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Commodity Innovation Policy - Kardash V. Ya., Pavlenko І. BUT.

Rozdil 1. PRODUCT TA YOGO VLASTIVOSTІ

1.1. Viznachennya klasifіkatsіynі signs goods_v і poslug

For David Rikardo and representatives of the classic schools, the economics of the term “products”, “goods”, “virb” meant nothing more, as the result of the activity, which was paid for sales. Take Rozumіnnya product і dosі wider in marketingіy dіyalnostі. The water commodity is a trickle of understanding, a fold of baguit bagatokh of authority, so with their heads, tobto zdatnіst product with the satisfaction of the consumer vovnik.

“Ninja” pobaban '.

American Economy Economist F. Kotler Respect, the product товар “private business”, which is the problem of the problem of service of the cinnamon function. The value of the commodity by F. Kotler of the polyag in this: “the goods are all those who are satisfied with the knowledge and demand of the market by means of respect and respect,” he said. Іnakshsha kasuchi, to commodity market proponuvan to lie on the material benefits, poslugi, dosvіd, podії, singularity, terіrііі, voznnist, organіzatsії, інформація та ідеї [37, 38]. Іz tsih znachchenya іlkom listen to the same vyplivayut takі uszagalnnya.

In the first place, the leather goods of the mabagato of the authorities, however, they buy a lot of money on them, as a matter of fact.

In a friend's way, leather purchase of goods is a commodity, the purchase of the power of the yamana to protect the yoma is most satisfied for accepting the price, tobto the urahuvannas of its own special needs (Fig. 1).

Succiviousness of the virobu, scooped up on the effectiveness of his own

Fig. 1. The sukupnіst of vigilantness of the vīrobu, scoop up on the effectiveness of your own

Spogivač, otsіnyuyu goods, z_stavlyaє yogo korisnіst that vitrati on the sidelines. A good product, I’m looking to help me, I’ll withdraw from my job with the help of roz'yazuvati singing. Water time and that kind of thing cannot be discerned by the synonims. Zrozumіlo, so korisnіst specific product for rіznih spogivačіv sutєvo r_znitsya. For example, eyepieces are extremely important for people with vadam zoru, aloe noni to what people with normal dazor. Otsіnka mozhlivost і goods roz'yazuvati problems and spozhivacha to lay out not only in the last of active technical, constructive, physical and chemical characteristics, but in a psychological process, which is subject to information. Uspіh product on the market can mozhlyvy lishi to_, ​​if vіn hundred є cіnnіstyu for spozhivacha і yes є yomu zadovolennya. Spyzhivach rob concrete vibr mid competing proponuvani tіlki on p_dstavі vlasnogo rosumіnnya c_nnіsnih peregag.

Otzhe, vіdpovіdno to ambush positioning marketing cіnnіst product assignment sp_vvіdnoshennyam ochіkuvanih viigіd (funkіnalna korisnіst, positivnnі emotsi ї) і actual vitіrnіto sporivach yogogo, positive Formalization and graphic interpretation of the postulate may be observed on the image in fig. 2

Value of the product

Fig. 2. The value of the product

Let us establish a relationship with two identical commodity products that are promoted by Vibere, those who choose a yaknaibіlshe perevischivatim odiniницyu.

3 rules comrade classify yak spozhivchі (special Victorian) that virobnogo priznachennya. Leather goods are grouped for the nature of living, and for the motives of pride. Kupіvlya to the product of the special Victorian - the act of act of ї wіf a purchase of any yogy rodini in the whole. Pridbannya tovary_v virobnogoogo znachizhennya zdіysnyuєitsya on p_dstavі kolegіalnyh _shen people, skhobyut on rіznih admіnіstrativny r_vnyah. Tovari of the special-case vikingist (spozhivchі) most often classify through special features of this tekhnikosti.

Depth of the special features of the rozrіznyayut:

1) Comrade of the short-term vicarist campaign, just one abo kіlka razіv (toothpaste, hlib, newspapers) can cope with one another, after such a need of kupuvati taki samі novі;

2) Comrade dovgostrokovogo vikoristannya, scho them koristuyutsya vіdnosno trivaliy an hour before coming new (vztytya, furniture);

3) poslugi, tobto ob'kti sale in viglyadі singing dіy, vigod abo zruchnosti.

