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Commodity Innovation Policy - Kardash V. Ya., Pavlenko I. BUT.


1.1. Viznachennya klasifіkatsііnі signs of goods and services

For David Rikardo and the representative of the classical school of economy of the term “products”, “goods”, “viir” meant no more, as a result of virological activities, which were available for sales. Also, there are more products and more in marketing dіyalnostі. The water-hour of a commodity is more difficult to understand, more complex to buy more power than the authorities, which are the main ones for them, which are good products for satisfying the song of a consumed hairline.

None of the economical literature requires frequent visibility of the goods identified, such as the American V. Stanton’s: “a complex of historical and other important authorities, prior art of packing, color, price, prestige and publicity, respect ".

All economic life American economist F. Kotler respects the leather goods є “physical hassle”, which is important to solve the problem of the work of the servant, but the visceral of the cinnamon functions. Vizneshennya otdy product F. Kotler polegaє in this: "All goods are all those who need to satisfy their needs, I will need and enjoy the market by the method of appealing respect, pribannya, vikoristannya, but anyway live." In addition, it seems that, before commodity market penetration, it is necessary to establish material benefits, servants, additional services, special services, territorial property, authority, organization, information and information [37, 38]. From the next page, the whole group obediently hoots such a zagal.

In the first place, leather goods of a large amount of power are leathery, however, the buyer of the best love is less than those, since I need them more.

In a different way, a leather buyer of vibirae goods, the buy-in of power of a certain kind of security, you may be more satisfied with your price, because of the need to protect your special needs (Fig. 1).

The sufficiency of the power of the viroba, which is to be spent on the effectiveness of

Fig. 1. The sufficiency of the power of the viroba, which is to be spent on the effectiveness of

Spozhivach, otsіnuyuchi goods, іstavlyayogo yogo cinnamon and vitrati on dandy. Corinosity of the product, depending on the look, right away, on the other hand, on the other hand, there is a problem of singing. The water hour of corynsis and corysis cannot be respected by the synonyms. Zrozumіlo, scho korisnіst a specific product for the best of suttivo suttvo r_znitsya. For example, eyepieces є succumbly cinnamon for humans iz vadami zoru, ale voni ni to whom lyudin iz normal zorim. Evaluation of the product’s needs to develop and solve the problem of storing not only technological characteristics, constructive, physical and chemical characteristics, but the psychological process of combining and informing about the product. Success of the product on the market is more than possible, as long as there’s a price for good and good. Having survived a specific vibration in the middle of competitive propulsion, you’ve got to understand the rosumny rozumіnnya price tags.

From now on, as soon as the ambassadors are in need of marketing, the importance of the product is to signify the opportunity to receive the most important (positive, positive) and actual expenses for living in the country. Formalization and graphical interpretation of the postulate can be seen in the image, images in fig. 2.

The price of goods with a look

Fig. 2. The price of the product is right now.

We will point out more than two identical commodity proponuvs with good vibe, the value of which is more than one.

H rules comrade klasifikuyut yak spozhivchі (special vikoristannya) and virobnichnogo designation. The goods of the skin group are identified by the nature of living, and by the motives of dowry. Kupіvlya goods of a special vikoristannya - the whole act of full will of buying any homeland in whole. Pridbannya goods virobnichogo appropriation for health on the part of the collegial number of people who need to relocate on the public administrative roads. The goods of a special vikoristannya (good) are most often classified through the peculiarities of a vikoristannya and the behavior of a good.

Depends on the features of the living experience:

1) a comrade of a short-hour victoria, I’ll live one day at least (toothpaste, bread, newspapers), after which I have to buy something like that;

2) a comrade of the pre-Gostrokovo vikoristannya, who shine with them at the end of the day just before the arrival of new ones (uplifting, furniture);

3) the servants, so that they can sell for sale at a singing party, at any time.

The servants of the zde_lshog o rosumy yak korisnі dії (come in), which is one side of the building is in good condition. The servants can be but as material, so not material, so as not violated in speech form. Kintsevym result of material servants є fused products. All in all, prepared, prepared for dimming, repairing a car, making a cloth, selling goods, moving a plunger, a sounding system is provided, operations with valuable folders, as well as materialization in contracts are granted. Non-material (non-daily) servants, as a rule, cherish the seamless satisfaction of the social, cultural, physical, ethical, intellectual and spiritual needs of the indium. By such servants you will brow, for example, install a medical patient; the one in the sanatorium; vidvuduvach restaurant, pool, perukarnі; tourist, passenger, student, graduate student; glances at the theater, vidvuduvach museum. Independently for the whole рhnyu rіznomanіtnіst, well servants can be divided into three categories: povyazanі with rented goods; with the goods; special services. Violation of services is necessary, there aren’t any presence in ready-made virobes and services and consumptions of consumers and organizations: maintenance and repair, possession of equipment, maintenance, protection. It is especially important to follow up with the business servants of the organization management, advertising, regional audit.

