first pick, moreover the old man’s old and easy. Skoropadsky actually did not repair the reforms of Peter the Great, but he didn’t feel bad. Immediately after the birth of 1708 p. the tsar went to Skoropadsky’s own nameholder Ismayilov and two Russian regiments, which gave them a chance to get a hetman with a foreman, as well as have a look at him. Around the time of Petro 1 pidtverdzhuє, the contract is 1654 p., Prote for the nizagal rice. At the Skoropadsky’s idle talk about the point, the king was in good standing, saying, “Ukrainian so much more freedom, no less be the last people on earth”. Polar politics began to be conducted out of place. The residence of the hetman was transferred from Baturin to Glukhov, closer to the Russian cordon. The commander-in-chief of the Kozatsky Vіiska Bulo was delivered a rosyanina. In the encirclement of the governing territories of the regiments, strangers and rosians were designated. Upper rosiyani (first and foremost favorite of Tsar Oleksiy Menshikov ) were brushed off in Ukraine the great zemlevolodinnya. Navigate beyond the pretentious reference to the visuals so that "Ukrainian books of boos were not spoiled by the Great Russian views."

The exploitation of Ukrainian resources is small in form. Mizh 1709 and 1722 pp. Ukraine is guilty of the Bula Utrimuvati ten Russian regiments, which are distributed in the territory of Russia. Dozens of thousands of Ukrainians were sent to the city on the Budapest channel of the Ladozky Canal and the new tsarist capital of St. Petersburg, but they succumbed to their superbly crazy minds. At 1719 p. Ukrainians have been exported to export grain at Zahіd. The stench of Mali comes from the rosti port of Riga and Arkhangelsk, which was sold de-vono for the establishment of the unit with prices. In the first place, Russian merchants were struggling to sell their goods in Hetman, since at that time the Ukrainians were in a position to rally more than a mito, but they were transporting them to public.

Ale the biggest blow for the Ukrainians was those that were in 1722 p. Malorossiiska collegium is Moscow’s official body, which was formed of six Russian authorities, and they were permanently moved to Ukraine, - the right to deal with the hetman has disappeared. All the same, the bullet was busy for the patient Skoropadsky. Win after going to St. Petersburg to ask the tsar to glance at the right. Petro 1 vidmoviv yoma, and nevdovzі, turning to Glukhova, the old hetman died.

Pavlo Polubotok (1722-1724) . After the death of the Skoropadsky elder, he’ll be baptized before the tsar with the wretches of the third conversion of the new hetman. And in that hour we’ll punish the hetman of the stench to rob the Chernigiv Colonel Pavel Polubotka - lyudin shanovanu firmament. For half a day you’ll live in live energy calls, so that you can go to the Malorossiysky College, and repeat the shit about the vibori of the new hetman. The rejoicing of the yogi pleasingly tsar vіdpovіdaє, who’s got all hetmani flashed zradniki and vibration doesn’t hold the pillies, docs don’t know the candidate dovry. Ale vіdvizhny Half-work is not entered. Yakraz, if Petro 1 won the war in Iran, got the hetman punished, having achieved the empire Senate by submitting the order, abit that know the hetman with his own plans and implemented his own Ukrainian administration. Oskilki collegium has been badly broken for staring the skarg of Ukrainians to the administration and especially to the corrupt judiciary system, the half-hour is very good to help, and not to deprive them of the rosud rossiyan. Win reorganization judge in ambushes of troubles, fence zagabari and priznacha inspectors to look at the visions of yogo punishment. Shchob zmenshiti kіlkіst skarg vіd villagers, winnings to the foreman, abi won pom'yakshila visa of their parents.

Pavlo Half Work

Pavlo Half Work

Tsі zmіni Duzhnіvili king of the king. Vltіk 1723 p. vin wiklikє to the capital of the hetman and that spilnik, vimagayuchi explain why stink robots. Having stumbled on the pidirvati camp, Polubotka, the president of the collegium Velyamіnov, having finished kilkokh Ukrainians write on that denunciation, and also ask to get the Hetmanshchina rosyysky order. The punished hetman sent an emarce to Ukraine, so that she could organize a petition campaign, and she sanctified the Ukrainian self-liberation by overthrowing part of the population. There are more exceptions for the lack of discipline, Petro 1 is called half-time, which is written by writing a petition. Lose the death of the king in 1725 p. ят є в в в в засл засл засл засл засл ’ Bіlsha part of the elders turned to the house, okrug Half-time: for the number of months before the death of Peter 1’s death in St. Petersburg at the Peter and Paul Fortress chamber.

