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Antiviral agents

Противовирусные средства

Many antiviral drugs are included in the register of vital and essential drugs, but they do not have proven effectiveness.

Which antiviral drugs have proven efficacy and which are not.

According to statistics, acute respiratory viral infections occupy 90-95% of all infectious diseases. In Russia, more than 40 million people per year experience these infections.

Many doctors are of the opinion that it is very simple to fight with SARS - not to interfere with the body's own struggles and not to spend money on drugs.

Which antiviral drugs have proven efficacy and which are not.

According to statistics, acute respiratory viral infections occupy 90-95% of all infectious diseases. In Russia, more than 40 million people per year experience these infections.

Many doctors are of the opinion that it is very simple to fight with SARS - not to interfere with the body's own struggles and not to spend money on drugs.

By the way, many antiviral drugs are included in the register of vital and essential drugs, but at the same time they have no proven effectiveness.

What drugs are effective against SARS?

Nowadays, the only drugs with proven efficacy are neuraminidase inhibitors (a special enzyme located on the surface of the influenza virus and directly involved in the pathogenesis of the disease).

These drugs include oseltamivir (known under the brand name Tamiflu ) and zanamivir (also known as Relenza ). These drugs have proven efficacy against influenza A and B viruses (Study 1 and 2 ).

Although recently the effect of these drugs has also been called into question , there is still no better alternative.

A 2010 WHO study reports oseltamivir- resistant influenza virus specimens.

The use of neuraminidase inhibitors is recommended only for severe illness exclusively as directed by the attending physician. In most cases, taking antiviral drugs does not make sense, since the body's own forces are enough to fight ARVI.

In Russia, these drugs are represented under such trade names:
Tamiflu (oseltamivir) - tablets;
Nomides (oseltamivir) - tablets;
Oseltamivir Canon - tablets;
Relenza (zanamivir) - powder for inhalation.

When using oseltamivir, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, insomnia, vertigo, arrhythmias, convulsions, allergic reactions, worsening diabetes and others are possible.

Side effects of zanamivir are allergic reactions, bronchospasm, difficulty breathing, rash, urticaria, severe skin reactions, including polymorphic erythema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis.

Antivirals without proven efficacy

Rimantadine

A drug with proven effectiveness in the past. However, at the moment, almost 100% of the strains of influenza A (H3N2) and A (H1N1) are resistant to this drug.

Since 2011, its use in the United States is not recommended . RAMS classified Rimantadine as "obsolete drugs with unproven efficacy."

Umifenovir

Also known as Arbidol , Arpetolid , Arpeflu , ORVItol NP , Arpetol and Immustat .

The drug, although it is included in the list of vital and most important drugs of the Russian Federation, however, WHO believes that studies of the drug do not meet the requirements of evidence-based medicine.

The only suitable study shows that umifenovir can bind to the influenza virus, which is objectively insufficient to prove the effectiveness of the drug.

Sodium Deoxyribonucleate

Also known as Derinat . It is a salt of DNA, which is designed to stimulate the body to fight viruses. However, there is no evidence base at all.

Ingavirin

Data on the effect of the drug is limited, contradict each other and not sufficiently substantiated.

According to a member of the Formulary Committee of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences Vasily Vlasov, there is no evidence of the effectiveness of Ingavirin. This drug is also not considered for treatment in any WHO publication.

IRS 19

Spray, which includes 19 species of dried microorganisms. It is designed to stimulate immunity for the treatment and prevention of diseases of the upper respiratory tract.

In studies in susceptible children, this drug had some effectiveness, but the quality of many studies is insufficient and a more detailed study of the drug is required.

Oxolin

An old antiviral drug that has no evidence. Not to be confused with oxolinic acid, which has an antimicrobial effect.

Homeopathic remedies

There are a great many antiviral homeopathic preparations, the most popular of them are Anaferon , Ergoferon , Aflubin , Oscillococcinum and others.

Homeopathy has no proven effectiveness in principle.

Interferon preparations

Interferons are a group of special proteins produced by the human body to fight viruses.

The evidence base is only for injectable forms of these drugs, which are used to treat viral hepatitis, multiple sclerosis, and cancer.

Local forms of interferons ( Grippferon, Viferon, Genferon and others) are not effective in the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections and have no evidence base.

Also, prolonged use of interferons can cause symptoms similar to ARVI (Study 1 and 2 ).

Interferon Inductors

Amiksin ( Lavomax, Tilaxin, Tiloron ) is a drug banned in the world due to serious side effects, such as embryotoxicity (rat study ) and provocation of mucopolysaccharidosis (also rat study ). Clinical studies abroad have been discontinued .

In the CIS countries, it is actively sold and advertised.

Amizon is a Ukrainian drug, according to the manufacturer, the interferon inducer has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. There are no studies on the effectiveness of the drug.

Cycloferon is a drug for the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections and opportunistic diseases in HIV. It is not registered outside the countries of the former USSR, and its clinical effectiveness has not been confirmed in any large international study.

Traditional antiviral agents

Studies have shown that all familiar honey, garlic, echinacea and other traditional medicine will not help in the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections (a study of honey , garlic , echinacea , Chinese medical herbs ).

Conclusion that can be made: drugs that clearly and undeniably help with acute respiratory viral infections, in fact, do not exist. However, in most cases, the body is able to cope with infections on its own - just give it the opportunity to do it in comfort, do not waste your energy on unnecessary activity, for example, going to the pharmacy. And in case of complications - consult a doctor.

Do not self-medicate and take care of your health.

Author: Alexey Kalik

Via zozhnik.ru