Zrostannya odyagіv pressure on the service from the public economy to clarify the benefits to the population, to the best time, to expedite the goods, which require technical knowledge for their services. Unfortunately, the sphere of services in Ukraine is moving to a low level. About the goal of achieving the results of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (Table 1).

Table 1



Service area


Сільське і лісове statehood





Great Britain
















The services are also available for sale, ale nematerіalіst bagatokh іz them rob vib_r for well then folding, no vibration real product. Virobnik servants make the most of your contact with us, the servant of the servants of the indivisibles, and the nature of the zdebshih did not give the help of them to transport, to pack. I’m thinking about “shvidke vmirannya” the servant, the fragments of immodestly shut off хhhnі stock. Bagato’s servant took it impolitely to vidokremiti vid of that, that is necessary, - likar, teacher, lawyer (Fig. 3).

Characteristics of special services

Fig. 3. Characteristics of special services

Respectful of patent non-material patent service is also practically impractical. It’s stinky to lie down more than a producer and an hour of nadannya. In addition, after serving as a servant, I have the right to attend the service, but before you do not pass the right of authority to the other, but take care of the service. The water hour, from the first look, the servants can change the number of hours of physical objects, the number of strategic positions, the number of product packaging, the long-term segment of the retail market, sub-active and material officials of virobnitstva.

Pridbannya virobіv short-hour vikoristannya that the service is superconducted by the frequent contacts of the buyer and seller. In order to do this, think for the form in the form of “whims to the mark”. Zrozumіlo, with a general obyazkovoy before the end of the whole є side is the product and the established culture of servants.

Virobi pre-gostrokrovogo vikoristannya, and more so than virobnichogo priznachennya, to require greater efforts for organizing the sale of the form "propriety to the brand."

On the basis of the behavior of purchasers, living with the sound of a different name are such a comrade (Table 2):

1. Increased consumerism , which should be bought with minimal gains for the same type of similar goods (breadth, special gifts). Dodatkovo city center for:

comrade of fast food (like buying regularly - sil, zucor, tea, cava);

comrade мп impulsive куп buy я (to buy one in full of unrequited demand is unplanned, without the same joke and the same number of cigarettes;

a comrade for impudent consumers (buying a parasol’s half an hour of anger, beating for great frosts, having a good time for marriage of an electrician).

2. Retailer vibra , for the convenience of some customers who are eagerly rewarding with similar products, such as price, reliability, and other characteristics. There are a number of goods є similar (televisions, refrigerators, computers) нес dissimilar (blown up, clothes, furniture) virobi.

3. Prestigious comrade , as it may be, there are unique characteristics, but asocious with the name of the company-producer (perfumes of the French companies, Japanese electronics).

4. Consumer goods , for no particular reason, for any other reasons, there is no interest (through higher prices, less information, marriage by ads).

Table 2


Marketing officials

Everyday goods

Viboru retel goods

Prestigious Comrade

Passive Consumer Goods

Povedinka buyers

Part of the purchase without rozdumіv, with minimal effort for the time being

Periodic purchase for significant gains on the most important price, brightness, style of the brand of goods

Great zusilla pid hour of purchase, low price of responsiveness, significant decisiveness to the count of vibranium brands of goods

Low information about the product, weak interest to the price and value






Sales for sale

Sales hello to the visually clever for the purchase of goods

Vibirkovy sales at Kіlkoh Kramnice

Exclusive sales in one place in the middle of the beautiful banks of the whole wide market

In the winter months

The goods of the virobnichy prizhenennya are classifiable for such groups: basically possessed; additional possession; knots that aggregate; main materials; additional materials and syrovine (Fig. 4).

Classification of goods for the virological

Fig. 4. Classification of goods of the virological designation

As a rule, the dowry of the main property is apportioned by an act of capital investment. Prior to the category of goods to introduce generators, importantly, that aggregate is skinny. Mainly possessed by two large groups: unified (bagato, standard) cars and special (non-standard) cars. Universally possessing victorious in the baggage halls of the industrial language in the environment for the visibility of professional views. Navpaki, special-purpose machines are designed and designed for the next fewer technological operations. Constructive non-negotiation of special ownership does not allow for the big deal. By the way, as a rule, the product is ready (ready for use). The product is available in full. Vnodnosnu rychkost of the universal possession of the broadest possible range of yoy zososuvannya, I will forgive the oaths of the forefront technical and economic analysis and the negotiations with the sellers of the first arrogant.

Zrozumіlo, scho vartі additional support is significantly lower for the wart_ main. It is explained that the wider range of additional ownership is standardized, so that you can adapt it for the purpose of completing the latest technological operations. For example, small turnarounds, by the way, electric motors, tractors can be victorious at the winter stages of the viral processes in the winter galleys. Tom drank on the subject of ownership to finish a high and not disregard one galuzu. The name of the sale is the transfer of sales rozgaluzhenіshoї zbutovoї measure and the sales of the main possession. Zrozumіlo also, so that you can get the tune of the virobnik (seller) and the buyer will be completely different, we will take into account the successful form in the form of "frivolity to the brand."

