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|home Management Management at the state bodies - Tsurul O. A.|
Management at the state bodies - Tsurul O. A.
One of the most important tasks is to manage the organization, to establish the goals, to achieve some form, function and develop the organization system.
Zagalna zіl organіzatsііy іnvoryu є foundation for development. Strategies for development and installation of key values for functional pіdrozdіlіv pіdpriyomstva - such as marketing, virobnitstvo, NDR, staff, finance, management. The leather is designed to realize its own strength, while logically it is possible to consume from the rest of the organization.
The duty of managers is to carry a bagato character. The order of strategic goals and commissions to bring the greatest number of operational and operational commissions. In addition to economic goals, social, organizational, scientific and technical goals stand in front of them.
The number and importance of the management and management are great, but without a comprehensive, systematic approach to the storage of their warehouse, we cannot manage the organization. For Іх visnozhennya you can speed up the whole model - "the tree of values". Behind the auxiliary “tree of tsiley” is described ikhnya is ordered ієrarkhіya. Warehousing of entire models - on the other hand, the process of managing by goals - is a concept that is so widely used as an ordinary management. Сутї sutnist polyagaє in this:
- Management as a system management system is in order to reach all the necessary goals and standards, so as to stand in front of the organization. To that the leather kerivnik, who is the second to the lower, is guilty of the mother of the reader as part of the deposit for the new obov'yazkiv.
- Vidpovіdnu іnіlі orіntatsіy robots pіdrozdіlu vіn mak zechepechity with a stretch of the planned period.
- Values and commissions are not to be communicated to management, but they are used by managers of all levels, as well as direct their own resources, resources and energy for their achievement. The process of management by goals is stored in 4 stages:
- signify the number of prerequisites and conditions for the organization of the organization;
- zdіysnyuєsyut rozrobka management goals in between the establishment of obov'yazkiv;
- the real plan for reaching the supply of goods is being developed;
- control is carried out, vimir, evaluation of the robot and the removal of the skin with a coring result.
Values and management requirements and managers є at the right moment for the visibility of the oath and the direct management of the work, so as to ensure that they are available. Ideas about management functions, such as warehouse parts of the process of management and organization. In the warehouse you can see the plan, organization, co-ordination, control and motivation.
I will take a look at the management functions of the plan of the plow at the bottom of the road and the last plan for the achievement of formulated goals, including the number of pictures in the economic plans.
The plan is possible to classify for such signs.
For the subject of planning: planning, the plan, planning, the planning process.
Depends on the lines of the planned horizons: Dovgostrokov planuvannya (more than 5 years); mid-line (wd 1 to 5 rokiv); operatively (for a day, a decade, a month, a quarter).
Behind the scale of planning: the main plan of planning is (organization); Planning for the galleys of dyalnostі, Planning for the projects (zavdan).
Beyond the areas of planning: financial planning; plan for virological care; Planning for robotic power and technology.
Plan of management in the management of three goals: introduction to the moment of the official organization of state support; sponuka pracіvnikіv “take a look at Maybutn”, because it is connected with the health of the guests, with prospective development of food; criterion of control of actual parameters.
For this purpose, the function of the plan reached the value of the target, the one is guilty of following these principles: power, accuracy, economy, non-interruption, immunity, masovіst.
The principle of rebind. Plan on a voluntary basis to cover all the problems of the organization, as well as the process, the operation of the state processes, and the process of management. As a matter of fact, when planning a vipada for the sphere of respect of the manager, it is inevitable to have a glance at the lance of the “high school”, because it’s trivial, inconvenience.
The principle of accuracy. When planning, it is necessary to maximize the high accuracy of the economical parameters, the maximum and the maximum characteristics of the signals. In okrimich vipadki you can enter the parameter without skoda for the mysterious move of the state grant.
The principle of economy. Vitratomnost planuvannya is guilty of a little less for the effect, which is very good for scheduled indications, diy, processes. Dysno, yakshcho, for example, vitrati on the folding plan of the distribution of commodity circulation in the amount of 1 million UAH. If it becomes 20% of the total amount, then the organization is not matched for the very process of turnover.
The principle of continuity. Planning your leisure time for delivering goals, as long as you don’t have to do it periodically, but uninterruptedly in the hour, so in the open. Tsey principle of quiet obligations and the principle of nullity: if you really plan not to finish it off, then you will need to re-examine them, shreds of dogmatization will bring them to ruin in hibny stress.