Danilo the Apostle (1727-1734) . From death I have a half-time Malorossiiska board has reached freedom from Getmanschin. In 1722 p. Vova vprovadzhuє directly opodatkuvannya, scho has become for Ukrainians a dashing right. At 1724 p. Velyamіnov with pride in the issue of promotion of incomes is 600% equally with the front, dismissed representatives of the Hetman’s regiment. Proteh Velikhamіnova turned around yogo instantly. Having become a vimagati, a new tidy was paid together by the Rosiyans, who may have a land recession on Librezhzhzh. Unsuccessful, Prince Menshikov — the most polite politician in the empire, a kind of great Volodya mothers in the Getmanshchy bouve — we bake the thief of Ukrainian autonomy — having become a victim of Ukrainian self-determination, having done so against criticism. Foreign policy has come to be catered for before Ukrainian autonomy, a cantonment of 1726 p. Signs of a near vieiny appeared in Turechchyna, for their complete furnishings. They didn’t want to tune the Ukrainians against themselves. Tom in 1727 p. Menshikov’s inflow and strategic peace have deigned before the Russian parliament let out the Malorossiysky college number and saw the decree, for a kind of “for the satisfaction and comfort of the civilian population”, hetman mady butdyna dudina.

Danilo the Apostle

Danilo the Apostle

Zhovtni 1727 p. a hetman robbing 70-ichnoy Mirgorodsky colonel Danil Apostol. Zagalnee praise, the Wiccan, I’m asking for a lesson, but the imperial unit is no more than just confirming all the stats of Pereyaslavsky, please, 1654 p., And I’ve gotten to get it new. For all the necessary political contacts of the Mavs, look at the rossiy namisnik, help them to the right - control the rossiy field marshal, and the tsar having gained the right to grant land in Getmanshchyna. Shchob utishiti ukraintsev, Hetmanism from the imperial Senate passed to the new court of jurisdiction of the ministry of foreign lands. Rozumіyuchi prechrenіst uyashykh test of the first half of the political prerogatives of the Getmanshchini, the Apostle preceding the dyalnost on the number of social and economic minds in the country.

Winning the reform of the shipbuilding system and having fallen asleep in the skarbnitsa, she secured Getman’s first budget. Oskilki mizh 1729-1731 rr. earnestly scurrying around the fund of enormous and rank lands, the Apostle providiv іh retelnuyu revіzіyu and vіdnovivuv a great part of the lands involved. Especially effective is the circumstance of the interests of the Ukrainian trade, who are capturing the Ukrainian merchants of the unqualified supernormality with the Russians, having passed the lengthy export duties, imposed by the Russian officials. Vin nav_d zdobuv kіlka polіtichnyh peremog. Having doubled the right to appoint the General Chancellery and Colonel, the Apostle hastily changed the number of rostins and strangers at their own administrative administration. Vin takozhe having put his own jurisdiction in Kyiv, and having changed the rule of the governor of Russia. The enemy’s butt was the turning of the hetmanshchini 1734 p. I’m in possession of Russia, Zaporizhzhya, since 1708 lived at vignanni in the territory of the Crimean Tatars. The apostle did not live to see the pod, but died at the age of 1734 p.

"The rule of the Hetman’s order" (1734-1750) . From the time of the tsars at St. Petersburg, the first policy in Ukraine was visible. Immediately after the death of the Apostle, the new Empress Anna Ioannivna was again blocked by vibori hetman and she concealed one more name with the title “The rule of the hetmanship order”. Warehouse was won by the trekh rosiyan and trekh ukrainitsіv on the choirs of rossiy prince Shakhovskim . Luckily, my scholarly college is less than a hour old, the Shakhov’s Mav’s instructive broadening is sensitive, and I’m in maternity allowances and uncontrolled getman’s wines in front of the hetman. It was hard to reconcile the Ukrainians with the fact that the Hetmanshchina’s need was better than the previous interests.

