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A penny is a loan - Savluk M.I.


A penny turnover is secured by a singing mass of pennies, the size of which is an important characteristic characteristic of the pennile circulation of that market conjuncturi as a whole. Zmіna groshovo masi infuse without interruption оборот on the intensive turnover of pennies, on the form of pay-as-you-go food, on the market conditions, and so - on the economy. To that is regulated by the penny policy напря with the key directivity of the sovereign penny-credit policy. Regardless of the fact that it’s more correct to delineate the mass of pennies in circulation, they are not only theoretical, but important important and practical.

Having understood the groshy masi it’s more easy to finish, the fragments are folding the category of pennies itself is great, the variety of forms and functions is great. It’s not a vipadkovo in the interpretation of the law and that indicator of the vimіvuvannya groshovі masi і remembered rozbіzhnostі.

In foreign literatures until the 30s of XX century Panuvalo announcement about groshova masu yak sukupnіst surplus metal pennies and pink banknotes in the order of sub-turnover. Usі іnshі pennies іnstrumenty - nereozmіnnі banknotes, coins, deposit, deposits thinly - they were seen at the understanding of "concern obigu" і not included in the mainstream mass of pennies. The situation is fundamentally changed when the gold coin is standardized.

In happy literature, all the time, there is a panovalo announcement about the mass of pennies, as well as a surplus of pennies of pennies (banknotes, treasury bills and pink coins) in the order sub-accounts

turnover. Such approaches have been superfluous to the principles of one-time and uninterrupted penniless circulation, and there have been welcome criticisms.

Life itself has brought (at the entrance - earlier, in the Soviet Socialist Republic - before) the need to include only small signs to penniless masks, and the first deposit - pennies to a short-term character, and due to the pre-term character. Moreover, in order to save money and central bank, you can bring in any assets that are relevant to the government (state bonds, promissory notes, insurance policies, etc.). It is demanded by the leading order of ambiguous, empirical approaches to the determination of the self-indulgence of pennies, as long as the valuables are stored indefinitely and the victorious element of penniless turnover. From now on, in the very groshuyu masu stench, you can turn on the chi to turn on in a specific way to a specific situation.

Zarubizhnaya ekonomіchny science and practice gave us a good uproar and obruntovane treatment and statistically delineated penniless masi, which are effectively victorious in regulatory practice. The transition of Ukraine to the market economy to be beaten up by the most relevant vivcheniya and vikoristannya tsogo dosvidu in our practice.

The time of the vacant diet of the rozumni day of the pennies and the penniless turnover, the pennies of the peanuts and the peasants is the whole reserve of pennies in all their forms, as well as the change of the order of the pennies. With such subdivisions є private individuals, enterprises, large organizations, state authorities, establish the state carefully, as well as have them at your disposal in order to keep small deposits in the bank at the same time.

Groshov’s masa’s song kіlkіsnyi viraz (an oath on the billions of dollars and millions of groshovy odinits), it’s super-randomly folding the structure and the dynamics of the rukh. From the point of view of the characterization of the groshovy mas, the structure is more important, and from the view of the practice of regulation - the dynamics of the oath and structure.

Structurally presented groshovy masu can be distributed for several criteria:

o behind the step of "readiness" okremich elements to revolutions, so that behind the step of іх liquidity;

"for the form of penniless orders (gotvkovі, deposit);

o for the distribution of pennies for pennies;

o for the territorial rozmіschennyam that ін.

Naibilshu folding complexity of the groshy mashi for the first criterion, fragments of a mummy unequivocal rosumіnny step of the level of the skin skin ії element, as well as the mimicry of the slightest degree of greater interest. For this criterion, science and practice can be seen on the basis of the elements of the grocery store, the combination of which can be seen at the warehouse and the oversight indicators of the grocery store, which are called penny units.

A penny aggregate is a specific indicator of a penny mash, which characterizes the record set of elements and the fallow of liquidity. Most aggregates, which are more common in statistical practice of the country, are not the same, but are explained in more detail in the elementary inventory, more and more of them are observed in national and international practice. So, in the USA, chotiri aggregates are stowed to identify mashi pennies, in England - five, in Nimechchini - three.

The statistical practices of Ukraine include the following: for analysis and regular regulation of several grossovy aggregates: M0, Ml, M2, MZ.

Unit M0 vidobrazha masu ready, yak perebuv a pose in banks, so that in the hands of physical entities and in cash registers of legal entities. Gotіvka in the box office of banks і don’t enter.

The M1 unit includes pennies in the M0 aggregate + deposits in banks, as if they could be viktoristі valsniki non-randomly, without alternating banks, then store the money on the flowing mahogany and on the living mahogany until feeding.

The M2 unit is priceless in the M1 + unit on all types of string rachunkas, on the sinks of capital deposits and those special rachunks.

The MH unit is ostensibly penniless in the M2 + cash unit on deposits for trust operations of banks.

