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Іstoriya Ukraine - Subtelny Orest

Organizational growth

The Ukrainian Galicini had a good reputation with the reputation of people of high organization and disciplinary discipline, especially in connection with their meeting with similar people. For one reason, Galician Ukrainians have been handed over to Risi, the Bula of redemption. In the midst of one’s unavailable stavishennee with the Poles, after 1861 p. The Ukrainian Austrians lived for a constitutional monarchy, which gave them greater freedom of speech, and that we could at least have the freedom of the Russian Federation.

On the other hand, organizers’s activities, as well as being sponsored in Schedule of Galicia at the beginning of the 19th century, are on the cob of the 20th century, having sprinkled a number of senior officials. Western Ukrainian people recognized the direct influx of such a more disciplined people, as the Czech Republic. Now the Poles have irresistibly poured on them, so that they become “organic” policies on their hats, which are hidden on the basis of public sport with a public mobility and the development of economic and cultural resources. Yakshcho zhidnі ukrainіtsi wanted to get involved with the Poles, stink with the obvious evidence of guilty boulevard b zososuvati similar pidkhid. The sound of that was extinguished by the people, the yak “Spread on your strength”. Nareshti, in the 1880s, mid-Ukrainian rock formed a new type of wire, becoming a separate one, becoming a huge dyach. Teachers of zde_lshy were put together by teachers and especially lawyers — like idealists, with all their hearts to help the people’s good people, so pragmatists and people like to urge the Ukrainian peasant to be so much instantly convinced.

Achievement of cultivation . Provider of the new flow was the Enlightenment partnership , founded in 1868. peoples . Having committed ourselves to the right to the cultural and religious life of the village, as a whole, the partnership for the help of other teachers and the priestly priests has expanded throughout the whole calendar. I have read and received. The villagers wanted to read chitati presa (a few written peasants read a whole number of their unwritten sousids) and discuss political and social nutrition. The popularity of this reading has grown, as long as they have an hour with them, died choruses, theatrical corpses, gymnastic partnerships and cooperatives. Pіd kіnets stіltya stink actually became supernatural with a church and a shred. As a result, the great outside party celebrated at the last political and national settlement of the village.

Zavdyaki samoviddanіy pracі such such dіyachіv "Enlightenment", as Anatole Vakhnyanin and especially Oleksandr 0gonovskiy , until 1914 p. partnership is not enough 77 regional regions, nearly 3 thousand reading room and library, 36 ponad. members at the warehouse of Lviv filial nearly 200 thousand - at the reading rooms. Zdіysnyuvalisya also test the organіzuvati sіlsku young. To the sight of several organizations at 1894 p. boules are founded by a gymnastics-protoporezhnezhny partnership with a name of "Sokil" and "Sich" . Here, radicals, the secret of Kirilo Trilovskiy , manifested themselves here especially vividly .

These youthful groups gave the villagers a lot of trouble not taking part in the parades, they stole the shame of discipline, discipline, knowledge and patriotism. On 1914 p. stink nalichuvali 974 mіstsevikh vіddіlenny y ponad 33 tis. member_v. The growth of such organizations about those who were able to go in the middle of the chronicle and the less student groups of the 1860s before the systematic activities in general has a good deal of 18. Competing with the peoples, at 1874 p. rusofіli to establish Partnership im. Kachkovskogo, ale, for the number of wonders he acted significantly before supernumerary organizations.

Galicia leaders have a lot of knowledge that, apart from the cultural needs of the village, we will have to go home to economical food. Through their social establishment and psychological psychology, the stinks did not show great interest before the revolutionary methods, they scored such a wide range in the Russian empire, and the kind went on for self-help, as long as the villagers were reduced to shame. The first attempt at mobilizuvati villagers for the blessed lofty good is small in the 1870s, if the clergy sent a campaign against the village. Come and go, they were given all over them, they helped pass the alcohol, and the campaign itself became for the church one of the most concrete concrete reach.

Zgodom ekonomіchnі come in schodo villagers seduced svіtska іntelіgentsіya. On the spot, the partnership “Enlightenment” financed cooperative partners, warehouses and credit lists. Ale vono could not have secured the necessary qualifications to help that organisation of special cooperatives. Qiu will need to take up the trouble Vasil Nagirny - a pioneer of the Ukrainian co-operative cooperative, who has stretched 10 rock to engage in the activities of Swiss co-operatives. At 1883 p. they organized the living cooperative “People’s Torgovlya” , setting aside for the method of purchase and sale of large part products, ominously middle dealers, and forgiving pennies to the villagers. For the support of their own organization, Nagorny was able to bring forth the Ukrainians to commercial activities.