The imperial unit was also of the kind є Shakhovskiy was ordered to vidochochuvati representative of the Ukrainian elder vіd shlyubіv іk іz polskoy chi bіlorskuyu nobility, so with the right-bank Ukrainians. In the same hour, it was all the time for the loafers to lie between the Ukrainians and the Russians. Namaganny posbaviti ukraintsev self-assertiveness also gained the same forms. At 1734 p. a new head of the Governor’s sake for the sake of Prince Baryatinsky, having vouched for the whole of the Kiev Magistrate, having conferred their long-lasting charter rights, so that they could forget about their rights, but could not ruin the document about their rights. In addition, the imperial Senate has twice confirmed that the Ukrainian settler will confirm Ukraine, having lost more than that, because it’s been reported that I have had a chance to have a pretender for the whole village.

For the rule of Annie Ioannivny and that favorite of Russia - Nimtsya Ernst Biron - foreman Livoberezhya was affected by fatalistic moods, її representatives of the uniqueness of huge reference, in order to survive on private life. Until the end, secrecy, which led to the condemnation of the ganebenny to the principle of “words of dila”, for a certain criticism of chi unfortunateness with the tsarist regime, someone in words, who put them in danger, threatened to cope with the clerical work, they helped to chi deserted. Moreover, the principle of “words of the word” is to make the most close friends and members of the bully citizen, the bobbin, the owner, and the other, to talk about that behavior. Vidtak fear and pidozlivost began on Livoberezhі everyday life.

For the timeline, that is, the period of panning the favorite of Tsaritsa Anni, the Kozaki villagers also suffered severely. Naibilshi ikhhni dashing boules were born from the Russian-Turkish war in 1735-1739, in Yakіy Livoberezhja served as the head bridgehead of the imperial vіiska. A stretch of chikhiryokh rokiv bulo mobilized tens of thousands of Ukrainian goats and villagers. 35 Ukrainians have lost 35 thousand yews, while for the population of about 1.2 million, the figure has become great. Before that, in 1737-1738 rr. Ukraine Bula vimushena utrimuvati with a mighty cat of 50 to 75 Russian regiments. The price of Getmanshchina was 1.5 million carbovans, but 10 times more for the national budget.

Viprobuvannya, in front of the Yakim she put the Ukrainian Russian-Turkish viyna, the boules for them were unbearably unpleasant, the fragments of the viiin were duplicated by the low low-speed conflicts. Most of the Cossack-Polish-Russian-Turkish-Turkish wars were reprimanded, but they didn’t take much time, sharpened itself in Ukraine. Up to 1740 p. the country has become known. Navigate the Russian officers, as we passed by her, blasphemed with a hostile picture of the non-West. With the stretch of the offensive, ten-year-old Ukrainian foreman is inclined towards those whose land is not in the winter to recover all the time.

That all the same "Pravlіnnya hetmansky ryadu" simply wanted to reach one creative. Through the plutinin in the norms of Ukrainian law, as if spiraling more and more on the Lithuanian Statute of the XVI century, at 1728 p. Bulo is codified with code. In 1744, after 16 years of independence, the commission, before which 18 members were included, for the time being, it sent a new code with the title “Rights, the Little People are suing” .

Kiril Rozumovsky (1750-1764) . Yakshcho Biron prinis Ukrainians little good, then the favorite of the offensive and the Empress Elizaveta has served him better. The Emperor took an organic moron from Oleksiy Rozumovskim - forgive the ugly Cossack iz Getmanschini, who were pricked by drinking at the court choir. Hoch Olexіy is unique in politics, wіn stick loving his fatherland. Ymovirno, who was appointed to the first team, especially because, with great enthusiasm, they took a half hour from Kiev in 1744. Z cієї nagodi, the Ukrainian foreman turned around until Elizabeth had already been fucked up about the appointment of a new hetman. Vіdpovіd іmperetricі Bula positive. However, she won right, more candidates, she was too young to think, - Oleksiya Kirilov’s younger brother - less than 16 rockies, first and foremost, take a seat, win the call. Cyril was sent to read out to the universities of Western Europe. Tim hourly iz Hetman’s Bulo was introduced to the Russian language, and the “Rule of the Hetman’s Unit” was progressively disbanded. Pislya perevernennya from Europe Kirill appoint President of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. 1750 p. at Glukhovі 22-richnogo Cyril with great pomp to vomit a new hetman.