Zagalniy filed prazі, specialization and cooperation of virology to bring in a safe economy to bring before you don’t need to keep up the regular virobiotic cycle: see the finished virobi. Naichastishe virobnichy process to take on yourself a small number of small businesses, leather with some kind of one kind of surgical operations (stage processing material). At the end of the month, until the completion of the complete product of the Kintsev product, the viral processing process, by the day, will be fused to the storage of ready-to-use universities and aggregates, which should be bought from the third-party postmen. The first butt є sochasna automobile industry, television monitoring, electronic and electrical technology. As a rule, as a rule, you need to buy the necessary units and aggregates in the bag. There is no need to repair great difficulties, repairing them is standardized (a lot of them are standardized (automobile tires, element base, electric motor). Prote virobnik kintsevo products, arranging contracts with shovels, rely on vibrations of such, as a guarantee of the availability of complete sets of elements and their own supply. Ninі with such a garantієyu vvazhayut nayavnіst on pіdpriєmstvah-postachalnikah sistemi upravlіnnya yakіstyu produktsії, rozroblenoї zgіdno of vimogami mіzhnarodnih standartіv serії ISO 9000 Krіm of virobnik produktsії pragne zmenshiti Quantity postachalnikіv, ale zberegti kіlka Jerel nadhodzhennya neobhіdnih vuzlіv that agregatіv. Such pіdkhіd ouzhlivlyuє continuous control over the content of the posters of the goiters, the terms and conditions of delivery, to keep up to a minimum of the obedience of viral reserves.

The main materials бо for organic storage of ready-made products, as well as their own presence, can be seamlessly absorbed into the processing process (for example, chemical catalogs). One hundred percent of the main materials є the original system of sovereign or standard standards, which means you can use the latest language, methods of control, rules for saving and transporting. To that, the main officials to the seller of the main materials є vіdpovіdnіst cih materіalіv to the technical minds of the virobnitz and rozumnі prices.

Also mean the same, especially the basic materials, especially the high technology and the trivial victories, to consume the needs of the servants. Depending on the authority of the virobu, consume the following:

transport and storage;

installed installation;

technical servicing, servicing and maintenance servicing;

purification and vidnovlennya zovneshnogo viglyadu;

ecologically adequate disposal.

Supplementary materials do not become the material basis of the finished product. You’ll be reassured that you’ve got an hour of virology processes, but you’ll feel better to manage and manage them. Before them, you’re most likely to introduce farby, cute and cute, skilled materials, cleaned materials, office supplies. Widely, the wide range of auxiliary materials in the winter galleys is able to fix the sale methods, similar to the marketing of sales of goods.

Syrovinny comrade - the first comrade for promislovost. As a rule, the virobnik syrovini is more likely to have more operational operations, but better to go abroad and bring them in from other countries with the help of standard standards. Syrovine may natural mineral. Prior to mineralizing, it is energetic-energetic (naphtha, natural gas, vugіllya, uranium), hirnicho-hіmіchnu (ore, natural sulfur) and syrovine. HERE also lay syrovin for virobnitztva of weekly materials. Natural syrovine impart natural decorative materials, products of the peasants' statehood, products of rosini, products of cattle, livestock, as well as silver and ribbons. Itself most of these goods іn purchasers especially appreciate nіnіnіst postochalka.

A detailed description of the goods of the virologic designation (Table 3) can be seen in the words of J. R. Evans and B. Berman [24].

Meaning also means that, as a rule, it will be consumed with a comrade of a commemorative designation of a maє tsilovy (secondary) character. At the same time, there’s a good deal for those who want to save money on good friends and servants, for the sake of the need for such facilities, units, aggregates, syringes and materials. Zrozumіlo, scho kon'unkturnі kolivannya of the first r_z-

Table 3



Type of goods


Dodatkovo possession




Reserve, as necessary for the regular function of the organization







The lowest

Vidnosnі Vitrati







Shvidk_st residency

Duzhe is low






Chi enter the Kintsev product yak yogo organichna chastina




Chi form in the process of virobnitstva



Головна вимога споживачів

Trivial health care process


Стабільність, відповідність ціни, відповідність ґатунку

Стабільність, відповідність ціни, відповідність специфікаціям

Стабільність, відповідність ціни

Стабільність, відповідність ціни

новиду товарів та послуг спричиняють адекватні зміни випуску продукції виробничо-технічного призначення. Попит на товари, які використовуються для ремонту та технічного обслуговування промислового обладнання, залежить від загального рівня ділової активності і визначається збутом усього асортименту промислових товарів. Проте попит на обладнання менше залежить від коливання цін, ніж попит на матеріали, вузли, агрегати тощо. На відміну від товарів широкого вжитку головними чинниками, спонукальними мотивами, які визначають прийняття рішень щодо придбання продукції виробничо-технічного призначення, є його якість, рівень технічного обслуговування, ціна.