Actually vinnikali іnshі cooperatives. At 1899 p., So that you can get the villagers of the present methods of state donation, Yevgen Olesnitsky falling asleep "Sylsky gospodar", aka 1913 p. nalichuv ponad 32 tis. member_v. However, the average number of cooperative boules of loans and loans. Deyakis from them viniklische in 1873 p., Prishole in 1894 p. From the sleep of the "Vіra" split, the stench was shamed away, the good was the basis. Give ten-percent pozichki, tsі spіlki, some nalichuvalsya hundred, shvidko vit_snili or more lichvіst likhvarіv. Another important economic setting appeared in 1895 p. at Lviv — Dnister insurance company. On 1907 p. Won Mala 213 yew. klіntiv. The growth of cooperatives led to the organization in 1904 p. Central Association of Ukrainian Ukrainian cooperatives, about 550 small, small credit splits, 180 thousand. member_v. At 1909 p. on the 40th anniversary of the “Enlightenment” of the co-operative ruchu, they heard a call from Zizd (a kind of 768 delegates, a very young and young person), so you can directly see the Maybut development. Bagato delegates, enthusiastically overwhelmingly optimistic, hung up a little thought about those who are Ukrainian right now to be established by the rulers of the Vlasnoy share.

An important aspect of the cooperative ruch, as well as the dyalnosti of the “Enlightenment” partnership, was the implication of the development of quiet harmonious interactions with the nteligent community, which could not be reached by the Intelligent Russia. The successes of the peoples of the zagurtuvannye masses have secured a residual profit over the Russophiles, the beneficiaries of some middle members of the cooperatives have stored more than one and the same number of Ukrainians. On the other hand, growing cooperatives has little serious negative consequences for the Jewish people: boycotting alcohol, credit loans, living cooperatives prompted a preemptive blow to the country, often in the country,

Myske cultural life. Pidbadorena with its organizatorial reach in the middle of the villagers, the inteligence was magnified by the fact that their camp was in the middle of the village. The object of respect has become osivita, especially the middle and the university. Yak I was subject to compliance, Ukrainian boulevards were presented at all the rest of the ravines. Zokrema in the stony schools of stench mali doubled the strength of the most important and the other, the poles. The number of disproportions was lost in the gymnasium and in the university, the Poles were shy of everything, so that you can take the light of Ukrainian life. So, in 1897 p. s 14 yew after learning about secondary school, 80% were stored by Poles less than 16% - Ukrainian (from 1854, before that the Poles took control of the sanctification system, which would have been approximately the same as before). Yakshko Poles Mali 30 gimnazіy, then Ukrainian - more than two. Nearly 30% of the overthrowing number of students went to the Lviv University of Ukraine with the leading rank in the faculties of theology and law, and 1700 became the yak students. At 1911 p. із майже ^ 0 викладачів profesorіv-ukrainianіv bulo lishe vіsіm. There was no sum for that, so for the Ukrainians to increase their cultural level, they should have been able to get wide access to food.

Oskіlki for vіdkritty gimnazіy potrіbna bula zgoda ryadu, the Poles and the Ukrainian fought for leather school at the polite rivnі. Until 1914 p. to the Ukrainians, removing the primitive squad of vidkriti chotiri gymnasium, financial power. For the same period, the Poles stood for themselves at least twice as much as average and remnant shkіl. Asserting that you urge not to annoy the consumer demand, the Ukrainians have turned around to enormous wits to private offspring, and they have sunk more than a gymnasium. Shchob help students, especially those who came from the country, with the gymnasium and the university, they numbered the number of gourmet animals, stained with a private cat.

More often than not, the Poles have taken refuge in the “Polish” protection from the Lviv University. Schopravda, an hour and an hour I was led to do things. So, in 1894 p. On the eve of the day Vidnya reeked reluctantly for a reservation for the Ukrainian one and the same professional profession (from the past), not one to wait, because the other was awarded for their extra expenses. Oskіlki in Galicia didn’t have a lot of candidates, they asked for a new posad of the 28th academic school of Antonovich - Mikhail Grushevsky z Kyiv. With the departure of Grushevskiy to Lviv, a new era has been seen in Ukrainian national language.

You can find the most important Ukrainian historical initiative to see your fundamental history of Ukraine-Russia , having set your own time to the historical and historical descent of Ukrainian statehood. Mayzhe without the pathetic third-party help Grushevsky reorganization є Naukovo partnership im. T. G. Shevchenko at the reference of the Academy of Sciences. In an out-of-place partnership, it’s overtaken even more of all the good and bad Ukrainian, as well as the baggage of high-born European students. Until 1913, besides the largest number of publications, it was seen 120 volumes of their professions by professors who were Ukrainian-Bulo less than those who won’t show off their great authority. Yogo bagata and the number and number of students served the school for the preparation of a new generation of charmed students.