Bringing together the groovy aggregates is not the only thing, but the other. So, the M1 aggregate of a turn of masu of pennies, like a hassle-free transfer to the bank, really nicely func- tions of interest to the bank payment, and that’s the most convenient. Vaughn naytіsnіshe is bound up with a commodity maso, to undergo the process of realizatsії, and infinitely inflated є on the market conditions. The very same unit of rebuilding pid napilnіshoyu respects analitikіv and regulatory bodies.

Piloї respect to merit also unit M0. There are many characteristics that are important for the M1 aggregate, but the turnover is much better for banks and there is more regulation and control over them.

In the largest penny aggregates (M2, MZ), stocks of pennies are also insured in the other forms of organization (string deposits, certificate of trust, trust deposits, etc.). You are penniless for an hour and a half to spend time at rest, visually for the new owners of the function of wartost. Besides, the liquidity of the groshy masi is reduced by a skin offensive unit. Naybilsh lіkvіdnymi і ready to serve the goods turnover рош pennies to the unit M0. Nainizhchu іkvіdnіst may be penniless to the unit of the Ministry of Health, osklki significant part ix they can not enter into obig without the hairline being late without failing to get ahead of the whole bank and not knowing the singing financial losses.

The water hour of the M0 unit is the most important indicator of groshovoy masi, fragments are characterized by more than one element - Gotivka masu. The broadest unit є MZ, more than all the elements of groshy masi, will be put into circulation.

The index of a groshovo base is not more than one aggregate of groshovo mas. I’ll clearly show the indicator that characterizes the mass of pennies on my side and I’ll show it on the balance sheet of the central bank. To this end, the index of indolls is called more than a penny to the central bank, which means that they have uncontrolled control and regulation, and they are absorbed into the end-user’s money bag and the bulk of the pennies.

Groshov’s base includes all reserves, yak rebuy in circulation, posture by bank system and cash in banks, and also a sum of reserves in commercial banks in the third correspondent bank racks at the central bank.

The value of a groshovy base can be denoted by the formula:

The formula for the size of a groshovo base

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de Guip - sum of money issued by the central bank and not turned into a yogi fund; Daydreaming is a sum of pennies (reserves), so you can buy on the correspondent rachunks of banks at the central bank.

The first element (Gvip) of the groshovy base is fully visible in the M0 ready-to-use unit - the largest for the ready-made bag at the bank box office. Another element (Dreams) of the groshovy base is to be seen as well as to be seen in the ready-made element of groshy aggregates Ml, M2, MZ. Win is a sum of goiters'yazan central bank in front of commercial. And without any items of groshy aggregates - there are all kinds of commercial banks in front of their customers. The stinks are formed by commercial banks, such as for a banknote, possessed by a central bank, and for a dreams banknote, and for a grocery roll by commercial banks themselves in the process of credit activity, which is very detailed and multi-functional. There are significantly fewer items for groshovy aggregates for their total liability than a ready-made item in groshovy bases. Zavdyaki tchom zagalny oath oversized skin of penny aggregates (cream M0) I transcend the oath of penny base. Step up to rethink about the size of the penny-credit multiplier on the bank of commercial banks.

In Ukraine, a mass of pennies in circulation for penny reform 1996 p. It is characterized by a high pace of growth and a great haughtiness in the New Year, for the sake of making this table. 2.1.

Groshova masa, scho servantsє groshovy revolution in the country

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With a stretch of triple pislyarformovyh rock groves, the base and aggregates of groshovy masa grew up quickly, being more than 2.4 times 2.3 times bigger. Against the background of the constant hinge of the real oath of the gross domestic product - by 5.1% for three rock - the increase in the size of the groshy mas is considered to be supermir. Wonderfully, because of the high level of budget deficit, it wouldn’t be enough to pay the central bank a harsh penny-credit policy. Such knives in the dynamos of groshy masa and the oath of suspension of virobnitz could not but be blamed on the wart of pennies: the hryvnia for three rockies consumed 36.5% of their internal wartosti and 55.0% of free cash.

Significant interest is to become the structure of the groshovoy masi and the dynamism of three rocky. The self-esteem was taken over in the temple (151.7%) of growth in 1997. to the aggregate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, which, in turn, prepared for the foreign mass of pennies (behind the aggregate of the Ministry of Health) took up 49%, negatively characterizing the structure of the pennies and the penniless mill. At the same time, for the sake of tendency, the rapid rush of the penny-credit multiplier was triggered, through now in 1997. aggregates М2 and МЗ grew significantly more significantly, lower groshov base, and fewer anti-inflation indicators. 1998 1998 1999 pp. the structure of the groshy mashi was much better: the cost of lowering the pitoma of the cropping machine in wide pennies (in the MH aggregate) was reduced, and the greater the cost of the groshy base of the larger pennies, the lower the size of the Again, there is a positive tendency to develop more and more often and to buy in the foreign pennies more and more to lose too much - 43.4% on an ear of 2000 rubles.