For Rozumovsky Hetman experienced “gold osin” of its autonomy. Spending the most part of the hour in St. Petersburg, de vin taking active part in the court of polity, Rozumovsky also paid attention to the contact with the bank. Rozumіyuchi, since the Getmanschini’s suspension became more and more folding, so that the foreman could have been reassigned to a new court, administrative and administrative functions, and the Rozumovsky initiative would organize the transportation system. At 1763 p. After the trial preparation, the Getmanshchina was blown up 20 times, leather and gray courts, as they looked at the carnival, civil and land intercourse. Suddiv were robbed of their nobility from their parents. Yak and earlier, citizens were judged by the powerful courts. Rozumovsky once more removing the order of Kyiv and Zaporizhzia. Besides that

Winning it out over the top of the modernization of Kozatsky’s vіiska with a hat was a systematization of the first school, securing unified form and artistry. Plan to conquer the university versus the long-standing capital Mazepi Baturin, as well as to save all the Cossack sons on the cob. In the course of the political period, we changed the health plan. Usa gotman’s got nadati to Glukhov of the European Vitonets, having embellished it with grandiose palaces, English parks and the theater, de operani corpses were opened from Italy. Misti Bulo had a bagato kav'yaren, and the nobility was almost completely crushed by French mods.

Oskіlki hetman often izdiv to the capital of the empire, overseas to the power of the rozsud rules elder. For Hetmanuvannya Rozumovsky kozatska herself, the topmost nastishti dominated her own, having completed more often, for example, in the XVII century. remodeling of corps office on the type of nobility. Now she began to call herself a gentry, tobto nobility.

However, with a zagal, she was whimsical. Elizabeth did not make bagato with the hetman’s initiative. If he asked for permission to establish diplomatic bills with European courts, his petition would be vidkhileno. Namaganny Rozumovskogo zvіlniti ukrainsky vіisko vіd participation in the vіynah, not directly connected with ukrainian interests, could also aggravate a negative reaction. Navigate with the owners of the autonomy for getmanshii hour forced action deyakі centralizatorski come in іmpperії. So, in 1754 p. Getman’s budget was set to control Russia, and the Mitna Cordon and Russia and Ukraine were set aside. Kohl Rozumovsky obtained the right to freely distribute land on Librezhdzhі, and you won’t be allowed to bother with the prerogative of being less emperious. Obvious boules of a singing framework, in some Ukrainians it was allowed to carry on power.

If 1762 p. Katerina II came to power, Rozumovsky to turn into the Hetman and engage in the right. At 1763 p. vin zbiraє foreman on the important glad in Glukhovі. By the way, by the method of Bulo, the negotiation of the reforms of sudochnosti. Ale tsya discusiya shvidko expanded on the problem of non-Western political rights of the Hetman. Під кінець ради делегати ухвалили надіслати імператриці петицію з рішучим закликом повернути втрачені вольності й створити на Лівобережжі шляхетський парламент на кшталт польського сейму. В основі Глухівської петиції лежали посилання гетьмана й старшини на те, що їхня країна є окремим політичним та економічним цілим, пов'язаним з Росією лише в особі монарха. На думку Зенона Когута, ця петиція містила найбільш самостійницькі погляди, які не висловлювалися так відкрито з часів Мазепи. Слідом за цим Розумовський звернувся до імператриці зі сміливою пропозицією зробити посаду гетьмана спадковою в його родині. Інакше кажучи, українці просили Катерину взяти постійне зобов'язання шанувати їхню автономію.

Але українська знать прорахувалася. Саме тоді під впливом нападок на українську автономію, що містилися у записці Теплова, колишнього вчителя Розумовського, Катерина II вирішує скасувати цю автономію взагалі. Вона наказала Розумовському прибути до столиці та зажадала його відставки. 10 листопада 1764 р. після деяких зволікань і спроб досягти компромісу Розумовський залишив гетьманство.