Enemy successes Bulo also reached in literature; stink in front of me with Ivan Frank - one of the most Ukrainian writers. Every time, it’s more difficult, even photography is faster than the optimum with the best ideas for the best people, Franco has created the most diverse genres - the novel, the widest range of the social, the most The order of obyazykovymi descriptions of rural villains, in the novels “Boa Constrictor” and “Borislav smіnetsya vіn vіdtvoryu to the grave of life robtnikov naftovyh promislov. The order іz psychologically thin subtle heat matched by the information about the children is a vivid picture of the prison life. And in yogo sketches about the degrading aristocracy and the intelligentsia, they were experiencing their emergence, the outbreak of social intelligence. Franco was also a brilliant student, one of the most important polemic and, as a result, one of the most prominent politicians, who often didn’t get rosy and curious.

Ivan Franko

Ivan Franko

The most prominent Western Ukrainian writers were boobs Vasil Stefanik and Olga Kobilyanska . Pershiy, having become famous for his short, ale insignificant news about the tragic life of the villagers; at the creators of Kobilyansky there was a picture of the “beautiful beauty” and the “nobility of spirit”. The tsarist mysteries were created by such prominent artists as Oleksandr Novakivsky, Ivan Trush and the baguette of scholars, as well as by showing off at the new Metropolitan Andrei Sheptitsky and often with subsidies. The opera house praised its sisters for the omnipotence of Solomiya Krushelnytska; zokrema, Ії спів having secured a successful opera Puccini "Madame Butterfly".

To the youngest people the development of Ukrainian cultural attitudes in Galicia Bouv, the shvidky rozvіt presi. Pіd umilim editorial kerіvnitsvom Oleksandra Barvinsky founded in 1880 p. The newspaper "Dilo" left the edge of panuvannya at fresh russophiliv and became the most popular and most popular Ukrainian newspaper. Do not graze the back, radicals and the most powerful supernatives of the people have also clogged up the power of the vision, adjusted the number of partnerships, the professional splits, the relevant and young groups. On 1913 p. Western Ukraine, including Mali, has 80 periodic views, of which 66 are in Galicia, and Rashta is in Bukovina and Transcarpathia.

Political parties . In the meantime, the ideological flow was formulated and it was built up by the organization and infrastructure, and the dead-end was the need for coordination among parliamentary systems. Changed minds before the win of political parties, but the Mali replaced weakly cultivated peoples and Russophiles. On the basis of the appearance of small, radically tuned private parties, the Russian Ukrainian Galicia parties developed legal, self-absorbed, more vibrant, gained a whole peace of mind. Інша відмінність і між by shіdnymi and hіshіdnymi parties rooted in the way to the national nutrition. At that time, I was very persuaded by the method of communicating with socially-economical problems, my friends, I was most socially and socially unanimous, I unambiguously talked to my country of great importance to all of them. Vimogs of independence didn’t mean much; about analogous pragnenii long ago іnshі people of the Habsurian Empire were dumbfounded. On the last day of the war of the Ukrainian people, they vowed that they didn’t have more than just the right hour. So, if 1896 p. the young radical Yulian Bachinsky at his cousin, “Ukraine irredenta” - “Ukraine is not good”, having become a full-fledged country. All Ukraine is at the hands of an independent state, and this idea has succeeded in all of Ukraine.

Yak zhaduvalosya even, not someone else, as a radical in 1890 p. formally zagurtyvalis in political organization, as a rule pretending to those who admire the first Ukrainian political party. Under the lead of Frank and Pavlik, they cherish the pleasures of Drahomanov, they stink at the position of “scientific socialism”, critically Greek-Catholic clergy for their social conservatism and vistupayuchi for Polish civilians and villagers. At 1895 p. stink of “nationalizing” your program, wandering about it, and in the future, realizing social welfare is possible within the framework of an independent Ukrainian state, and in the short term - from a whole Ukrainian autonomous state. Protest against the clergy, because it blocked the radicals' access to the village, the small number of Ukrainian proletarians, the stagnation of Polish social services and fractionalism did not give them the opportunity to conquer a wide range of parties.

At 1899 p. they were affiliated with the people of Yevgeny Levitsky and Volodimir Okhrimovich (Grushevsky and Franco came before them, having left the radicals with them) they approved the National Democratic Party. Having renowned the program, she could have accused the unhappy radicals and those who preferred russophiles, the national democrats also voted with their own prepared method the national independence; the water hour before their closest relatives, they stole autonomy and saving the Habsburgs. At the mainstream parties, the party stood on a typically liberal platform, uniquely super-social social problems. The organization of the celebration of such national organizations, the Yak Prosvita, was celebrated, and they turned over the national democrats to the Ukrainian party of Galicia for a reason.

