Історія України - Subtelium Orest

Reform of Habsburg and Ukraine

Hocha reform of Habsburg in the XVIII century. Were conducted in the іsіі імперії, especially the great vpplyv stoves have celebrated in Galicia, kotra nigostreše demanded zmіn. Yosif II buv particularly zainterovovany u tsіy provnitsii, vbachayuchi ni shchos on zrazok laboratory, de mozhno boulo b eksperimentuvati s riznimi zakobami perebudivstva, zokrema i zasobami rozshirennya yogo vibrochnichih mozlivostej. Spotchatka Viden put the schodo Galichini podvinyu metu: in a nutshell, dismantled the old system of management, in which the szlachta, the vice-minister of education and the police in the center of the bureaucracy, and in a different way - to steal socially-economically the common people.

Administrative reorganization in Halychyna bula was carried out by Shvidko that is effective. Until 1786 р. Polski зако zakony bulo zmienno avstriyskimi, and shlyachetsky asemblery is dissolved. Щоб пом'якшити цей kick for the old nobility of the date їй vote at the right hand manages, Відень упроваджує Asambleu steniv, scho warehoused із gentry that clergy. Al asambleya tsya is not small right priymati vlasni uhvali, and the person could be zvertatisya with petitsiyami to emperatora. The real power was zosedired in the hands of empire officials. Usya provinitsiya sublimated to 18 regionies (from Bukovina to kynkost zrosla up to 19), ocholyubovyh recognized Vidnym syryadnikami zі svoeyu nimetskogomnovuyu chancellery. At the top of the bureaucratic drabini stood the governor, who recognized the emperor himself. Увесь цей офининький апарат having perebuvav near Lviv, abo Lemberzi, yak yogo were called by the Austrians, and became the center of admissibility of the courtship of provinces.

Cisar the Reformer. The villagers were afraid of the numerical reforms of Joseph II . In 1781, rozumyuchi, scho without polezhenshenya їхньої долі неможly поліпшити соціально-економічне ставище Галичини, the emperor is on the verge of making smіlіnі polіtichnі zаdi, спрямовані на скасування кріпацтва. In the intermissions of the cichs zahodiv landowners vimironalosya vimagati vid selyanina more than three days of the panshchiny to seize, 156 dniv on the river (for naybinnyh villagers vstavlyulyalasya shche mensha panshchina); Succinctly intercalated dodatkovi povinnosti on the crook of the landlord; Law nadavav selyaninovi rights obristlyati sviy nadil, and takozh so osobisti liberty, yak the right obruzhuvatisya without the permission of the Pan, go to the other side, zvertatisya zi skagamiami on his Pan to the court.

Tse buli zmіni velichechnoi vagi. The Galician peasant is no longer a boev like a feud, not stolen by law. Now we have become a special legal rights holder. We do not mean anything, but reformed the villagers in the smaller classes. At bagatokh vidnoshennej the peasant was deprived pідвладним панові й зажним від ннього. However, the yogi became more and more complete: in the special thing of the special class, in the course of the orend, the cotrine is transmitted by the sidereal from the descent of the stasunka, which is governed by the law of the landowner. Syllabus and rishushchy character of the cichs of reforms is more obvious, yakshcho zgadati, scho sama in the hour of the meeting, a woman - Katerina II - zanyanala kripatstvo seljan Livoberezhna Ukrainy.

Great transference brought new polity of the Greek Catholic Church . From the very beginning, Mariya Theresia, and that of Yosyp II, in the Stasunks of Greco-Roman Catholics, were spiraling to the principle of parity. For the Greek Catholic clergy, in the course of the trivial hour, the Polish authorities began to recognize the Polish pressures, the principle being subordinated to the semicolon of the yogi of the station. The Polish feudal bolshe could not vtutchatsya vyprichchennja parafіyalnyh svyaschenikiv, yakі zgіdno iz from the law teper otrimali rivnі z rimo-katolitskimi ksiondzami rights. Until then, the economical status of the Greek Catholic clergy was covered by the trivial modest platoon. Всеі ці заходи вінчало вінчало уідчавлення у 1808 р. Після 400-літньої перерви ranks the metropolitan of Galician. So the Greco-Catholic Church was established, and as a result, villages could be resettled by Ukraine, - entered the 19th century with the table.

