This page has been robot translated, sorry for typos if any. Original content here.

A penny is a loan - Savluk M.I.


The building of the national courtyard banking system of the independent Ukraine is somewhat less expensive when received from birch trees 1991 p. The Law of Ukraine “On Banks and Banking”.

By this law, it is indicated that the first level of the banking system represents the National Bank (NBU), and the other is the commercial banks of different forms of ownership. The NBU has secured the status of the central bank of the country, which has more and more functions of transferring є registration and licensing of commercial banks.

At the hour of the reluctance of the independence of Ukraine, the registration of news from other commercial banks seemed to be a national bank of the state, although most of these banks in Ukraine were born for the decision of the number of sovereign banks of the SRCR.

For the first rick of independence (1992), 60 commercial banks were registered in Ukraine Bulo, and in Kinets of all countries, the number of banks became 133 ones. The majority of commercial banks in the Bula were registered in 1993. (84), since 1995 p. the number of shyly registered banks decreased from the middle to six.

On the cob 2000 r. the number of banks behind the register became 203, although I want a license for healthy banking operations to have three more for 80% of registered banks. At 1999r. funkіonuyuchih bulo 164 banks.

The number of commercial banks is important - the share of joint-stock partnerships (85.2%), of which 72% - credit cards and 28% - closed. Partnerships with deductible viddovalnisty become less than 14% vid vidnalnogo kіlkostі zareєstanovanyh banks.

Z 1994 p. in Ukraine, commercially banks with a share of foreign capital began to commemorate, and their income to the cob 2000 r. reached 30, with the number of 100 percent foreign capital - 8.

Behind the rozmir of assets of Ukrainian commercial banks, they are able to earn the most (active assets of UAH 1 billion), large (active assets of UAH 100 million), medium (active assets of UAH 10 million), small (active assets of 10 mln UAH). Mill on the cob 2000r. 7 of the largest banks were registered, but 4.3% of the total number of banks in the world was large, 38 (23.2%), medium - 108 (65.8%) and small - 11 (6.7%). Tobto is more important than commercial banks in Ukraine, which is the average bank.

Balance sheet capital of commercial banks for 1 period 2000 p. becoming 5.8 billion UAH., more expensive 29.2% of the total banknote goiter'yazan. The part of the balance capital was formed for a round of statutory capital (52%), the reserve fund was 4.3%, the margin of losses was 4.3%, the margin of flow rock was 8.4% and the remaining capital was 13.0%. I want the statutory capital of Ukrainian commercial banks all hour to save and pay more than half of the total balance capital, to be more important than ever, and there is a great demand for it. The price of the sale is obvious in the system of commercial banks in significant sums of undisclosed income (about 2 billion UAH) and a small amount of statutory capital in zagovyazannyah and capital (11.8%). I would like to transfer the largest number of commercial banks in Ukraine, which is average banks (66%), they account for less than 28.5% of bank capital, as well as the largest and largest banks, of which 27% are small banks, - 71%. In the most bankable banks (4.3%), 35.8% of the capital of all commercial banks is capitalized. All the information about the temple of concentration of bank capital.

The minor process of accumulating bank capital is deducted by the devaluation of the hryvnia, which can be reduced to a dollar value in the dollar amount. Yakshko in 1998 p. Vartіst statutory capital of Ukrainian banks became more than 1 billion dollars. USA, then on the cob 2000 p. won decreased to 540 million dollars., to be doubled. Infections in Ukrainian commercial banks may have statutory capital in Rivne, lower, one lower statistical bank in Western Europe.

The system of commercial banks in Ukraine is meant to mean a robust collection of large pennies and direct payments for the development of the national economy. An oath of passive bank operations from rok in rik zrosta to an ear of 2000 r. surplus of goiters'yazan of commercial banks becoming 20 billion UAH. Aletsey indicator є far inadequate. Win is becoming less than 5% of GDP, as in the case of countries with a transition economy of Central Europe and Europe - in the average 40%, in countries of the OECD - ponad 80%. In Ukraine, there is potential for significant value of bank deposits. Behind the Ukrainian razrahunoks Ukrainian legal and physical persons to assign pennies to the sum of 200 billion UAH., Yaki to change the position of the banks in cash (to open in the hands of the Ukrainian currency, the same time more than once), well, ten times more usіkh commercial banks of Ukraine.

