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Common things under a microscope: what do they hide?

Обычные вещи под микроскопом

A microscope (Greek: “small” + “look”) is a device designed to receive enlarged images, as well as measure objects or structural details that are invisible or poorly visible to the naked eye. The combination of technologies and methods for the practical use of microscopes is called microscopy.

Thanks to the many achievements of mankind in the field of science, we have the opportunity to use modern equipment to learn new and incredible facts every day, not only about the world around us, but also about the human body. And therefore, along with the study of distant and incomprehensible galaxies, which are located at a distance of billions of light years from the Earth, today it is possible to consider in detail what ordinary things or a living organism hide.

Silicon microchip surface

Поверхность кремниевого микрочипа - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

Integrated (micro) circuit (IC, IC, m / cx), microcircuit, chip (eng. Chip - thin plate - originally the term refers to the chip plate of a microcircuit) - microelectronic device - an electronic circuit of arbitrary complexity (crystal), made on a semiconductor substrate (plate or film) and placed in a non-separable case or without it, if it is part of a microassembly.

Household dust

Бытовая пыль - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

Dust - small solid particles of organic or mineral origin. Particles of smaller diameter from fractions of a micron to a maximum of 0.1 mm are referred to dust. Larger particles translate the material into a discharge of sand, which has sizes from 0.1 to 5 mm.


Комар - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

Mosquitoes, or real mosquitoes, or blood-sucking mosquitoes (lat. Culicidae) - a family of diptera insects belonging to the group of long-nosed (Nematocera), adult females of which in most cases are a component of the gnat complex. Oral organs are characteristic of this family: the upper and lower lip are elongated and form a case in which long thin needles are placed (2 pairs of jaws); males have underdeveloped jaws - they do not bite. Mobile larvae and pupae of mosquitoes live in stagnant bodies of water. Fossil mosquitoes have been known since the Cretaceous. In the modern world, there are more than 3,000 species of mosquitoes belonging to 38 genera. In Russia, representatives of 100 species belonging to the genera of real mosquitoes (Culex), bites (Aedes), Culiseta, malaria mosquitoes (Anopheles), Toxorhinchites, Uranotaenia, Orthopodomyia, Coquillettidia live.

The life cycle of mosquitoes includes four stages of development: egg → larva → pupa → imago, or adult.

Tongue surface

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The tongue is the unpaired outgrowth of the bottom of the oral cavity in vertebrates. The shape and position of the language are variable and depend on its functional state. At rest, the tongue has a spade-like shape, almost completely filling the oral cavity. The tip of the tongue is adjacent to the back surface of the front teeth.

Velcro closure

Застежка-липучка - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

Textile fastener (Velcro, Velcro, Velcro tape, contact tape, burdock) is a fastener used in light industry. It is a good example of biomimetics, as the principle is borrowed from the method of engagement of flowers of burdock, collected in spherical baskets with hooked wrappers. A type of fastener is a pair of textile tapes, on one of which micro hooks are placed, on the other - micro loops. When two tapes come in contact, the micro hooks hook onto the micro loops, and one tape “sticks” to the other, for which the fastener is called “Velcro”. The fastener is widely used in the clothing and footwear industries, and for special products.

Velcro is a registered trademark in many countries.

Blood clot

Сгусток крови - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

Blood coagulation is the most important stage of the hemostasis system, which is responsible for stopping bleeding when the vascular system of the body is damaged. The combination of various coagulation factors interacting in a very complex way forms a blood coagulation system.

A blood clot (other Greek, com, clot) is an intravital blood clot in the lumen of a blood vessel or in the heart cavity, resulting from the activation of the blood coagulation system and arising in response to damage to the vessel. Participates in the processes of hemostasis.

Sperm cells develop in the testes

Сперматозоиды развиваются в семенниках - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

Sperm (from other Greek seeds, life and species) is the male reproductive cell (gamete) in organisms that multiply by means of oogamy. Spermatozoa usually have the ability to actively move and serve to fertilize the female gamete - the egg. Usually they are much smaller than eggs, since they do not contain such a significant amount of cytoplasm and are produced by the body simultaneously in a significant amount.

Sperm on the surface of the egg

Сперматозоиды на поверхности яйцеклетки - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

The typical structure of the sperm reflects the shape of the common ancestor of animals and fungi: a unicellular nuclear organism that moves due to the flagellum in the back, using it like a tail. An extensive group of organisms originating from it includes animals, most fungi and some groups of protists and is called the clan posterior flagellum. Most other eukaryotes with flagella have them in front.

In the broad sense of the word, traditionally sperm cells are sometimes called male sex cells in plants, the terms sperm or anterozoids are also used (they are also used for fungi that have traditionally come close to plants).

Midge eye

Глаз мошки - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

Frogs (lat. Simuliidae) - a family of dipterans insects, females of which in most cases are a component of the gnat complex. Currently, there are about 1800 species of midges in the world fauna. The closest living relatives of midges are mosquito-jerking. Frogs are carriers of several diseases, including river blindness in Africa (Simulium damnosum and S. neavei) and America (S. callidum and S. metallicum in Central America, S. ochraceum in Central and South America). Fossils are known from the Middle Jurassic.

Pubic louse

Лобковая вошь - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

Pubic louse, or squamous, (lat. Pthirus pubis) - an ectoparasitic insect from the suborder of lice (lat. Anoplura), living on the human body mainly in the pubic zone, on the genitals, around the anus, less often in other areas covered with hair: in the axillary hollows, chest and abdomen. Unlike human lice, it never lives on the scalp. This is due to the fact that the limbs of the pubic louse are adapted only to hold and move through the hair of a triangular section, in contrast to the scalp, which has a round section of the hair. It feeds exclusively on the blood of its owner. Without food dies within 24 hours. A disease caused by a lesion by this insect is called pubic lice or phthiasis.

The size of the pubic louse reaches about 1-3 mm. Females are 1.5 times larger than males.

Some researchers suggest that an increase in the percentage of people who remove pubic hair has brought pubic lice populations in parts of the world to the brink of extinction.

Tooth surface

Поверхность зуба - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

A tooth consists mainly of dentin with a cavity, which is externally coated with a characteristic shape and structure, occupies a certain position in the dentition, is constructed of special tissues, and has its own nervous apparatus, blood and lymph vessels. Inside the tooth there is loose connective tissue penetrated by nerves and blood vessels (pulp).

Normally, a person has from 28 to 32 teeth. There are milk and permanent teeth - a temporary and permanent bite.

In the temporary bite (milk teeth) there are 8 incisors, 4 canines and 8 molars - a total of 20 teeth. In children, they begin to erupt at the age of 3 months. In the period from 6 to 13 years, milk teeth are gradually replaced by permanent ones.

Permanent bite consists of 8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 premolars and 8-12 molars. In rare cases, additional, supernumerary teeth are observed (both milk and permanent) [1]. The absence of third molars called “wisdom teeth” is the norm, and the third molars themselves are already considered atavism by an increasing number of scientists, but this is currently a moot point.

Stinging Nettle Leaf Hair

Жгучие волоски листьев крапивы - Обычные вещи под микроскопом


Акулья кожа - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

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