The main reason for the zrostayuchoi vpovanenstі in sobi Greco-Catholic clergy were reformed in the halus of Osvity, Šo ôx rozpochala Mariya Theresia. In 1774 the river. Імператриця занувала у Відні греко-католицьку семінарію - Barbareum , scho gave students із Західної Україні not a systematic system of theological education, but the possibility of life-giving contact with a zahidnoy culture. In 1783 the river. At Lviv bula is grounded in a large number of seminaries. Yak zavzhdi, Yosef II пішов на крок даі своєї матері: at 1784 р., Прагнучи мати більше освічених офиників і священиків, він сновновє у Lvivі University, which became the first wishing to take out a mortgage of this type on the Ukrainian land. Nearly 250 students entered the yogic chotiri of the Faculty, the Poles are more important, and in the same way, the Buli th of Ukraine. Oskilki vikladachi, zdebylshogo nimtsi, read lektsy nezrozumіlimi Ukrainians nimetskoe abo latinsky moovami, then for ostannnyh boolo organizovano okremiys faculty, scho nazivavsya "Studium rutenum . " Vіkladannya here was a piece of язичієм, scho поеднувало церковнослов'янську мову з місцевою українською говіркою.

Pochatkovo osviti in Scihadny Galichin practically did not apply. In schools one-class schools, on yakі buno naptapiti on villages, navchannya led napіvpismennі dyaki, yakі glivve could date to its teachings shos bіshe, nіzh kobchatki abetki i Svyatogo pis'ma. Schub defect stanovishche, in 1774 r. Austriytsi vprovadili system three types of shkіl: odnoklasnі parafіyalnі, in yakih korostuvalysya mіscevoyu govirkoiu; Triklasnі з німецькоюю та польською мовами навчання й чотирикласні, що готували учнів для продовження освіти у середніх schools (гімназіях) та університетах. Starі середні школи, що їх for синів шляхти утримували деякі каталицьк чернецькі ордени, ліквідовувалися.

For all its hostile scales of reforms, Yosif II in diznostі bіlshi sіlіchili about those whіch vіn pravnuv, nіzh about those whіch vіn actually having reached. In Galicia, as in the other parts of the Empire, the bagatoes of reforms are nashtovnulsya on nesozdlannyi pereskodi. The emperor, the zokrem, vvazhav, scho, polgshivshi share of villagers, vin zbilshit produktivnost їхньої праці. Al's appearance became obvious, but the economical problems of Galicia were not abused in villages. На відміну від Російської України Scіdna Halychyna is not small of great lands, vіdkrіtіh for columnіzіїї, that vyhodu to the sea, schо підшххну би розвиток торгівлі. At the beginning of the day Zahidnii Yevropi, de Seliani, they began to resettle to the town and pratsyuvati in the factories, but they did it here and there, nearby 60 nyibilshih mіst Skidnoї Galichini was transferred to the stand of economical stagnation. In a word, it is possible to economize the development of the bouillon of the buly with superficiality. Until then, the economics of politics were being ruined by the whole country. Vona set her own method to save the nature of the nature of the schematic part of the world and stimulate the development of promiscuity in such provincial areas, such as Austria and that of Bohemia. It is recognized as servitude of the product in the Kharchuvannia ta sirovini, and also in the market for the finished goods, Galichina is actually a bullet in the inner column of the more secure rozvineny zahіdnih provnitsіy імперії.

The reform of our militancy was carried out on the perchodki in the direction of the szlachti, while the yak did not miss the cancellation of the piadirvati. It is confiscated by confiscations of its lands, that is, to those who have been displaced in the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia, did not hesitate to go to reforms and the Roman Catholic Church. Врешті-рет опір нововведенням downloading critical points. Madyary, obyreny polichotyu tsentralizatsii ya oniyechennya, scho її conducting Viden, pograzhuvati rushed insurgents. Roshcharovany Yosif II buv zmusheny vidmіniti bagato svoїh zahodіv. The death of the emperor in 1790 р. On gnomu deprived girka епітафія: "Here sposchivaє Yosif II, izysillya yakogo yaznili nevdachi".