The structure of goiters'yazan commercial banks 64% borrow deposit goiters'yazannya. The average priority of these goiters for the rest of the five years is becoming 106%. Dominant type of goiter'yazan є deposit before meals (62.4%). Banks can get the most money in the national currency, so in foreign currency. More than one deposit in national and foreign currencies on an ear of 2000 rubles. 55.7% and 44.3% became more and more desirable, though in 1994 they p. it’s very much 58% ’42%, that is why you want to compete for the next period of growth of deposits in foreign currency, and string deposits in foreign currency, you can change the rate in national currencies. For the sake of tendency to talk about the decline to national groszy at the expense of periodic devaluation, about the act of sorting out the US dollar on itself, the func tions of the wide variety of Ukraine.

For foreign depositary goiter and bank of commercial banks, 65% become deposits of legal entities and 35% of deposits of legal entities. Deposits of physical features began to grow at a rapid pace. Already at Kinets 1996r. deposits of the population were increased in number, as in the case of the front rock, the stinks were developing completely. Yakshko from 1991 to 1996r. deposits of the population became 10-14% of bank deposits, then on the cob 2000 p. The pitoma vaga grew up to 35%. At deposits of the population, the line deposits are repayable, they are even greater than that, lower deposits are paid. All the singing words about the lack of development of rozrahunkovyh services bankers in the population.

I have been advised that the main amount of deposits in the population is not distributed to Oschadbank, but to foreign banks, although I want to pay Oschadbank 21.6% of our deposits. At the bank’s largest banks, the majority of deposits in the population (68%) were overwhelmed, of which 31.7% fell to Oschadbank, which could be reduced by the Oschadbank monopoly on invested operations in populations.

Significantly, a resource base, a yakbullet for the ten-year period, gave the merchant banks the opportunity to advance their active operations. The structure of the assets of commercial banks has a role to play in credit operations. Camp for 1 year 2000 p. the loan portfolio reaches more than UAH 11 billion, or 42.6% of total assets of commercial banks. Tiles for the five remaining banks (1995-1999) credits granted by commercial banks to the sub-grants of the state grant of Ukraine were three times higher. Most of the loans are offered at industrial enterprises and trade (more than 39.14% and 31.6%). Banks lend credibly re-stream dіalnіst pіdpriєmstv. Short-term loans for an ear of 2000 rubles. became 77.6%, and pre-gostrokov_ - 22.4%. However, I have seen significant positive infringement in the structure of bank loans, I have to borrow from three loans at the same time three times more than three times at a time when I have to pay for the loan from the bank.

The main sub-projects of credit activity were state grants of a collective form of government, bargaining for loans on the cob 2000 r. It became 74% of the total amount of credit deposits in commercial banks. Potimit state sponsorship of the private form of power (12.3%) and state power (11.4%). For credit of international organizations and legal entities of the western powers, 2.3%.

Zauvazhimo, scho since 1999r. increase in credit in foreign currencies, since you have to overtake your total loan debt in national currencies, and also in fixed currency 2000 r. loans in foreign currency became 51.5%. For the sake of tendency, it’s not only to talk about all the more weak positivities of the hryvnia on the internal market, but the first provocation of the positivities of the dollar in Ukraine on Maybutny.

There is a receipt of bank transfer of the credit of the population, but a loan is insignificant in credit operations of commercial banks. Wanting to pay the rest of the loans to individuals, they grew up more than 8 times, their houses were born 2000 rubles. It became less than 6.7% of foreign loans to commercial banks. In the case of credit populations, such as legal entities, banks are able to outsource the loans to current consumption (73.6%), and credit industry is not investing more than 23.6% of their increased credit contribution to banks.

