Extreme driving: how to steer in the snow
The change of seasons every year occurs suddenly, even despite the obvious signs, such as the month on the calendar or the thermometer outside the window. Since many of us try to solve problems as they arrive, drivers are not ready for the obvious. In addition, there are often riders who have a habit of aggressive driving not only on dry asphalt.
In general, even if it's not about you, from problems on the winter road, no one is immune. It is important to remember that frequent rain, snow, temperature changes and a diminishing light day inevitably affect the condition of the road, the visibility and well-being of all road users. Below we give the facts that everyone should learn before going to ride a car on a wonderful winter day.
Together with the trainers of the Academy of Safe Driving Ford and Men'sHealth magazine prepared a detailed guide to winter driving.
Go fast on a slippery surface is not even on thorns. If you slow down at high speed, nothing will help you - the car will still carry.
What kind of rubber to choose
The choice between spiked rubber and velcro should be approached competently, with the same accuracy, as to the choice, say, of a future spouse. There is no universal solution. It is necessary to take into account the region of use of the machine and other factors. A very important point - a car or a heavy SUV.
In most cases, the choice is made based on personal preferences, as well as, for example, between trousers and jeans. The first thing to forget about - demi-season rubber! Believe the word, the wheels are not something you can save on.
In general, the question of what tires to choose, there is a short and informative answer: if in the main you go around the city - Velcro, but with frequent trips outside the settlement - only thorns. You never know what winter is cooking, so it's important to know the cause-effect relationship of choosing a rubber.
Velcro does not really stick to anything: at the moment when the protector "rolls" into the contact spot, the rubber pattern works like hundreds of small grousers. When driving on flat asphalt, the thorns sink into the wheel, and the grip on the surface is much worse than that of the Velcro. This is in addition to the fact that the spikes also destroy the asphalt, so in many European countries studded tires are simply forbidden. But if you are going to autotravel (especially in Russia), it is better to choose the spikes.
On long roads and roads there are open areas, on which there are swirls (snow, moved by the wind and lying in stripes across the road), which are rolled in by cars and freezes. If the braking occurs on such a surface, the spike pierces the upper part of the ice and holds the wheel. It is possible to drive smoothly and on that and on other rubber. But to go quickly on a slippery surface is not worth even on thorns. If you slow down at high speed, nothing will help you - the machine will still bring, so in the winter it is necessary to be able to restrain the impulse to lower the right leg and always take into account the weather conditions.
√ USEFUL: Chains are worn on wheels when the car goes to a deep loose finish. Most often they are used for snow or clay. As soon as the wheel hits the clay, the tread pattern is very quickly clogged with dirt, the rubber becomes flat as a rink and begins to slip.
How to properly pierce
The skid is one of the most common and the dangers that can occur on the winter road. In order not to fall into this situation, one must understand its causes. As a rule, skidding happens due to speeding, as well as due to a change in the direction of braking, which entails a ruthless centrifugal force. The centrifugal force is the mass multiplied by the square of the velocity, and divided by the turning radius. We can not influence the mass, we are limited by the radius of the road, and most often our own strip. However, in the formula there is a square of speed, and it is subject to us. Even a small excess of this figure leads to a sharp increase in centrifugal force, which throws the car out of the turn. At this point, it is unlikely that something is able to hold the car. Also, on a snow-covered road, there is always the possibility of accidentally driving into the roadside. At such moments, a force is formed that turns the car toward a more stable wheel - that is, deploys you most likely to a counter. The most practical advice on how to slow down and avoid drifts is not to exceed the speed. But sometimes there are times when you are distracted, and not immediately notice an obstacle, or something suddenly blocks the way. In this situation, emergency braking is the only way out. So, if the car is equipped with an ABS system, - put the brake on the floor and do not let go for as long as possible on a straight line. The braking and turning of the rudder are two badly combined factors: you turn - you will get an elongation of the braking distance.
The front-wheel drive car is stable on straight lines. Loss of control on it is possible with a sharp acceleration and high speed. Rear-wheel drive vice versa. on the straight line is less stable. When speed dialing, the rear part begins to wobble, and the gas discharge results in the stabilization of the machine.
The second point - try to go around the obstacle only at the most reduced speed. Do not try to make it a jerk of steering, like the detective Nash Bridges (remember this?). The lower the speed at which you begin the maneuver, the more likely that you will start moving in the direction in which you planned. Bear in mind that studded tires will respond to the turn of the steering wheel earlier than Velcro. The difference in the braking distance will be approximately 5-7%. Most often in an accident there is not enough meter or even less to stop. In this case, thorns will certainly help, but even with them you should not relax.
What should I do if I skidded
Anyone can get into the ice drift. How to get out of it, everyone should know, and for this it is worth familiarizing with the match. The word "skid" combines several different concepts:
- Slip: the front axle is stable, and the rear axle slides; The car turns to a larger angle than expected (oversteer).
- Demolition: the rear wheels are stable, and the front wheels slip. In this case, when turning the car does not go behind the wheel, but continues to move in a straight line.
- Complete destabilization: all 4 wheels slip. You can get the car out of this situation, but it's not easy: you need a large space.
The skid most often occurs when the speed decreases during the rotation of the rudder. The center of gravity of most machines is not in the middle, but slightly closer to the front, respectively, the pressure on the ground from the front wheels - more. When the car brakes, the center of gravity is shifted forward, increasing the pressure in front. The effectiveness of the engagement of the wheel is determined by the force of the pressure, that is, at any time, the unloaded rear part may be displaced from the road. When overclocking everything happens in the opposite direction - the center of gravity is shifted backward, the front one is unloading (remember the rule of passage of "lying policemen"?). The front-wheel drive car is stable on straight lines. Loss of control on it is possible with a sharp acceleration and high speed. Rear-wheel drive vice versa. on the straight line is less stable. When speed dialing, the rear part begins to wobble, and the gas discharge results in the stabilization of the machine.
√ USEFUL: If the feed began to live its own life, it is necessary to turn the steering wheel gently and clearly towards the drift. Simultaneously:
- On the rear-wheel drive car - release the gas pedal (forget about the brake);
- On the front-drive - on the contrary, slightly increase the fuel supply.
When the car began to get out of the drift, return the steering wheel to the "straight" position. If you do not do it in time, you will be taken to the other side. If you do everything right, go ahead.
A couple more tips
So that in your confidence during the winter travel there is not a single gap left, here's another tip: always look carefully where you're going, or rather, on what.
There is one old trick - when you go, you see that the road has one monochrome covering, one color. Any dark spot is either a pit, a puddle, or ice. It is necessary to react sensitively to all dark spots on the road, especially in the light of headlights.
Ice is always rolling where everyone brakes: before turning, in front of pedestrian crossings and at the entrance to bus stops.
If we are talking about the road - at the crossroads and in other places where speed is usually reduced. When approaching such a site, brake a bit earlier and stronger. To the end do not press the brake, and slightly weaken it.
√ USEFUL: Driving along the winter road is complex and unpredictable. Plan the route and leave in advance, so you do not have to hurry, and always keep the concentration of attention.