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|home History Іstoriya Ukraine - Subtelny Orest|
Іstoriya Ukraine - Subtelny Orest
Since 1848 there was a cultural culture of the Ukrainian rukh in Galichin, then the 1860-th rocky became, without a sum, a decline. The actions of the Poles were struck and healthy by the Ukrainians. The hour of the revolution 1848 p. the stinks were blown off by the Poles as though they were politically more sober, now the Ukrainian people appeared as a whole in order. From generation to generation, they stole virily, which is unpleasant. The Habsburgs guaranteed the imperial dynasty, ale from 1867. With more zrozumіli, we won’t have pardons. The new political situation in Galicia showed that before representatives of the Ukrainian ruling class from the middle of the priesthood, they were called “old Rusyns” by no means, it was a nightmare of maybutn. In addition, since Viden has appeared inappropriately, its prestige and prestige have been significantly weakened by the recent political defeats. The Poles were strong, like nikoli. And in the midst of the lofty people of the Ukrainian leaders bachiliki masks of the wretched and unwritten villagers. Experiencing the gliboku crisis of power, the stench became shukati new dzherela ptdrimki.
Русофіли. In the 1860s, the рокinterests í nadії ’bells and whistles of the most Ukrainian Ukrainians were centralized to Russia. Tsyomu didn’t have any disabilities: even the same time at different times the words of the ’people’s people, such as the Czechs, Serbs and Bulgarians, who recognized the grievous gnita and the Turks, also straightened their eyes to the closest word to the’ old people - Dbayuchi about power, Russia has spoken the words of “yenofilskie trends”, imposing on them with these “controversial” peoples of cultural ties of financial and financial secrecy. One of the most prominent and most prominent Russian cultural cultures is Mihailo Pogodin - the historical and historical conservative eye that was seen in 1835. I’ve entered Lviv and made contacts with Ukrainian ген Intellectuals. I want at that hour of the last propaganda agitation there is not a small number of memories, it began to bear fruit in the atmosphere of the 1860s.
Persim at the Halychyna’s newfound Russophile became Denis Zubritsky - a historian , one of the few Ukrainian noblemen. The zavdyaki of the most powerful strides and the intrigues of the incessant Pogodin reached the point of complete flow to get the latest Ukrainian and middle ones — Yakov Golovatsky, one of the members of the “Russian Trinity”. However, the sign of a major breach in Galicia was russophilism dominated by the 1860s ’rock, since it was the dogma of the Svyatoyursk ring that accepted the number of Greek Catholic clergy. Viddak rusofilstvo shvidko expanded on the greater clergy, until the nineteenth century. priests were the main social base. Being politically important part of the western Ukrainian leadership, Russophilism became the main role in the cultural and political life of Galichini, Bukovini and Zakarpattya.
Russophilism has fallen in love with the "old Rusiniv" no less than the stupid words of "propaganda and rosary by the Habsburgs, but only to that, bagato veterans of 1848 p. respect, nibi can stand in front of zmagannі z poles can be less than spiraling to Russia. I’m important the role of vіdіgravala takozha і suspіlnіya psychіlіya. Navigate a vipadovy player with a clear bach, so the Ukrainian spiritual elite protected the complex of ethnic and social disabilities. Yak i kozhna elita, won the prestige of life. However, the Polish nobility missed the chance to admit their social commitment to the Greek Catholic priesthood. Zrozumіlo, scho selyansky nature of the Ukrainian suspension of culture and did not give greedy prestige, and after the misfortunes of the 1860s, Ukraine became more and more affordable. To that end, the reign of the may king of Russia, the bagatelite people of Russia, and the first culture of the holy culture was made available to the secret needs of the clergy. Boules are also pragmatic and peaceful: there are weaknesses in Austria and Russia, it’s real that we can grow up early in Galicia, but rather have a good deal of Ukrainian. ”
In their Russian language, they saw the Czech Republic and the last words, meaning they went significantly further, nakedly in order to identify the Ukrainian and Russian nationalities. At the thought of such russians, like Bogdan Diditsky, Ivan Naumovich, Mikhail Kachkovsky, as well as Adolf Dobryansky in Transcarpathia, the Ukrainian people are more than okay, we have two big people. Forward, look at the boules published at 1866 p. at that time the Russian newspaper detachment “old Rusiniv” has a “Word”: “We can’t do more with the Chinese murmur to see our brothers and sisters, we’ll be able to communicate with you. Mi is not є Rusini 1848 rock; mi spravnі rosiyani. "
With enough remaining positions of 1848, the “old Rusyns” demonstrated their ability to live with the most powerful forces in the cultural, especially important, political policeman. The confusion of the prevailing position was more popular than the following: “As soon as we were judged to drown, then more beautifully it’s worth in the Russian sea, lower in the Polish swamp”. Tsey pidkhid mav takozh іshshi іndіshki: pay all the rest on the donation of rosiyan, russofіli dіyshli a visnovka about marnіst sample mobilizuvat ukrainskі masi. In addition, the political policy has become characterized by passiveness and internality.