Yak positivnoe yavische slіd v_dnachiti pomitnі zmіni in the assortment of credit services of banks. The credit portfolio of commercial banks had such type of loans, such as overdrafts, for repurchase transactions, for bills of exchange, for factoring transactions, for export and import transactions. And the overdraft is stalled up to physical features. At sichnі 2000 r. bargaining on the flank side of the physical system became 2.7% of the total amount of credit in the category of posters.

Yakіst loan portfolio of commercial banks is impossible to respect wealthy. Prostrochny poichki on an ear 2000 r. reached 15% of the total amount of credit bargaining, prolongation - 7%, total - 3%. As a matter of fact, take it from you, to the number of holders of the SRSR Derivative Bank that there are 4-5% outright credits for loans that were taken into account by the negative visitor of a bank with a credit card, you can earn more money from a Ukrainian bank. With urachuvannyam usih types of problem loans (stitched, prolonged and sums) leather fourth hryvnia, transferred to the posture by commercial banks, you can not turn the lender. Such a situation with loans is due to the manifestation of great risks, which are the most important loans, and the regular legal mechanism for the protection of bank loans.

An important type of active operations is the commercial banks є investment operations. Portfolio of important bank dwellers stocked up from the KOVDP (conversion of regional state power), valuable docs of joint-stock partnerships, purchases for gainful income, and additional income in ownership. The foreign assets of banks have a portfolio of valuable folders for 1 year 2000 p. a loan of less than 7.3%, and therefore an oath of tendency to speed, especially after financial crisis in the fall of 1998 p. The activity of bank and investment operations is to lay down the secondary shares of the secondary stock market. In addition to the accelerated process of privatization, the next step is the provision of bank banking to the market of valuable folders. It’s important that capital investment in the ownership of the main shareholdings (in the main business of the virology sector) is reduced, then the stink should be less than 5% of the portfolio of valuable business banks and bring in more income.

Success in bank business is recognized as financial results, so as to keep your income and profit. For the may of the ten-day period, the profits of the commercial banks in the boulevard. At the period of "cheap pennies", the stinks were buoyant, in the period of hypersinflation they were supermirly, at the last 2 rooks they showed a tendency to change, and for the dear bankers the commerciality became zbit.

The financial results of the business banks can be evaluated with different indicators, we’ve got more information and more information about our idea, an indicator that characterizes the appearance of a clean bank income before the share capital (ROE). Wanting in period 1994-1997rr. the absolute rosemy of net profit of zrіs is 176%, the ROE indicator is lower than 9 times. At 1998 p. vіdbulosya іzke padіnnya clean offspring (at 2.48 times), and ROE went down at 2.76 times. At 1999 p. ROE has declined on a rivne 0.21, since yak 1995r. win by becoming 2.1. Record-breaking indicator of BOOV in 1994r. (7.26), if in Ukraine there is a small amount of hyperinflation. The reason for this situation is inadequate to the extent of the clean net and consolidated statutory fund. Yakshko pure cleanup since 1995 p. (the rest of the history of inflation) may not even grow, then the statutory capital is spent an entire hour.

Encouraging the problems of developing commercial banks in Ukraine є lack of interest in them and their structure and assets structure of assets. All the same, before even the third of all banks is problematic, since the third skinny transfers of the NBU to the financial health improvement mode. Half of the troubled banks are interrupted at the stage of liquidation. For bankruptcy (1992-1999) 69 banks were liquidated, and most of all (16) - in 1998 p., If in Ukraine there was financial crisis. Universities of Moscow decreased their interest and are ignorant of their liabilities and payroll of significant number of banks, their financial position has significantly waned, the largest banks have become more active, and they are more likely to become more than half of their assets in Ukraine.

For a healthier banking system, you need to live up to the hassle-free visits, especially the most problematic banks, which need to be easier to reorganize, with a chance to obv. Among the troubled ones, the bank is small; their banks are small, their assets are small. On 1 year 2000 p. the stinks became less than 3.7% of the total amount of assets of the banking system, as well as the negative functions of the function - significant, the number of multiples was increased in the number of state-owned subsidiaries.