Two important parties appeared at the prototype of the ideological spectrum. At 1899 p. With the help of the interests of the Ukrainian robotic Marxists, Mikola Gankevich and Semyon Vitik conquered the Social Democratic Party. The same clergy representatives of the clergy approved the Catholic-Russian Union. Protesting the offending party didn’t have a great success, thanks for the first time, to protect the Marxists from the social base, rejected the Ukrainian robots, and in the other - for the most part of the young priests-Ukraine.

Schob to conquer the villagers, usi party organizations, vicha - the people’s representatives, who clicked on the village party activities to discuss the vital issues of life. Neridko in them took the fate of the great Masi Selyar. So, the hour of the vibration campaign of 1905-1906 pp. at the national democratic level, almost 20 thousand. Cholovik, what about the widespread political bridge among the middle peasants.

From the organizational and political forces of Ukraine, weakening the flow of Russian people. For the younger generation, the Ukrainian intellect to navigate for the sake of the villagers was sounded piece by piece, the allocation to the Russians was out of proportion, the social conservativeness is quite reasonable. Ask rusofiliv zmagatisya with ukrainof_lamy on the organization rivnіvnіvіvіvіvіvіvnі not blasphemy succeeded: in 1914 p. Partnership im. Качковського мало тільки 300 читалень порівняно з 3 тис. читалень «Просвіти»; якщо українська кооперативна спілка мала понад 900 відділень, аналогічна русофільська організація — всього 106. Не краще складалися справи у політиці. В 1913 р. до галицького сейму було обрано ЗО делегатів-українофілів і лише один русофіл.

Сподіваючись затримати процес свого занепаду, в 1900 р. молодше й агресивніше покоління русофілів проголосило «новий курс», що закликав до цілковитого ототожнення з Росією. Вони заснували Російську національну партію, отримували ще більші дотації від царського уряду та агітували за перехід галицьких українців у православ'я. Щоб посіяти серед українців розбрат, а також сприяти консервативним тенденціям, польські аристократи в Галичині почали підтримувати русофілів. Таким чином, від цілковитого розвалу табір русофілів рятувала в основному допомога царських чиновників і польських землевласників.

Східна Галичина: українська твердиня . У 1907 р. видатний польсько-єврейський ліберал Вільгельм Фельдман писав: «У XX столітті багато народів постало з попелу, але відродження небагатьох відбулася так швидко й енергійно, як відродження українців Австрії... їхнє несподіване й бурхливе зростання в основному сталося завдяки тому, що вони навчилися самодопомозі та впертій боротьбі за свій кожен здобуток». Хоч Фельдман і не вважав, що західні українці подолали всі перешкоди (адже вони, як і раніше, належали до найчисельніших і найбільш політичне дискримінованих народів імперії), він, однак, наголошував на тому, що вони стають на ноги, перетворюючись на велику силу. Із поширенням українських організацій західні українці нарешті брали справи у власні руки, а їхній національний рух показував себе явищем багатогранним і соціальне базованим. Словом, якби у майбутньому з'явилася нагода здобути незалежність, західні українці були б готові скористатися нею.

Наростання національного руху в Галичині мало великий вплив на взаємини між' східними та західними українцями. Фактично, саме такі східняки, як Антонович, Кониський, Куліш, а пізніше Драгоманов та Грушевський, першими зрозуміли те, що Галичина здатна відіграти роль П'ємонта, або бази національного відродження.

Ще у 1860-х роках вони співпрацювали з галицькими часописами й надавали фінансову допомогу західноукраїнським культурним закладам. Із збільшенням числа цих часописів і закладів активізувалася й участь у них східняків.

On the cob of XX century. східні українці часто були кореспондентами й передплатниками галицької преси, вчені та письменники обох регіонів нерідко разом працювали в НТШ, студенти Російської України не раз їздили слухати українські літні курси в Галичині, а українські емігранти, особливо після 1905 р., знаходили собі притулок і засновували свої штаб-квартири у Львові. Спостерігаючи життя українців на заході, репресована царатом українська інтелігенція Російської імперії бачила, як те, про що вона могла лише мріяти, ставало дійсністю в Галичині. В свою чергу благотворний вплив на українців Галичини також справляв приток зі сходу першокласних інтелектуалів, а головне — надихаюче відчуття того, що вони є не малим ізольованим народом чисельністю лише в 4 млн, а частиною великої 20-мільйонної нації. Таким чином, завдяки гарантованим австрійською конституцією правам, потребі організуватися, щоб вистояти у змаганні з поляками, моральній та інтелектуальній підтримці східних українців невелика, убога й відстала Галичина сформувалася як твердиня національного руху.