The servants of the story of rosum_yak yak korisnі dії (come in), one side of the zadna zapononuvati іnshiy. The services may be yak materіnalі, so i not materіalnі, the tobto does not turn into speech forms. The Kintsev result of the material service has been transformed into products. Tse napriklad, zgotovana їzha, pobudovany Dim, vіdremontovany avtomobіl, sewn cloth Prodan product peremіscheny Vantage, nalagodzhena zv'yazku system operatsії of tsіnnimi Papero, SSMSC materіalіzovanі contractual chi in aktsіyah, toscho. Nemateral (nevdchutnі) poslugi, as a rule, stand in front of the social and cultural, physical, etichny, іntelektualnyh і spiritual consuming іndivіduuma. With such poslugami koristuyatsya, for example, patient medichі install; that hto vidpochiva є in sanatoria; vidvіduvach restaurant, swimming pool, perukarni; tourist, passenger, student, graduate student; Glidach at the theater, in the museum. Nezvazhayuchi the whole їхня різноманітність, spogivchі poslugi can be divided into three categories: poyazanі rented goods; for goods; singular poslugi. Virobnіs postlugi stokuyuyatsya ob'єktіv, scho not present in the ready-made virobes and do not need to be consumed by the consumer and organisation: repair and repair, repair, repair and protection, and protection, and to repair and repair and repair, repair, repair and repair, and protection, and to repair and repair, repair, repair, fix it, and use it, to protect it, and to repair it, to repair it, to fix it, to save it, to protect it and to repair it. Special attention should be given to the servants of the management, advertising, area and audit.

Zasstannya obyag_v nadavannya poslug at svіtovіy ekonomіtsі explain to polіpshennyam to get to the population, to zbіlshennyam at the ny vіl hour, to accelerate the goods, to demand singing technical knowledge for their own training, and to learn how to get the technical knowledge for their service. Unfortunately, the sphere of service in Ukraine was relocated to a short break. About the result of the results and dosage of the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development (Table 1).

Table 1

VAGA PRATSІVNIKIV KITOMA IN RІZNIKH SPHERES OF ECONOMICS (1996).

Kraine

Service area

Industrial

Silskiy and Lisov gospodarstvo

USA

71.1

26.2

2.7

Great Britain

67.7

29.8

2.5

France

64.2

29.4

6.2

Japan

58.6

33.8

7,6

Ukraine

33.1

45.1

21.8

The services of a sale, a sale, ale nematerіal bagatokh iz them robit vib_r for here, skladnіshim, nіzh vibіr real goods. Virobnik poslug zavzhdi mak t_snіshii contact zі spozhivačem, zmіst poslug іndivіdualіzovaniyu, and їkhnya the nature of the healthy does not give zmogi іх zberіgati, pakuvati to transport. Tse zumovlyuє "shvidke vmirannya" service, just osmіlki unwillingly shut down your store. Bagato poslug usagali unmoorously vidokremiti vіd addition, hto їх nadaє, - lіkar, teacher, lawyer (Fig. 3).

Characteristic features

Fig. 3. Characteristic features

Zvazhayuchi on їхняі immaterialіst patetowna after service takozh є practically impossible. The stench is stranded beyond the producer and hour of their work. Crucially, he supported the right to service, but not to transfer the right of ownership to a party or service. Vodno, із sucky sub'єktivnim and material officials virobnitstva.

Pridbannya virob_v short-term periko that served on supervizchuyutsya parts contacts buying and selling. Target drain for molds in the form of “mark up mark”. Zrozumilo, just about the bureaucratic second-mindedness of the mind of a viscera of products and the culture of service.

Virobi dovgostrokovogo ikoristannya, and the team is more virobnichnogo priznachennya, require more zusil for organizing the sale of that form "to the mark."

On the podstavі povіninki pokuptsіv, їхніх with a common spirits rozrіznyayut takі comra (tab. 2):

1. Everyday popitu , scho ïh to buy with the minimum suspicions for similar types of such goods (hlb, rіznі gospodarsk_ drіbnichki). Dodatkovo ti comrades podіlyat on:

post-comrade comrades (they regularly buy sea, cream, tea, cava);

comrade іimpulsive ї kupіvlі (yakі kupuyt pіd with a lot of uncomfortable demands is not planned, without passing on that portrayal with him - tsigarki, jugular chest after a periodic view on the tray);

comrade for high-demand (kupіvlya parasolki pіd hour zlivi, obіgrіvachіv for the great frosts, lіhtarikіv svichok for marriage electricians).