1. Banks borrow loans from a penniless credit system. In the minds of the market economy, banks are centrally and commercially (business). The Central Bank є We are in the first place of the banking system of the country, and the commerce is different.

2. Commercial banks classify behind the winter signs and criteria. Stink to understand the significant operations, as well as to tradition and non-tradition. Before the first to lay credit, razrahunki, henchmennya contributions_v skinny. To others - rіznomanіtnі servants (leasing, factoring, consultative lean). Traditional operations are active and passive.

In Ukraine, commercial banks actively felt that they were shutting down after the recession of independence (since 1992 p.). Registration of news and commercial banks in the National Bank of Ukraine.

3. Pass through the operation of commercial banks to lodge at the formally registered and acquired resource base, at the front and for the active and healthy operations.

4. The range of active operations є credit and investment. Crediting of bank notes is in good practice until singing principles and minds. Investment operations for the establishment of secondary bank reserves, diversification of assets and the recognition of income. Credit and investment operations are guaranteed by yourself, with tampering with them, for the purpose of acquiring additional banks to open voice-activated instruments.

5. Significantly, a month in the banking sector will borrow rozrahunkovo-kasovі operations. Mizhzhospodarskі bezgotovіvkovі rozrakhunki zdіsnyuyutsya vikoristannyam singing forms and ways Rosrachunks to give regulation and song rules.

6. Banks give their customers a wide range of services, like grouping themselves up to singing criteria. Naybilsh broader є guarantors, advisory trust services.

7. For successful bankruptcy, great stability is important. There is a sign of permanent health for the bank to take care of their jobs and to save money on the bank, which is adequate for the normal functioning of a particular medium. To ensure stability, it is possible to add additional system of economical parameters, which are installed by the central bank, and optimize the optimal level of profitability.

8. Bankivska system of Ukraine may even for 10 rocky passed singing hat. Reaching meaningful health, ale problems and great reserves. The main problem is the loss of the singing group of the bank in the platform. Banks are tainted by banks with financial weakness.

Self-control power

1. What is also a commercial bank?

2. Behind the clever signs of the commercial banks?

3. If there are winnings of commercial banks?

4. Set up the development of commercial banks.

5. Functions of commercial banks.

6. Operations of commercial banks.

7. Specialized commercial banks, specifics of their business.

8. Who has the daydream of passive bank operations?

9. Warehouse for the capital bank of the commercial bank.

10. The Statutory Fund of the Commercial Bank and the order of the first form. 11. Why are deposit resources of commercial banks stored?

12. What is the best value for money commercial banks?

13. Credit of commercial banks by the central bank.

14. How do I get bank loans?

15. Who has the daily activity of active banks?

16. On what are the minds of a bank credit card holder?

17. What are the forms of victory for banks with credit servants?

18. What is the credit limit and credit line?

19. What is a credit riser?

20. What is the best way to credit credit?

21. What are the forms of security for loan repayment?

22. What is also the credit option for the clerk?

23. What guilty vimogam vіdpovіdati secure loans?

24. Interest rate for bank loans.

25. What is the bank investment?

26. What are the prototypes of bank investment?

27. Які цілі інвестиційних операцій комерційних банків?

28. Які існують форми міжгосподарських розрахунків?

29. Принципи організації грошових розрахунків в Україні.

30. У чому полягає касове обслуговування банком своїх клієнтів?

31. Документальне оформлення приймання і видачі готівки банком.

32. Організація касової роботи в комерційному банку.

33. Визначення банківських послуг.

34. За якими ознаками класифікуються банківські послуги?

35. Що таке гарантійні послуги?

36. Трастові послуги банків.

37. Складові банківської стабільності.

38. Регламентація капіталу комерційних банків.

39. Регламентація банківської ліквідації.

40. Регламентація банківських ризиків.

41. Прибутковість банку і показники її вимірювання.

42. Становлення комерційних банків в Україні.

43. Розвиток комерційних банків в Україні.