Al e "old Rusyns" rejected vidvagi vidkrito vidkinuti Habsburgіv. Naked at their cultural languages from Russia, stink bullets well enough, say that you have the same say at the "Say" declare: "We’ll wait for the bully unhappily virim to our august Austrian monarchy.” Deyaki, especially the clergy, went further, finders, nibs stink - not Russians, not Ukrainian, but okremiy Galician people. There is a lot of clutter of self-identification, nagging on one’s local peculiarities, a gutter in front of the wearers and a mahagany with a different Russian empire, all at once. In the daily, here is the article about the Western Ukrainian version of the “Little Russian” mentality, expanded to the Ukrainian language.
The influx of Russophilism in Ukraine was most likely manifested by the royal movi. Vistupayuchi with an elite position, the "old Rusini" was drawn to the idea of taking the Ukrainian language as the basis for Ukrainian language dialect (they called it stinky yogo, "I am talking about swine safety and shepherd"). The stink of hot, that the house of love is small in the tradition of tradition and prestige, and in the public of the church there were church words of my religion and my home in Polish, Russian and Ukrainian words.
It’s possible, because of an unremarkable piece of money, because they were called, they were called prestigious, they were really prestigious, especially important were villains, especially to the villagers. Navigate that Ukrainian, like writing with it, is skinny for the most vague and hopeless rules, only a few times have it rooted, it’s more and more bored with my Polish language. To the catering, to the very same Polish, the "old Rusyns" said: "Bo Malorossiyska is the whole village, but I don’t know the Russians, because my civilized civilians are Polish." Look “old Rusyniv” on movi boulevard to the cross-section of literary principles, with which the Ruska trіtsya and tіdіkritі priіchniki mіstsevoy dialect, which appeared at 1848 r. Russophile boules with such lingering opponents of the popular dialect, who wanted to lead the fence of Ukrainian publishers in Russia in 1876 p. The very first nutrition about mov in the midst of Ukrainian students began to develop opposition to Galician rusoflam.
It was not easy for the younger generation to join the older and older, but it was still on its feet. Russophiles panished even in Ukrainian mortgages. The People’s Dim, kind of funding, the Stavropol Institute, the kind of Galician-Russian Matrix , and also the great part of the presy, including the most numerous Slovo newspaper, were tried in their hands. In addition, at 1870 p. Russophiles became obsessed with political organization - Ruska Radu, as if it claimed to be the main post-governing officer for the help of the Head Russia for the sake of 1848 p. I won’t be stoned to redirect to the One representative of all Ukrainian near Galichin. So navigate the middle of the elite Ukrainian ruch mav rіshuchogo strong enemy.
Narodovtsi . From period to revolution 1848 p. the very young in the charity with the “Russian Trinity” came over the browning of my people, while not crossing the side of the older generation, not only the youngest, but the young, became the target of a rosma movi in the 1860s. Like before the "old Rusyniv" bagato young people from the old Ukrainians turned down to look at the scheme. Alya is older than the generation who had come to see the tsar, then he was the young man of Shevchenko’s youth. Vaughn was no less overwhelmed by the beauty, energy and power, as if they were in love with the people, and who gave the song and the words of the Ukrainian people to the people. Viddak zikh zhidnih Ukrainians have been called the people of the nation by name.
In addition to the ideological and ideological characteristics, the Russian people have recognized the social and social status of the people. Before the Persians, as a rule, the good of the secured church and official officials and those of the “big community” were good; Inshi, it was overwhelmingly bustling with students, young priests, representatives of the Holy Intellectuals, who were being popular. However, I didn’t hear any of the differences, I distributed two camps, and I formed into a thin flashing of the most interesting Ukrainian people. The hibernation of the super-small rivers between them was sharpened evenly, except for the food and literature. In the main nourishment, the beneficiaries of both have the right to have the most appreciated sacrament (that is often similar to the priesthood), who marveled at the price of superechion, as much as at least the oldest and youngest members of the same homeland.
