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Ordinary things under the microscope: what do they hide?

Обычные вещи под микроскопом

Microscope (Greek "small" + "look") - a device designed to obtain enlarged images, as well as measuring objects or structure details that are invisible or poorly visible with the naked eye. The combination of technologies and methods of practical use of microscopes is called microscopy.

Thanks to the numerous achievements of mankind in the field of science, we have the opportunity to use modern equipment to learn all the new and incredible facts every day not only about the world around us, but also about the human body. And therefore, on a par with the study of distant and incomprehensible galaxies, which are located a distance of billions of light years from Earth, it is today possible to examine in detail what ordinary things or a living organism hide.

Silicon microchip surface

Поверхность кремниевого микрочипа - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

Integrated (micro) circuit (IC, IC, m / c), microcircuit, chip (eng. Chip - thin plate - originally the term refers to the crystal chip of the microcircuit) - microelectronic device - electronic circuit of arbitrary complexity (crystal) made on a semiconductor substrate (plate or film) and placed in a non-separable case or without it, if it is part of the microassembly.

Household dust

Бытовая пыль - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

Dust - fine solid particles of organic or mineral origin. Dust includes particles of a smaller diameter from fractions of a micron and up to a maximum of 0.1 mm. Larger particles transfer the material to the discharge of sand, which has dimensions from 0.1 to 5 mm.


Комар - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

Mosquitoes, or real mosquitoes, or blood-sucking mosquitoes (lat. Culicidae) are a family of Diptera insects belonging to the group of the long-caped (Nematocera), the females of which adults are in most cases a component of the gnus complex. Oral organs are characteristic of this family: the upper and lower lips are elongated and form a sheath in which long, thin needles are placed (2 pairs of jaws); males have underdeveloped jaws - they do not bite. Motile larvae and pupae of mosquitoes live in stagnant bodies of water. Fossil mosquitoes are known from the Cretaceous period. In the modern world, there are more than 3,000 species of mosquitoes belonging to 38 genera. Representatives of 100 species belonging to the genera of real mosquitoes (Culex), kusak (Aedes), Culiseta, anopheles mosquitoes (Anopheles), Toxorhinchites, Uranotaenia, Orthopodomyia, Coquillettidia live in Russia.

The life cycle of mosquitoes includes four stages of development: egg → larva → pupa → adult, or adult.

Tongue surface

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The tongue is an unpaired growth of the floor of the oral cavity in individuals of vertebrates. The shape and position of the language is variable and depends on its functional state. At rest, the tongue has a spatulate shape, almost completely filling the oral cavity. The tip of the tongue is adjacent to the back surface of the front teeth.

Velcro fastener

Застежка-липучка - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

Textile fastener (Velcro, Velcro, Velcro tape, tape-contact, burdock) - a fastener used in light industry. It is a good example of biomimetics, since The principle is borrowed from the method of hooking the flowers of the burdock gathered in spherical baskets with hooked wrappers. A variety of buckles, is a pair of textile bands, one of which contains micro hooks, on the other micro loop. At the contact of two ribbons, micro-hooks catch on micro-loops, and one tape “sticks” to the other, for which the clasp is called velcro. Clasp is widely used in the clothing and footwear industry, and for special products.

Velcro is a registered trademark in many countries.

Blood clot

Сгусток крови - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

Blood coagulation is the most important stage in the work of the hemostasis system, which is responsible for stopping bleeding when the vascular system of the body is damaged. The combination of various blood coagulation factors interacting with each other in a very complicated way forms a blood coagulation system.

A blood clot (ancient Greek lump, clot) is an intravital blood clot in the lumen of a blood vessel or in a heart cavity resulting from the activation of the blood coagulation system and arising in response to damage to the vessel. Participates in the processes of hemostasis.

Sperm develops in the testes

Сперматозоиды развиваются в семенниках - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

The sperm cell (from the ancient Greek semen, life and species) is a male germ cell (gamete) in organisms that reproduce through oogamy. Spermatozoa usually have the ability to actively move and serve to fertilize the female gamete - the egg. Usually they are much smaller than the eggs, because they do not contain such a significant amount of cytoplasm and are produced by the body simultaneously in a significant amount.

Sperm on the surface of the egg

Сперматозоиды на поверхности яйцеклетки - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

The typical structure of a sperm cell reflects the shape of a common ancestor of animals and fungi: a single-celled nuclear organism that moves at the expense of a flagellum in the rear, using it like a tail. An extensive group of organisms originating from it includes animals, most of the fungi and some groups of protists are called the Zadhigut clan. Most other eukaryotes with flagella have them in the front.

In the broad sense of the word, by tradition, male germ cells are also sometimes called spermatozoa in plants, the terms sperm or anterozoids are also used for them (they are also used for fungi traditionally close to plants).

The eye of the midge

Глаз мошки - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

Blackflies (lat. Simuliidae) - Diptera insects, the females of adults in most cases are a component of the complex of gnats. Currently, there are about 1,800 species of blackflies in the world fauna. The nearest living relatives of midges are considered to be mosquitoes. Blackflies are carriers of several diseases, including river blindness in Africa (Simulium damnosum and S. neavei) and America (S. callidum and S. metallicum in Central America, S. ochraceum in Central and South America). Fossil midges are known from the Middle Jurassic.

Pubic louse

Лобковая вошь - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

Pubic louse, or ploshchitsy (lat. Pthirus pubis) - ectoparasitic insect from the sub-order of lice (lat. Anoplura), living on the human body mainly in the pubic zone, on the genitals, around the anus, less often in other hair-covered areas: in the axillary hollows, chest and abdomen. Unlike human lice, it never lives on the scalp. This is due to the fact that the limbs of the pubic louse are adapted only for holding and moving along the hair of a triangular cross section, unlike the scalp of a head having a circular cross section of hair. It feeds exclusively on the blood of its owner. Without food dies within 24 hours. The disease caused by the defeat of this insect is called pubic pediculosis or phthiriasis.

Size pubic lice reach about 1-3 mm. Females are 1.5 times larger than males.

Some researchers suggest that increasing the percentage of people who remove pubic hair has led to a population of pubic lice in some parts of the world on the verge of extinction.

Tooth surface

Поверхность зуба - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

The tooth consists mainly of dentin with a cavity, covered outside with a characteristic shape and structure, occupies a certain position in the dentition, is built of special tissues, has its own nervous apparatus, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. Inside the tooth is loose connective tissue, riddled with nerves and blood vessels (pulp).

Normally, a person has from 28 to 32 teeth. There are milk and permanent teeth - temporary and permanent bite.

In the temporary bite (milk teeth) there are 8 incisors, 4 canines and 8 molars - a total of 20 teeth. In children, they begin to erupt at the age of 3 months. In the period from 6 to 13 years, the milk teeth are gradually replaced by permanent ones.

A permanent bite consists of 8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 premolars and 8-12 molars. In rare cases, additional, complementary teeth (both dairy and permanent) are observed [1]. The absence of third molars, called "wisdom teeth" is the norm, and the third molars themselves are already considered an atavism by an increasing number of scientists, but this is currently a controversial issue.

Burning hairs of nettle leaves

Жгучие волоски листьев крапивы - Обычные вещи под микроскопом


Акулья кожа - Обычные вещи под микроскопом

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