2. The radio vibrator , for the purchase of goods for the purchase of similar products with analogous goods, assertion, value, calligraphy and other characteristics. Sered tsikh tovarov_v є skhodі (televisions, refrigerators, computers) і neskhodі (uplifting, odeag, meblі) virobi.

3. Prestigious comrades, who know the truth of the unique characteristics, or who associate with the name of the producer-producer (parfumi and French engineers, Japanese electrons).

4. Comrades passively , until yaku buysі for other reasons, do not show their interest (through above-the-ground, the lack of information, marriage and advertising).

Table 2

КЛАСИФІКАЦІЯ ТОВАРІВ ШИРОКОГО СПОЖИВАННЯ

Marketingovі chinniki

Comrades popekdennogo

Comrade Vibro

Prestige comrade

Food pass

Storybook purchases

Often kupіvlya without rozdumіv, z minіmalnymi zusillami on por_vnyuvannya

Perіodichna Kupіvlya for znuzhnyh zusil on por_vnyuvannya tsіni, yakostі, style of іznyh brands goods

Velikі zusillya pіd hour kupіvlі, nizka tsіnova sensitiveness, meaning it comes down to a lot of vibranny brands of goods

Nizka in the form of goods, a weak interest to your imagination and price

Tins

Low

Middle

Temples

Rіznі

Missia sale

Sales are available at the store for customers

Vibіrkovyy sales in Kilkoh kramnitsyah

Exclusive sales in a single abo in nebagatyoh kramnitsyh at all wide market

In various matstsyah

The comrades of the virobnic classifier for such groups: basic possession; additional property; Vuzli that aggregates; main materials; additional materials and sirovina (Fig. 4).

Klasifіkatsіya goods_v virobnogo priznachennya

Fig. 4. Klasifіkatsіya goods_v virobnogo priznachennya

As a rule, the main part of the property will be canceled by the act of capital deed. To the category of products to be combined generators, it is important to say that the aggregates should be. The main features of the group are: universals (bagatots, standard) machines and special machines (non-standard) machines. Universally owned Vikoristov in Bagatokh galuzyas promyslovostі chi in okremih virobnitstvah for the viconannya rіznih vidіv profіlnyh robіt. Navpaks, special machines are designed and made to fit only one single technological operation. The constructive non-vileness of the special possession that did not give to the son of the newcomer, is the knitty product (ready-made virobi), which came to be on the subject of the virobnica. Vnnosna gnuchkіst unіversalnogo otsennannya rozshiryu є can і splendor yogo zososuvannya, simprozu є ся ся перегов перегов перегов перегов перегов перегов перегов перегов перегов перегов перегов перегов перегов перегов

Zrozumіlo, scho vartі dopomіzhnogo izvestno nnna nizhcha for vartі core. To clarify the price, it is clear that the views of the supplementary possession are standardized, so as to ensure that it will be appropriate for the visonannya of the technological operations. For example, small tokarni verstaty, elektrodviguni, tractors can vikorisovuvatsya on different stages of virobnic processes that in different branches. Tom is drunk at the price of possession of the highland and do not objectify one galuzzyu. At the link of sales of the transmission of the trunk rozgaluzhenisho zbutovoi least fewer sales of the main property. Zrozumilo takozh, scho vzag вmozv'yazok virobnika (seller) with the buyer will be in tsomu ras tіsnіshim, just with the successful development of the “brand to the brand”.

Zagalny prytsі, spetsі_іlіzatsіya kooperuvannya virobnitstva in rozvinenіy rinkovіy ekonomіtsі zdebіlshyh lead up to, scho pіdpriєmstva not heal of the whole cycle of the cycle: because sirovini to the finished viral Take part in the process of taking on yourself a killer of various fur, leather and viscous one of the various operations (stage processing material). At the beginning of the completion of the cruise to the product of the product process, on the day, get ready to put together the prepared universities and units, buy them in other places. On the basis of the special butt of the automobile industry, industry, television, electronic technology and electrical technology. Tsi p_dpriєmstva, as a rule, buy the necessary equipment in Bagatokh Postachalnik. An additional component that is not folding components cannot be repaired by the great hard workers, as many of them are standardized (car tires, electronic base, electric wiring). Protein virobnik of the production of goods, laying out contracts with postaccals, to get vibrated with such ones, is supposed to be guaranteed a set of accessories for items that can be supplied. Ninі with such a garantієyu vvazhayut nayavnіst on pіdpriєmstvah-postachalnikah sistemi upravlіnnya yakіstyu produktsії, rozroblenoї zgіdno of vimogami mіzhnarodnih standartіv serії ISO 9000 Krіm of virobnik produktsії pragne zmenshiti Quantity postachalnikіv, ale zberegti kіlka Jerel nadhodzhennya neobhіdnih vuzlіv that agregatіv. Such a pddhіd smoglyuєє post_inny control over the post-hardened post-zhivovyazan schodno termіnіv that yakostі supplies, bring to the mіnіmumu obyagi vrybnichyh stocks.