The principle of masovosti. An outline plan can be divided into parts when the plan is completed before the plan is completed, as is the plan. Closed maybutnich vikonavtsіv before the process of developing plans to stimulate usvidomenle vikonannya ikh, activizon vikonavtsіv, so I can restrain the vrahuvati, but you can not see the manager.
Organizational planning of the most important methods and methods, as well as the most important methods and the best economic indicators (balance, technical and economical models).
Before the methods of organizing the plan to introduce: the method of the next I will describe the operation; Counts of the Visconna; method of plan and management; working calendar method.
The method of post-operation I will describe the operation. The essence of the whole method is that of the folded plan of the last weekend work, of which one can describe them with the necessary level of detail. The plan can be used for additions at the foreclosure of the last operating hours, at the forensic diagram and the table.
Counts of the Vicon. The graphs of the consecration show, if, and if they’ve got more details at the intersection of the lines of the consecutive season (cob i closed).
The method of social planning and management. The process of network planning of the pole at the time of the work table, at some parameters appear, which characterize the triviality of that, and the current graph, denoted the last robot.
The main understandings of the city plan є podії, robots, measure, critical hat.
Podії - the price of the song, but the result of the robot. The moment of the official meeting is the achievement of the official industrial meeting. Leather podia, except for cob and kintsevo, means to be robotic (or robotic) and to have a robotic.
Robots (dії) are processes that are necessary for the health of all, except for the cobs. Є three types of sound zv'yazkіv mіzh pod_yami:
- a robot has a rozumіnnі words, a yak characterized by a trial, a wart_, vitrates of labor and material resources;
- very much, I’m sure I can help you now, if you are in possession, working strength will be occupied with your most kind of work. Ochukuvannya characterized by vitrates per hour;
- Logic deposits, so that it is not possible to harvest some robots until the last ones. Vaughn is not tied up with vitratas an hour and resources.
The website (the graph) is called the graphic image of the latest work.
Critical nobility - such as the last vzakomopov'yazanih podiy, as a ma trivialnost usiєї operations.
Working calendar method. The work calendar is the plan for the robot of the core of the chi fakhivtsya at the singing hour (hour, quarter, month, decade, day, day).
In practical planning management, there are different methods of stasis in the complex.
The plan of fragmentation is guilty of a booty of consecrations, fragments in the old video of pracie fakhivtsiv, scho were broken up the ritual, singing vitrati, povyazan with this process, appear to be ancient. But smut - the problem is to get lost unresolved, the whole - to the unattained.
Realization of the management of the decision will require prior preparation of the entire process and practical practice, as well as the completion of the choreography, which is incorporated in the management of the decision. In other words, the understanding of the realization of the management of the decision in the organization process of the resolution of the process. There is an aspect to understanding the understanding of "organization", including understanding the structural organization and organization process of the process of religion.
Structural organization can be broken with a "skeleton" of business. Structural organization of the visitor, who is responsible for the singing function in the foreign office, the remnants are stored in the list of competent authorities, as a function in the management unit. Appearance of a structural organization є before the end of the week, managerial decisions, fragments in the absence of silence, and the same as the doctor, and the same doctor. The nutritional requirements of the structural organization and management require a closer look.
Organizing the process of the week-end management rishhenniy okhoplyuє complex diy manager s yogo realizatsії.
The practice of management is based on the idea of having one of the weak points of management dyalnost. All the result of unqualified preparation of the decision, an improper delivery of them to the police, and daily monitoring of the progress of the implementation of the decision.
Organization of the acceptance of the adopted decision to lay down the character, type, scale of the health and safety.
For a successful weekend of simple, operational solutions, you need to have a good and timely operation and procedures: formulate a solution, make sure you need the necessary resources for the next weekend, bring the solution to the weekend and control it.
At the time of the adoption of a folding bagoplanovy plan, you will need to chop up the special program for realizing. Such a program is guilty of including three groups of visits: a document is drawn up and an organization is brought up to work; zezobechennya vikonannya rіshennya with necessary resources and ambitions; Organizational control of the weekend.
Documentary execution of management ruling is based on the sole legislative and legal acts. The form and documentary registration of documents is selected on a regular basis to the status of the authority, having accepted the decision. At any time there is a document, a certain fact that a person accepts a managerial decision, is guilty of misconduct: oboruntuvannya consume a person accept a decision; zmіst specific dіy, transmitted to rіshennyam; a lane of necessary labor, material and resources; hassle and ways of realizing the solution; lines of the weekend rishennya; very good results of realization; Wikipedia warehouse; help control the holidays.