On the cobble of the XIX century. Gabsburzky rulers, especially Franz 1, prodovzhuali vidstupati vіd positsіy tsіsarya-reformer. Characteristically, sho bagato pokraschin u stanovishchi seljannosti bulo vіdmіneno i actually vidnovleno kripatstvo. Prote deyku reforms in the church of the church, Osvity of the right have lost their strength. Without them, without the precedent of the basics of the rule of Joseph II, it was important to rebuild the Maybutn of the liberalization of the past and the nineteenth century.

Rutenstvo . For all the svoeї obmezhenostі ne pozvonnosti reform Yosif II and Marії Terezії all the same polovshli umvi zhittya західних українців - one з nабілш приібблених народів імперії, вблинувши не лише на їхнє матеріальне буття, а й на погляди та настрої. Yak i nalezhalo spodivatisya, reformed zbudili sered Ukrainians pobotty glibokoi vdyacchnosti to Gabsburgiv at tilomu i up to Yosef II zokrem. The deviation of the dynasty so gliboko was restored, but the Ukrainians were called "tyrotsyami Skhodu."

The great reservoir and the flooding in front of the Habsburgs have their own negative negations. Wives lived so zvane rutenstvo - sukunnist mood, scho panuvali in sredneishchі zahіdoukraynskoi eliti 'already until the 1830's rock. Yogo pribіchnikam - the head ranks of priests - buv sovereignty boundary provincialism, scho ototozhnyuvav Ukrainki vichlychno z Galichinoyu, Greco-catholic church and caste priesthood.

New conservatism, scho zapnuvav at Vidny, enforcing pritamannu zahidnoukraynskyi ecclesiastical up-to-date pidosrilivist to innovate. Naslіduyuchi Polish gentry as much as before the transition to Poland, the ruthents cultivated pseudo-aristocratism, which manifested itself among the savage before the village that "swineherd". Pidnesennya Habsburgi status of the priesthood has been beaten yogo zv'yazki z selyanyami, the middle of some wives lived. The clergy began to divide themselves into the crowd. All, all the servants, but the nobleman gave the capital of the yom, and did not hang any more wretched wimogs. The psychology of ruthenia dopomagala gnobit thi tri-mati u vstadostalostі tіlі pokolіnnya zahіdnih ukraїнців, перешкоджаючи ім boroti заsya for kraschu share. In this way, in Ukraine, in the Ukraine, in the Ukraine, in the Ukraine, in the country, in the customs of the country, dopomagi mitsno tri-mati in Імперських шорах власних співвітчизників.

Імперське панування has brought українцям набагато жорстокіші totalnyi polіtichnії, суспільної та економічної оргаізації, ніж ті, що були ім раніше відомі. Officials zbobilo presence of the imperial power in the Ukrainian gromada to dot the vivid. In the third part of the meeting, you are invited to attend the meetings of the cities, towns and cities of the capital, and the all-knowing and all-knowing emperor to create the life of the Ukrainians. In the middle of the yak image of the divinely great Імперії - chi Російської, ch Austrіyskoї - заволодівав уявою української еліти, згасала її відданість рід ному краю. Врешті-рет для неї українські землі з усією ясноністю були лише частиною якогось більшого цілого. Analogichnym chin sloblo usvidomlennya Ukrainskoї samobutnostі, takie is stronger in Kozatskiy Ukrainі XVII-XVIII st.

Імперська added sprinkinilas to the growth of Ukrainian syspilstva - one boule part of the Russian Empire, the other - Austrias. І справді, починаючи з 1654 р. Українці lived in the dvuh raznyh polichitchnih systems - Moscow expanded its dominion to Livoberezhzhya, at that time the Ukrainian lands were deprived of the territory of the Polish-Lithuanian Rech Pospolito. Але на пізніших стадіях існування останньої політичне, культурне й соціально-економічне значення західних українців настільки підупало, що стало льве відчутним. Як ми ми довідаємось, at the XIX century. Під владою Австрії це ставище докорінно зміниться, й західні українці знову почтить грати першорядннннu role in the history of its people. Відтак, тогочасна історія України yshla dyama paralelnimi shlyakhami: one toruvali zahіdnі ukraїнці in the Austrian Імперії, and other - сідні українці in Російській.