What is the difference between chickenpox and measles and scarlet fever from rubella?
💉 Measles (Latin: Morbilli) is an acute infectious viral disease with a very high level of contagion, characterized by high temperature (up to 40.5 ° C), inflammation of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract, conjunctivitis and a characteristic spotty-papular rash of the skin general intoxication. According to the World Health Organization, in 2017 about 110 thousand people died from measles in the world, 92 thousand of them were children under the age of five. Measles remains one of the notable causes of child mortality in developing countries (1.3% of child mortality by 2016).
💉 Scarlet fever (Italian: scarlattina, from Wed.-century. Lat. Scarlatinum - bright red) - an infectious disease caused by hemolytic group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes). It manifests itself as a small rash, fever, general poisoning.
💉 Rubella (lat. Rubeolla) or the third disease is an epidemic viral disease with an incubation period of about 15-24 days. This is usually a non-hazardous disease that affects mainly children, but it can cause serious birth defects if a woman becomes infected at the beginning of pregnancy. The name "third disease" comes from the time when a list of diseases that provoked a baby rash was made, in which rubella was in third place.
Parents should not themselves diagnose a sick child and prescribe treatment. But you can understand the seriousness of the situation at home. We have collected the most frequent.
🌡 The disease begins with malaise, the temperature rises to 38 ° C, then the first rashes appear: a reddish rash in the form of vesicles filled with a clear liquid. At first there are not many, but the very next day the child is literally sprinkled with red papules: arms and legs, neck, stomach, face and even mucous membranes. Such rashes continue throughout the week: in one place, the vesicles dry out, forming brownish crusts, in another appear new ones.
Children carry chickenpox quite easily, but adults can have serious complications.
With weak immunity, chickenpox can reappear, already in the form of shingles.
🕘 The incubation period lasts from 11 to 21 days. Infection is transmitted only by airborne droplets. The child becomes contagious 2 days before the first rashes appear and ceases to be 5 days after the last rash appears.
Why be afraid? Complications associated with the entry into the vesicles of staphylococci and streptococci. Do not let the child comb the rashes, be sure to treat the papules with either brilliant green or a dark solution of potassium permanganate. Change and boil your laundry more often. Do not peel off the crusts so that smallpox does not remain.
💉 Vaccination. Many countries consider vaccination against chickenpox mandatory for the child, while we have a vaccination program that is still being developed.
🌡 The disease begins with a sharp increase in temperature to 39–40 ° C, a runny nose, a rough “barking” cough, and redness of the eyes.
The child complains of a headache and pain in the eyes.
On the second day, whitish spots with a red border appear on the mucous membrane of the cheeks - a characteristic symptom of measles. After another 3-4 days, a rash appears - very large, bright red - first on the face, behind the ears, on the neck, then on the whole body and on the third day - on the bends of the arms and legs and on the fingers. After this, the temperature gradually decreases, the rash darkens, begins to peel off and completely passes through a week and a half.
Sometimes during a rash a new jump in temperature occurs. During a fever, the child must necessarily lie in bed, drink a lot.
🕘 The incubation period lasts 9-14 days. The infection is transmitted by airborne droplets. The child is contagious from the moment of the first manifestations of the disease and all the time that the rash lasts.
Why be afraid? Complications in the form of bronchitis, otitis media, lymphadenitis, pneumonia, meningoencephalitis.
💉 Vaccination. The measles vaccine is administered in 1 year, after six months - repeatedly, it protects the immune system for 10-15 years.
Having had measles, they retain immunity for life.
🌡 The disease is acute: high fever, headache, the child complains that it hurts to swallow.
Sometimes there is vomiting.
Scarlet fever is always accompanied by tonsillitis, and its most characteristic sign is bright raspberry tonsils.
The rash appears on the first day of the disease: these are small, barely noticeable pink dots on the face and body. Below the abdomen, on the sides and in the skin folds, the rash is more intense. It passes within a week, leaving no age spots. In its place, the skin peels a little.
🕘 The incubation period can be from 2 hours to 10 days. Scarlet fever is transmitted not only by airborne droplets, but also through dishes, household items, toys. The child is contagious to others during the first 10 days from the onset of the disease.
Why be afraid? Complications on the kidneys, heart, which appear after the normalization of temperature and the disappearance of the rash and sore throat.
💉 Vaccination. There are no vaccinations against scarlet fever. The immunity from the disease is preserved for life. But patients with scarlet fever always have a risk of contracting another streptococcal infection - otitis media, tonsillitis.
🌡 The disease begins with some malaise, mild headache, mild runny nose and coughing.
Rarely, it happens that the temperature rises to 38 ° C.
The rash usually appears already on the first or second day of the disease. First on the face, then spreads throughout the body and lasts about a week.
A typical manifestation of rubella is an enlargement and soreness of the occipital lymph nodes.
🕘 The incubation period is from 11 to 24 days. Transmitted by airborne droplets. The child is dangerous to others a week before the rash appears and for another 10 days from the time of the rash.
Why be afraid? Complications of arthritis. Rubella is most dangerous for pregnant women, as it causes pathology of the fetus and is a direct indication for abortion.
💉 Vaccination. The first takes place in 1–1.5 years, the second - at 6 years. Immunity lasts about 20 years. Doctors recommend additionally vaccinating girls and women at an older age - to protect their future pregnancy.
Why else is a rash?
Viral disease, also called "three-day fever." It manifests itself with a sudden increase in temperature (sometimes up to 39–40 ° C), which lasts 2-3 days, then normalizes, and a day later a small pink rash appears on the body. Its characteristic feature is that when pressed, it turns pale. After 3-7 days, the rash disappears.
Doctors rarely make such a diagnosis, because before the rash appears, parents manage to “feed” the child an antibiotic and take the rash as an allergic reaction.
✅ What to do? In case of fever, give the child only antipyretic drugs, plenty of drink. The rash will go away without antihistamines.
It usually happens in infants. These are small rashes of reddish vesicles filled with a clear liquid, mainly on the breast, back, neck and groin. It usually appears in babies, whose parents insulate too much.
✅ What to do? Do not wrap. Do baby baths. Bathe in a weak solution of potassium permanganate or a string. After bath, sprinkle irritation with talcum powder.
These are the effects of prickly heat. If it is not treated on time, then staphylococcus can enter the vesicles (pustules) and they begin to fester.
✅ What to do? On the recommendation of a doctor, treat pustules with antiseptics and talcum powder.
Children's infectious disease specialist Vitaliy Yevtushenko told how to distinguish measles from chickenpox. Illustrative examples were shown on the air "Snіdank z 1 + 1". According to him, only doctors can accurately distinguish one disease from another. Because not all symptoms are obvious.
"However, rubella provokes a small, roundish rash. But a dangerous measles disease begins with a fever and symptoms similar to SARS - coughing, runny nose. And then somewhere around 3-4 days a rash appears. It often resembles such large spots. They can merge with each other, forming patterns, and it is also characteristic of measles that it appears primarily on the face, on the head, "Yevtushenko said
But there is a 100% symptom of measles. This is the appearance of white spots in the mouth, which may have slight redness around. They can be compared to decoy because they are small and round. According to the infectious disease specialist, there is no special treatment for measles. Doctors struggle with symptoms. The main danger of the disease is the complications that it can cause. For example, pneumonia or encephalitis (inflammation of the brain).