After the documentary registration, it shall be brought to the notice of visitors. Neridko buvaє, why rishhennya take it right now, and for a number of reasons to get to the forensic in less than a month or two, and buva і пізніше, in the second hand their dіvіst, and ініклиі ініміст, зскільки зм. To that, an organisationary weekend decision, the manager is guilty of transmitting the necessary information and form to the collective, to the skin practitioner, so that I can signify success.
One of the most important forms is bringing the decision to the Vikings - the fate of the project is without a front end. Tim, the participants themselves, are too late to recognize the concept of solution, because of the specific features of the fourth weekend. Inkoli with the price method of getting into action are people who might be able to contribute more and more to the problem of the problem. Maybates, take the fate of the preparation, try to be more realistic, know how much more you need to know the sides of the state duty, the reserves and difficulties.
Dobrich results in reaching the same at times, if you collect the team before agreeing on the plan for the plan on zagranny chi chi on a special seminar. However, I’d like to vote, why do I have to be prepared and have a higher effect for the better understanding of the principle of personal vision.
In addition, if you have a good idea to develop projects and plans, do not forget about those that are connected with the great hours of working hours.
An important moment of complex programs of organization of the weekend is the maneuver of personnel, resources, as well as the establishment of operational reserves. Rishennya, poklikane make suttnymi zhidi at xid gosudaryuvannya, I will require material care, singing awakening staff structures, reorientation of people, re-training of them, and inoculation and deputy. In addition to realizing large-scale programs for retrieving virobility, it is inevitable to bring them to the first time in methods and forms of robot, and later, in the frame structure.
Great value for reaching the goal of organizing motivation. In order to motivate oneself to be rooted, the process of stimulating oneself to oneself and to the last, the yak is aimed at reaching the second and final organs of organization.
The oldest way to get the most out of people for the whole weekend is to start organizing for the extra primus and desire (the method of “bread and gingerbread”). The basis of the effectiveness of this method is that it’s even lower than the economic and social standards of life.
Before the cob of the twentieth century, you shouldn’t have any better minds, but F. U. Taylor and the last of the seniors have increased the effectiveness of the evil camp. Bula was assigned the standard rate, and the price was paid in proportion to the standard value. The result of such motivated motivation is that the productivity has grown.
Poznіsche came to rosumity, but economically do not wait for stimulus-lyudin pratsuvati more beautifully. Tseonukulo theorists in managing shukati new ways of motivation to pracі. Experiments by the psychologist A. Maslow helped them to find the reason for their appearance: the motives of people є in the main are not economical position, but rational consumption, which can be more often often satisfied with the pennies.
At the 40th pp. Psychological theory of motivation appeared. Stink pidrozdіlyayutsya on two groups: based on the internal sleep (needs) and on the behavior of people with urination and comprehension of the rest of them.
Consume people to buy the first and the other: the first - for the natural and physical needs; Consume: breathing, sleep, living; druzhryadnі - viplyayut іz of the psychological I will become people. Such є, for example, consume in good condition, success, possession. Stink z'yavlyayutsya with the development of intellect and nabuttyam zhittyvogo dosvidu.
Consume to be aware of the need for satisfaction. If the goal is reached, you need to be satisfied with the rest, often but it is not satisfied.
Step-by-step consume consumption in a given situation of energy for the behavior of people, the situation is similar in Maybutny. Lyudina will be pogagnut obov'yazkovo repeat that his behavior, as I gave the most possible zadolvolnit need in the past. Tsey Stan is called the "law of result."
Usі people are absolutely rіznі for material camp, rosum, culture, interests and even more, that is the reason for the great consumption and value. In a different way, people ought to get around to achieve these goals, that is why it is impotent to hear one “short” way of motivation. The process of motivation is also accelerated by the changes in the organization.
To motivate people for everything, you need to consume people. A. Maslow people consume food for the group for priority satisfaction:
- Фізіологічні - water, izh, repeat.
- Bezpeka and vpevnenіst Maybutnomu. Zakhist vid of physical and physiological nebespec і вп ев ев,,,,, щ ф, ф ф і потреб потреб потреб потреб потреб потреб потреб потреб и и и буд май май май май май май май.