The prototype of the hot drink steadily dabbled while shaving between the two house fractions. As many as Russophiles knew about the creators of the conservative Russian scribes-words, “Janofilov”, then the people of Shevchenko, Kulish and Kostomarova read eagerly. The literature has become closer to the rest of the Kiev Ukrainian people. Especially after the anti-Ukrainian visits of 1863 and 1876 rr. schidnoukrainskiy author became more often drukvatisya in the chronicle of Galician peoples. All contacts were confirmed after Yak Antonovich, Konyisky and Kulish vidvidali Galichina,, since they weren’t there, they became accountable to Western policy. In the late liberal mood of the Ukrainian people, the intellectual development of the Ukrainian community was expanded. At the start of the night, this movement of democracy and democratic trends was overtaken. And the intellectual and ideological influx of Ukrainian people at the middle of the world. If, for example, the 1870s Dragomanov lost their lives, having interchanged with the Signals, having tried to clasp their own cosmopolitan, socialist and anti-clerical thoughts, this “godless anarchism” was a good word for them. Bagato peoples boulders were young Sylsky priests, as they struck rozsirity contact with the village. They couldn’t stink for an hour and didn’t feel like entering the pose of pragnennya.
Zgoda, which was born at the middle of the people, was spiraling over to the fact that Ukrainian people were living in the country, who lived in the expanses of the Caucasus to the Carpathians, and that I had a spree of self-expression of a certain kind of people. Stink dishli visnovka, which is the most effective way to learn and develop national self-reliance in order to cultivate and promote Ukrainian language. Here’s the main national food for them Bulo Food Movies and Literature. Such a higher education institution, including the possibility of reducing the problems of problems, protesting against the matter, and engaging in politics, will take care of them. In the whole of the people’s boules of the Western Ukrainian type of the Russian Federation of Russia. Insha spilna rice fell into the fact that the majority of people, like Ukrainian people, didn’t have a little foreign foreign language. I rely on the “people of power”, the stink of boolean (adopted in theory) democratic, the lower conservative russophile superniki.
May the whole Ukrainian insurance mortgage, including the pres, interrupted by the control of rusofiliv , people are not wide open to them. One, who has been deprived of it, is completely new. The peoples conquered a small group of ethnic gurts (the ruling group of Russians ruled over the entry to the group of peoples and reading the chronicle), who cherished the middle of the book “Moloda Rus” , was approved in 1861. at Lviv. These jackets were recklessly engaging in the vision of the hours, because there was a great deal of experience in the 1860s. So, Zokrem, "Vechernitsі" (1862) popularized Shevchenko and interrupted the mainstream Petersburg "Basics" ; “Meta” (1863–1865) drew its knowledge of the widespread knowledge of the middle intellectual society; "Niva" (1865) and the "Mermaid" became interested in literature; Pravda (1867–1880) used to be an organ in which it was often blasphemed that it was done by Ukrainian people, and she served as an adversary for the All-Ukrainian Forum. Behind the “Pravdi” vignette, because of the unrevealed young entuziastes who saw the mali of an encumbered reader, insignificant financial resources were quickly recognized.
Water time, a number of peoples scribbled Ukrainian grammar and vocabulary. The Ukrainian theater has become the р most common нь д д д я я ост ост ост ост ост.... Став став. The meeting of 1868 rubles in Lviv, Vin, Yak and Russia in Russia, having broken into a particularly effective performance, weakened the national bridge. In 1868 p. the group with May 60 students and students with Anatoly Vakhnyanin established the partnership "Prosvita", which was involved in "vivchennyam and blessed people." And in 1873 p. for financial and moral reporting of Ukrainian people in Lvov Bulo was founded even in Zgaduvan Partnership im. T. G. Shevchenko.
Independently of all literary and cultural activities, it has become obvious for no reason that rightly the sounds of the people are weak. In addition to understanding, they have looked at their positions a number of senior officials. Pislya Emsky decree 1876 p. unsubstantiatedly became the point of contact with more Ukrainian citizens. With dramatic proof of political lack of power, Ukrainians in Galicia became 1879 rivers, if they were russophiles, they stinkened to send less than three delegates to the Sejm provincial. At 1880 p. new leaders arrived, they were right up to the middle of the meeting of intellectuals, such as professors and lawyers, Yulian Romanchuk, Oleksandr Ogonovsky and his brothers Barvinsky .
