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Antiviral drugs

Противовирусные средства

Many antiviral drugs are included in the registry of essential and essential drugs, but they do not have proven efficacy.

Which antiviral drugs have proven efficacy, and which - no.

According to statistics, SARS occupy 90-95% of all infectious diseases. In Russia, over 40 million people a year face these infections.

Many doctors are of the opinion that it is very easy to fight ARVI - do not interfere with the body’s own struggle and don’t spend money on drugs.

Which antiviral drugs have proven efficacy, and which - no.

According to statistics, SARS occupy 90-95% of all infectious diseases. In Russia, over 40 million people a year face these infections.

Many doctors are of the opinion that it is very easy to fight ARVI - do not interfere with the body’s own struggle and don’t spend money on drugs.

By the way, many antiviral drugs are included in the register of essential and essential drugs, but they do not have proven effectiveness.

What medications are effective against ARVI?

Nowadays, the only drugs with proven efficacy of action are neuraminidase inhibitors (a special enzyme located on the surface of the influenza virus and is directly involved in the pathogenesis of the disease).

These drugs include oseltamivir (known under the brand name Tamiflu ) and zanamivir (also known as Relenza ). These drugs show proven efficacy against influenza A and B viruses (Study 1 and 2 ).

Although recently the effect of these drugs is also being questioned , but still the best alternative is not yet present.

A 2010 WHO study reported oseltamivir- resistant influenza virus samples.

It is recommended to use neuraminidase inhibitors only in case of severe course of the disease solely as prescribed by the attending physician. In most cases, taking antiviral drugs does not make sense, since the body's own forces are sufficient to fight ARVI.

In Russia, these drugs are presented under the following trade names:
Tamiflu (oseltamivir) - tablets;
Nomides (oseltamivir) - tablets;
Oseltamivir Canon - tablets;
Relenza (zanamivir) - powder for inhalation.

When using oseltamivir, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, insomnia, vertigo, arrhythmias, convulsions, allergic reactions, worsening diabetes and others are possible.

Side effects of zanamivir are allergic reactions, bronchospasms, difficulty breathing, rash, urticaria, severe skin reactions, including erythema polymorphic, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis.

Antiviral drugs without proven efficacy

Rimantadine

A drug with proven efficacy in the past. However, at present almost 100% of the strains of influenza A virus (H3N2) and A (H1N1) are resistant to the effects of this drug.

Since 2011, its use in the United States is not recommended . The Russian Academy of Medical Sciences attributed Rimantadine to "obsolete drugs with unproven efficacy."

Umifenovir

Also known as Arbidol , Arpetolid , Arpeflu , ORVitol NP , Arpetol and Immustat .

Although the drug is included in the list of vital and essential medicines of the Russian Federation, however, WHO believes that the drug's research does not meet the requirements of evidence-based medicine.

The only suitable study shows that umifenovir may be associated with the influenza virus, which is objectively not enough to prove the effectiveness of the drug.

Sodium deoxyribonucleate

Also known as Derinat . It is a salt of DNA, which is designed to stimulate the body to fight viruses. However, there is no evidence base at all.

Ingavirin

Data on the effect of the drug are limited, contradict each other and not sufficiently substantiated.

According to a member of the Formulary Committee of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences Vasily Vlasov, there is no evidence of the effectiveness of Ingavirin. This drug is also not considered for treatment in any WHO publication.

IRS 19

Spray, which includes 19 species of dried microorganisms. It is designed to stimulate the immune system for the treatment and prevention of diseases of the upper respiratory tract.

In studies of susceptible children, this drug had some efficacy, but the quality of many studies is insufficient and a more detailed study of the drug is required.

Oxolin

An old antiviral drug that has no evidence. Not to be confused with oxolinic acid, which has an antimicrobial effect.

Homeopathic remedies

There are a great many antiviral homeopathic medicines, the most popular of which are Anaferon , Ergoferon , Aflubin , Otsillokokcinum and others.

Homeopathy has no proven efficacy in principle.

Interferon preparations

Interferons are a group of special proteins produced by the human body to fight viruses.

Only the injection forms of these drugs, which are used to treat viral hepatitis, multiple sclerosis, and cancer, have a evidence base.

Local forms of interferon ( Grippferon, Viferon, Genferon and others) are not effective in the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections and have no evidence base.

Also, long-term use of interferon can cause symptoms similar to SARS (Study 1 and 2 ).

Interferon Inductors

Amiksin ( Lavomax, Tilaxin, Tiloron ) is a drug banned worldwide due to serious side effects such as embryotoxicity (a study in rats) and provoking mucopolysaccharidosis (also a study on rats). Clinical studies abroad are discontinued .

In the CIS countries are actively sold and advertised.

Amizon is a Ukrainian drug, according to the manufacturer, an interferon inducer, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. There are no studies on the effectiveness of the drug.

Cycloferon is a drug for the treatment of SARS and opportunistic diseases in HIV. Outside the countries of the former USSR is not registered, and its clinical efficacy has not been confirmed in any major international study.

Traditional antiviral agents

Studies have shown that the usual honey, garlic, echinacea and other traditional medicine will not help in the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections (a study of honey , garlic , echinacea , Chinese medical herbs ).

The conclusion that can be made: drugs that clearly and unquestionably help with SARS, in fact, does not exist. However, in most cases the body is able to cope with infections on its own - just give it the opportunity to do it in comfort, do not waste your energy on unnecessary activity, for example, going to the pharmacy. And in case of complications - contact your doctor.

Do not self-medicate and protect your health.

Author: Alexey Kalik

Via zozhnik.ru