- Social - social life, interaction, business and entertainment.
- Povag is a self-propagation, especially reach, life, an overalls.
- Self-realization - the realization of one’s potential capabilities.
The first two groups - the first consume, the Reshta - the other, the satisfaction of the same people, the praise of the satisfaction of the first.
With the abbreviation of material good and stability in suspension, the first plan is to fulfill other good needs.
D. McCleiland, respecting scho motivation, is guilty of taking on three needs: Vlad, success, respect. The theory in the deceased world is similar to Maslow's theory. So, the need for ownership and success in Maslow is for self-realization and responsibility, the need for respect is social consumption.
Another model of the motivational bulb is scattered by F. Herzberg. Winning, having wondered what the process is for oneself and those who are up to duty, to fill in the officials and motives. The officials are the clerks of the clerical treasury. Herzberg Sturjuvav, for the absence of these factors, there are no satisfied people. Ale coli ikh is enough, then you won’t feel like stinking. Lyudina before them a bajuja.
To motivate Herzberg to introduce success, demand for services, life and praise for the results of work, high steps, the ability to create creative and business-like ideas. Їhnya vіdsutnіst not wiklikє unhappiness praceyu, but a reluctant desire to eager to effective dyalnostі.
Analizuyuchi all three theories, it’s possible to garnish the gowns, but now, without summing up, the whole result is positive.
Розглянуті теорії основані на потребах, задоволення яких впливає на поведінку людей. Існує ще три процесуальних теорії, в яких мотивація розглядається як процес послідовних станів. Це теорія очікування, теорія справедливості та модель Портера-Лоулера.
Теорія очікувань В. Врума визначає мотивацію як взаємодію трьох складових зв'язків: затрати праці — результати — винагорода і задоволення працею.
Теорія справедливості основана на порівнянні винагороди із затраченими зусиллями і співвідношенні цієї винагороди до винагороди інших людей, які виконують аналогічну роботу.
Елементи цих двох теорій об'єднує теорія мотивації, розроблена Портером і Лоулером. Модель містить п'ять чинників: затрачені зусилля, сприйняття винагороди, отримані результати, винагорода, ступінь задоволення.
Модель побудувана на розумінні «результативна праця веде до задоволення», а не навпаки, як уважає більшість менеджерів. Ця модель підтвердила свою ефективність.
У загальній системі мотивації особливу роль відіграє заробітна плата. Ринкова економі ка орієнтована на кінцеві результати діяльності. Справедливе суспільство повинне прагнути до повної компенсації затраченої праці, яка реалізується через заробітну плату, а заробітна плата задовольняє багато потреб — фізіологічні, безпеки, захищеності та ін.
Визначення ступеня досягнення цілі здійснюється за допомогою контролю, який є процесом встановлення відхилень від передбачених величин і дій людей у господарській діяльності.
Контроль — одна з функцій управління. Як функція контроль має двоякий характер. З одного боку, це елемент кожної функції управління, а з другого — це самостійна функція управління.
За допомогою контролю виявляються проблеми, що дозволяє скорегувати діяльність організації на запобігання кризового стану. Разом з тим він дає можливість визначити, яка діяльність на шляху досягнення цілі була найбільш ефективна.
Контроль має свої об'єкти, суб'єкти, цілі та завдання.
Об'єктами контролю виступають організації, підприємства. Усередині організацій контролю підлягають процеси або окремі елементи системи.
Суб'єктом контролю виступає контролююча ланка. Контроль здійснюють як державні органи, так і відомчі та приватні.
Контроль, який здійснюється до початку роботи, називається попереднім. Він передбачає попередити порушення встановлених правил ведення робіт, законності, неефективного використання засобів та ін. Завдяки цьому контролю ліквідуються диспропорції у фінансуванні.
Контроль, який здійснюється на стадії господарського процесу, називається поточним контролем. Його об'єктом є підлеглі працівники, а здійснюється він керівником. Завдання поточного контролю — оперативне виявлення і своєчасне припинення порушень і відхилень.
Поточний контроль здійснюється на основі зворотного зв'язку, що зображено на рис. 1.1.
Fig. 1.1. Контроль як зворотний зв'язок
Заключний, або наступний, контроль здійснюється після того, як робота виконана. Цілями цього виду контролю є встановлення правильності, законності й економічної доцільності виконаних робіт, виявлення недоліків і упущень. Інформація використовується для мотивації праці.