Ліквідація Гетьманщини . Катерина II завершила справу, що її почав на Україні Петро 1. Німкеня, котра стала членом династії Романових через шлюб, вона була відданою прибічницею русифікації й централізації. Як і багато інших правителів доби освіченого абсолютизму, Катерина була переконана, що найбільш розумним і ефективним є уряд, заснований на абсолютистських засадах і позбавлений таких «феодальних реліктів», як особливий статус окремих земель. Звідси її негативне ставлення до української, а також лівонської та фінської автономії. «Ці провінції,— казала вона,— слід русифікувати... Це завдання було б легко здійснити, призначивши губернаторами людей розумних. Коли у Малоросії зникнуть гетьмани, треба зробити все, щоб стерти з пам'яті їх та їхню добу». Отож імператриця вибрала на посаду генерал-губернатора Лівобережжя людину розумну — видатного російського полководця й політика Петра Румянцева .

Виконувати свої функції Румянцеву допомагала друга Малоросійська колегія, що складалася з чотирьох російських урядовців та чотирьох довірених представників старшини. У зводі таємних інструкцій Катерина наказувала Румянцеву діяти обережно, «аби не викликати ненависті до росіян». Щоб підготувати грунт для скасування української автономії, генерал-губернаторові радилося повторювати селянам, що погіршення їхнього становища було насамперед наслідком відсталості «малоросійських звичаїв». Водночас до старшини Румянцев мав застосовувати політику кийка і пряника. З одного боку, жорстоко каралися всілякі прояви автономістських тенденцій, а з іншого — тим, «хто не був заражений хворобою сваволі й незалежності», пропонували привабливі посади в імперському уряді, обіцяли зрівняти їх у статусі з російським дворянством і надати більшої влади над селянами.

Румянцев виконав свої обов'язки. Спочатку він уникав проведення глибоких змін, намагаючись завоювати прибічників. До його канцелярії дістали призначення багато українців, було засновано поштову службу, а також здійснено широкий перегляд суспільно-господарського становища земель. Прагнучи показати, яким освіченим є її правління, у 1767 р. Катерина II засновує свою знамениту «Комиссию для сочинения нового уложения» . У Москві зібрали послів від усіх (за винятком селян) верств суспільства з усіх регіонів з метою висловити імператриці свої побажання та погляди. На велику прикрість Катерини й Румянцева ряд українських послів на чолі з Григорієм Полетикою скористалися нагодою, щоб знову заявити про прагнення відновити гетьманство й повернути давні українські вольності. Посли інших порубіжних земель теж викликали занепокоєння уряду. Під приводом близької війни з Туреччиною імператриця назавжди «відклала» засідання комісії.

Після російсько-турецької війни 1768—1775 рр. Румянцев удається до рішучих кроків. Перший удар він спрямовує проти Запорозької Січі, яку в 1775 р. було зруйновано несподіваним нападом російських військ. До самої Гетьманщини черга дійшла в 1781 р., коли у зв'язку з адміністративною реорганізацією всієї імперії на Лівобережжі було скасовано його традиційні 10 полків. Натомість засновувалися три намісництва: Київське, Чернігівське й Новгород-Сіверське. За територією та організацією вони були ідентичні решті з ЗО губерній імперії. Одночасно українські адміністративні, судові та фінансові установи замінялися відповідними відгалуженнями імперської бюрократичної системи. Потім скасували й славетні козацькі полки. У 1783 р. їх замінили на регулярні уланські, до яких на шестирічний строк набирали селян і неукраїнців. Відтак перестало і снувати окреме козацьке військо. Всупереч тому, що стверджувала царська пропаганда, поширення на Лівобережжя російської імперської системи не полегшило, а ще більше погіршило долю українських селян. У 1783 р . їх позбавили права лишати своїх панів — саме так, як де колись зробили з російськими селянами. Інакше кажучи, тепер лівобережне селянство ставало юридичне закріпаченим.

Зате українська знать від цих змін виграла. Селяни нарешті потрапили під її цілковиту владу. В 1785 р. за «Жалуваною грамотою дворянству», виданою Катериною II, знать звільнялася від усякої військової служби для уряду, зрівнявшись у правах із російським дворянством. Із цих причин верхівка колишньої Гетьманщини без будь-якого ремствування погодилася з ліквідацією автономії. Траплялися лише поодинокі випадки протесту: так, у 1791 р. Василь Капніст спробував таємно заручитися підтримкою Пруссії в намаганнях відновити Гетьманщину. Але таких дій було недостатньо, щоб запобігти поглиненню Козацької України Російською імперією.