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Ordinary things under a microscope: what are they hiding?

Обычные вещи под микроскопом

A microscope (Greek "small" + "look") is a device intended for obtaining enlarged images, as well as measuring objects or details of a structure invisible or poorly visible to the unaided eye. A set of technologies and methods for the practical use of microscopes are called microscopy.

Thanks to the numerous achievements of mankind in the field of science, we have the opportunity to use modern equipment to recognize every day new and incredible facts not only about the world around us, but also about the human body. And so, along with the study of distant and incomprehensible galaxies, which are at a distance of billions of light years from the Earth, today it is possible to consider in detail what is hidden by ordinary things or a living organism.

The surface of a silicon microchip

Поверхность кремниевого микрочипа - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

The microelectronic device is an electronic circuit of arbitrary complexity (a crystal) made on a semiconductor substrate (microcircuit), an integrated circuit (IC), an IC chip, a microchip, a chip (the first term refers to a chip plate of a microcircuit) (a plate or a film) and placed in a non-separable body or without it, in case of joining the microassembly.

Household dust

Бытовая пыль - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

Dust - small solid particles of organic or mineral origin. To dust carry particles of smaller diameter from micron shares and to the maximum - 0,1 mm. Larger particles transfer the material into a discharge of sand, which has dimensions from 0.1 to 5 mm.


Комар - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

Mosquitoes, or real mosquitoes, or blood-sucking mosquitoes (Latin Culicidae) are a family of dipterous insects belonging to the group of long-nosed (Nematocera), the females of adults of which are in most cases a component of the nasal complex. Characteristic for this family of oral organs: the upper and lower lips are elongated and form a case in which are placed long thin needles (2 pairs of jaws); the males of the jaw are underdeveloped - they do not bite. Movable larvae and pupae of mosquitoes live in standing ponds. Fossil mosquitoes are known from the Cretaceous period. In the modern world, there are more than 3000 species of mosquitoes belonging to 38 genera. In Russia there are representatives of 100 species belonging to the genus of real mosquitoes (Culex), kusak (Aedes), Culiseta, malarial mosquitoes (Anopheles), Toxorhinchites, Uranotaenia, Orthopodomyia, Coquillettidia.

The life cycle of mosquitoes includes four stages of development: egg → larva → pupa → imago, or adult individual.

Surface of the tongue

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Language - unpaired growth of the bottom of the oral cavity in individuals of vertebrates. The form and position of the language are variable and depend on its functional state. At rest, the tongue has a shovel-like shape, almost completely filling the oral cavity. The tip of the tongue lies against the back surface of the front teeth.

Velcro fastener

Застежка-липучка - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

Textile fastening (velcro, Velcro, Velcro tape, tape-contact, burdock) is a fastener used in the light industry. It is a successful example of biomimetics, because the principle is borrowed from the method of engaging the flowers of burdock, collected in globular baskets with hooked wrappers. A variety of fasteners, is a pair of textile tapes, one of which houses micro-hooks, the other - micro-loops. When two tapes come in contact, the micro-hooks catch on the micro-loops, and one tape "sticks" to the other, for which the fastener is called "Velcro." The fastener is widely used in the sewing and shoe industry, and for special products.

Velcro is a registered trademark in many countries.

Blood clot

Сгусток крови - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

Blood clotting is the most important stage in the work of the hemostasis system, which is responsible for stopping bleeding when the vascular system of the body is damaged. The set of interacting with each other in a very complicated manner of various factors of blood coagulation forms a system of blood coagulation.

A thrombus is a lifetime blood clot in the lumen of a blood vessel or in the heart cavity formed as a result of activation of the blood coagulation system and arising in response to vessel damage. Participates in the processes of hemostasis.

Spermatozoa develop in the testes

Сперматозоиды развиваются в семенниках - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

Spermatozoon (from other Greek seeds, life and species) is the male germ cell (gamete) in organisms multiplying through oogamy. Spermatozoa usually have the ability to actively move and serve to fertilize the female gamete - the egg. Usually they are much smaller than ova, since they do not contain such a significant amount of cytoplasm and are produced by the body simultaneously in a significant amount.

Spermatozoa on the surface of the egg

Сперматозоиды на поверхности яйцеклетки - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

The typical structure of the spermatozoon reflects the shape of a common ancestor of animals and fungi: a single-celled nuclear organism, moving at the expense of a flagellum at the back, using it like a tail. An extensive group of organisms originating from it includes animals, most fungi and some groups of protists and is called the clan of the rear-guttic. Most other eukaryotes with flagella have them in front.

In the broadest sense of the word, spermatozoids traditionally refer to male sex cells in plants as well, and they also use terms of sperm or anterozoids (they also apply to fungi that have traditionally come close to plants).

Eye of the midges

Глаз мошки - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

Litter (Simuliidae) is a family of dipterous insects, the adult females are in most cases a component of the nasal complex. At the moment in the world fauna there are about 1800 species of midges. The nearest living relatives of midges are mosquitoes-derguns. Moss are carriers of several diseases, including river blindness in Africa (Simulium damnosum and S. neavei) and America (S. callidum and S. metallicum in Central America, S. ochraceum in Central and South America). Fossil midges are known from the Middle Jurassic.

Pubic louse

Лобковая вошь - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

The pubic louse, or platytsa, (Latin Pthirus pubis) is an ectoparasitic insect from the suborder of lice (Latin Anoplura), living on the human body mainly in the pubic region, on the genitals, around the anus, rarely in other hairy areas: in the axillary hollows, chest and abdomen. Unlike human lice, it never lives on the scalp. This is due to the fact that the limbs of the pubic lice are adapted only to hold and move through the hair triangular section, in contrast to the scalp hair, which has a round section of the hair. It feeds exclusively on the blood of its owner. Without food, it dies within 24 hours. The disease caused by the defeat of these insects is called pubic pediculosis or ftyria.

The dimensions of the pubic lice reach about 1-3 mm. Female larger than males 1.5 times.

Some researchers suggest that an increase in the percentage of people who remove pubic hair has led the population of pubic lice in the population in some parts of the world to the brink of extinction.

The surface of the tooth

Поверхность зуба - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

The tooth consists mainly of dentin with a cavity, covered on the outside with a characteristic shape and structure, occupies a definite position in the dentition, is constructed of special tissues, has its own nervous apparatus, blood and lymphatic vessels. Inside the tooth is a loose connective tissue, permeated with nerves and blood vessels (pulp).

Normally, a person has 28 to 32 teeth. Distinguished milk and permanent teeth - a temporary and permanent bite.

In the temporary bite (milk teeth) there are 8 incisors, 4 canines and 8 molars - only 20 teeth. In children, they begin to erupt at the age of 3 months. In the period from 6 to 13 years, the milk teeth are gradually replaced by permanent teeth.

The permanent bite consists of 8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 premolars and 8-12 molars. In rare cases, additional, supercomplete teeth (both dairy and permanent) are observed [1]. The absence of third molars, called "wisdom teeth" is the norm, and the third molars themselves are being considered an atavism by an increasing number of scientists, but this is currently a controversial issue.

Stinging nettle hairs

Жгучие волоски листьев крапивы - Обычные вещи под микроскопом


Акулья кожа - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

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