First and foremost, there was a clear desire among the people who heard the bells and whistles to take one of the Dragomanov’s calls: “The Poles have brought you out of the Galician Seym: you’ve heard the signals you’ve got to hear from you, people and organizations. ” Schodo rusofіlіv, then Drahomanov, having pleased us, did not contact them. Qiu glad people took to the forehead. Tі, hto having laid down before the Russian mortgages and student clubs, they entered them. At 1880r. stink vidkrili orintovuvanu on the Masi newspaper, defiantly calling Ії "Dilo" on the anti-Russian Russophilian "Word". The same way, by way of negotiation of the camp and the demand of the Ukrainian suspension, they stole the Persian Ukrainian people, but otherwise. On ny zіyshlosya nearly 2 thousand. Osib, the number of bagato villagers. At 1885 p. the representative body, the People’s Rada, was founded .
Radical. To the thought of deceitful associates, there are not enough people to navigate the most active people to save a constructive and progressive role in the Ukrainian suspension. Well, until russophiles, then they’ll have to reconcile them to such hopelessly reactionary ones, who didn’t incriminate any criticism. Accept so respecting the Drahomanov. As a representative of a more intellectually excused scholarship, whose emigrant, living at Geneva, he was shocked by the low cultural level, provincialism and other Galician people. Win especially escorting the anti-panicky thought, the negative influx of the clergy in the Ukrainian life (in Ukrainian, the clergy by the great Russian rite, yogic influx into the Ukrainian ruch min. Whose overwhelmed socialist, having beaten the repetitions of bagatma with the Galician priests, one hour an hour preaching argument, no less than the wretchedness of the villagers in front of the foregoing of the last piyatstva y linochiv. Having gotten over, older than a generation of foreign Ukrainians (until sometime in the 1870s and 1880s, the rhinestones of zarahovuvav and the peoples) went far away from their retrograde lands, while they were able to get right, and Drahomanov kept their contacts in advance.
At a number of messages, publication at the Galician student’s chronicle “Friend”, Drahomanov called out for young people to look at the older generation and expand their knowledge, to know more and more about their knowledge Having yielded to the souls of a small group of zakhidnoukrainian young people, having rescued those who can call for an intellectual revolution. Vіn pіdshtovhnuv a member of the group for the gifts of the third social group in a completely different way of interest in Ukraine.
The first henchmen of Drahomanov appeared at the club of Ukrainian students “Sich” . For example, in the 1870s, the idea of having two student groups at Lviv was the Russian Academic Circle and the Ukrainian Friendly Friend. Про свою підтримку також заявило кілька невеликих груп гімназистів у провінції. Але найважливішими послідовниками поглядів Драгоманова були два обдарованих, енергійних і самовідданих студенти скромного селянського походження — Іван Франко, котрий стане одним із найкращих українських письменників, та Михайло Павлик . Саме вони очолять інтелектуальне та ідеологічне повстання проти ідейно обмеженого й консервативно мислячого західноукраїнського проводу, повстання, до якого закликав їхній женевський наставник.
За освяченою часом традицією інтелігенції першим провісником інтелектуальних змін став часопис. У 1876 р. Паклик і Франко починають редагувати русофільське студентське видання «Друг». Вони негайно відкидають язичіє, на якому він публікувався, й переходять на українську народну говірку, а також розгортають наступ на русофілів. Згодом вони поширюють критику на народовців, висміюючи їх за посередність літературної продукції та консерватизм. Галицькі українці, шоковані гострою критикою, радикалізмом і антиклерикалізмом редакторів, вирішили скасувати передплату (кількість читачів зменшилася з 500 до 260), і Драгоманов мусив надати часописові фінансову підтримку. Павлик також допомагає соціалістамреволюціонерам. У 1878 р. на втіху галицько-українському «істеблішменту» його і Франка судять за підривну діяльність.
Незважаючи на легке покарання, українське суспільство відвернулося від Франка, й він був змушений звернутися по допомогу до польських соціалістів. Водночас з'явилися нові послідовники соціалізму, такі як Вячеслав Будзиновський, Микола Ганкевич, Станіслав Козловський і Кирило Триловський. Внаслідок цього у 1880-х роках серед західних українців розвинулося невелике, але активне ліве крило. At 1890 p. ці молоді активісти разом з «ветеранами» Франком і Павликом були готові до організації політичної партії. Це мала бути перша українська політична партія на Західній і Східній Україні, її поява (що на десятиліття випередила східноукраїнську РУП) відкриє новий динамічний період розвитку галицьких українців.