The main materials є abo organically prepared warehouses virobiv, or their presence directly without interrupting the virobnic process (for example, the chemical catalog). One hundred and eighty major materials of the main system of powers or standards, which were assigned to them, to control, to the rules of saving and transport. To that the head of the office is the choice of the sellers of the main materials of the workers of the main materials of the minds of those who work in the robots of the world.

The slide also marks the most basic materials, especially the high tech and third-party goods, which are used as poslug. The deposit of the dominance of the viro will be consumed in the services of the followers:

transport and storage;

installed abo installation;

technical servicing, preprocessing and selling services;

the cleanup of that spontaneous viglade;

Ecological adequately utilized.

Supplementary materials do not become a material basis of the finished vibro. Stinks of the victorious process of the victorious process, either to fall asleep to the law of organizing virobnists and managing them. Before them, you should understand farbi, cute and sweetheart, masters of materials, wiping materials, and clerical priladdya. The widespread use of additional materials in velvet gallidias can inhibit the sale of goods, the analogous marketing to the best products.

Sirovinni comra - tse privinni comra for industrial. As a rule, virobnik sirovini viconu lichen taki obrobnі operatsі, just to take the liberty ïїik vikorastannya that transported abo lead її y vіdpovіdnіst vimogami official standards. Syrovina is probably natural chi. Before the ministry, unravel fuel-energetic (naphtha, natural gas, gas, uranium), fuel-chemical (rudi, natural gas and scale) sirovina. Go and sit down for the virobnits of the budding materials. Natural sovinu vvayvat natural dekorativnі materіali, products and selyanskogo gospodarstva, lіkarskі roslini, sirovinnі products and animal husbandry, bdzhіlnitstva, as well as sovinu іsovoj that ribno ї promislovostі toscho. Most importantly, the products are especially worthy of a postmaster.

A detailed description of the goods produced by the viral orders (tab. 3) by the author of the report of G. R. Evans and B. Berman [24].

The slide also indicates, as a rule, it is drunk on a comrade of industrial assignment of a secondary (secondary) character. In rozvivіny rynkovіy ekonomіtsі takiyy is drunk in a healthy попth vid dated for a good friend, for a virobnya ykih potrebnee tee possess, vuzli, aggregates, syrovina that material. Zrozumіlo, scho kon'yunkturni colivannya rshy rіz-

Table 3

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GOODS OF VIBRATION ATTENDANCE

Indicative

Type of goods

Promislove

Dodatkovo property

Sirovina

Component

Vigotovlenіdetalі

Stock up, necessary for a regular function of the organization

Rivne Priyatnya Rishen

High

Seredniy

Nizky

Nizky

Nizky

Najnchy

Daily Vitrati

Temples

Middle

Low

Low

Low

Naynichchi

Shvedkist

Worse nizka

Nizka

Whiskey

Whiskey

Whiskey

Whiskey

Chi to enter the kintsevskiy product yak yogogo organіchna chastina

Ni

Ni

So

So

So

Ni

Chi zmіnyuє form in the process of virobnitstva

Ni

Ni

So

So

Ni

Ni

Головна вимога споживачів

Trivial safety equipment

Ownership

Stability, vіdpov_dnіst tsіni, v_dpov_dn_st Katunku

Стабільність, відповідність ціни, відповідність специфікаціям

Стабільність, відповідність ціни

Стабільність, відповідність ціни

новиду товарів та послуг спричиняють адекватні зміни випуску продукції виробничо-технічного призначення. Попит на товари, які використовуються для ремонту та технічного обслуговування промислового обладнання, залежить від загального рівня ділової активності і визначається збутом усього асортименту промислових товарів. Проте попит на обладнання менше залежить від коливання цін, ніж попит на матеріали, вузли, агрегати тощо. На відміну від товарів широкого вжитку головними чинниками, спонукальними мотивами, які визначають прийняття рішень щодо придбання продукції виробничо-технічного призначення, є його якість, рівень технічного обслуговування, ціна.