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A brief, memorable and vivid description of the symptoms of certain diseases

Краткое описание симптомов болезней

A disease (Latin morbus) is a state of an organism expressed in a violation of its normal functioning, longevity, and its ability to maintain its homeostasis. It is a consequence of the limited energy and functional capabilities of the living system in contrast to pathogenic factors.

Symptom (from other Greek. Case, coincidence, sign) is one of the individual signs, the frequent manifestation of a disease, pathological condition or violation of any process of life.

A brief, vivid and memorable description of the symptoms of diseases known to everyone. Take it to yourself and tell a friend!

Cholera

Cholera (from other Greek “bile” and “flow”) is an acute intestinal, sapronous infection caused by bacteria of the species Vibrio cholerae. It is characterized by a fecal-oral infection mechanism, damage to the small intestine, watery diarrhea, vomiting, rapid loss of fluid and electrolytes by the body with the development of varying degrees of dehydration, up to hypovolemic shock and death.

It spreads, as a rule, in the form of epidemics. Endemic foci are located in Africa, South America, India and Southeast Asia.

The incubation period lasts from several hours to 5 days, usually 24–48 hours. The severity of the disease varies - from erased, subclinical forms to severe conditions with severe dehydration and death within 24–48 hours.

According to the WHO, “many patients infected with V. cholerae do not get cholera despite the fact that bacteria are present in their feces for 7-14 days. In 80-90% of cases when a disease develops, it takes on mild or moderate forms that are difficult to clinically distinguish from other forms of acute diarrhea. In less than 20% of affected people, typical cholera develops with signs of moderate or severe dehydration. ”

Measles

Measles (Latin: morbilli) is an acute infectious viral disease with a high level of susceptibility (the contagiousness index approaches 100%), which is characterized by high temperature (up to 40.5 ° C), inflammation of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract, conjunctivitis and characteristic maculopapular rash of the skin, general intoxication.

According to WHO estimates, in 2011, 158 thousand people died from measles in the world, most of them children under the age of five. In 10% of children with malnutrition and in the absence of proper medical care, the disease is fatal ..

The incubation period is 8-14 days (rarely up to 17 days). The acute onset is a rise in temperature to 38-40 ° C, dry cough, runny nose, photophobia, sneezing, hoarseness, headache, swelling of the eyelids and redness of the conjunctiva, hyperemia of the throat and measles enanthema - red spots on a hard and soft palate. On the 2nd day of the disease, small whitish spots appear on the mucous membrane of the cheeks in the region of the molars, surrounded by a narrow red border - Belsky-Filatov-Koplik spots - pathognomonic for measles. Measles rash (exanthema) appears on the 4th-5th day of illness, first on the face, neck, behind the ears, the next day on the body and on the 3rd day of the rash, the extensor surfaces of the arms and legs, including fingers, are covered. The rash consists of small papules surrounded by a spot and prone to fusion (this is its characteristic difference from rubella, in which the rash does not merge).

The reverse development of the elements of the rash begins on the 4th day of the rash: the temperature normalizes, the rash darkens, turns brown, pigmented, peeling (in the same sequence as the rash). Pigmentation lasts 1-1.5 weeks.

Adenovirus

Adenovirus infection is a group of human infectious diseases caused by adenoviruses. They belong to the group of acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) and are characterized by damage to the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, conjunctiva, and lymphoid tissue. Fever occurs with mild symptoms of intoxication.

The incubation period is from 1 day to 2 weeks. The disease begins acutely, with a rise in temperature. A tetrad of symptoms is characteristic: rhinitis - pharyngitis - conjunctivitis - fever. Symptoms of general intoxication are also noted - weakness, lethargy, headache, lack of appetite, drowsiness.

Laboratory diagnostics are ineffective. In general blood tests, nonspecific changes (lymphocytosis, leukopenia), swabs from the nasopharynx are actively used in practical medicine.

Rhinovirus

Rhinoviruses (lat. Rhinovirus, from other Greek nose) - a group of small RNA-containing types of viruses of the genus enteroviruses, the virions of which do not have an outer shell, and the genome is represented by a single-chain linear unfragmented RNA molecule associated with the VPg protein; includes pathogens of acute respiratory diseases (ARI). The nucleocapsid is organized according to the type of icosahedral symmetry. After its removal, the extracted RNA retains infectivity.

Rhinoviruses cause inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract in humans and animals, multiplying in the cells of the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx.

The duration of the incubation period for rhinovirus infections is 1-5 days, in rare cases - several hours.

In children, rhinovirus infections are accompanied by fever; in adults, fever is rarely observed. The duration of rhinovirus infections is usually 5–9 days, sometimes a runny nose (usually without treatment) lasts up to 2 weeks.

Complications of rhinovirus infections in adults are rare; children sometimes develop bronchitis, sinusitis and otitis media.

Rhinovirus infection causes the development of immunity only against a homologous strain for a period of 1-2 years.

Botulism

Botulism (from lat. Botulus - sausage) is a severe toxicoinfectious disease characterized by damage to the nervous system, mainly the medulla oblongata and spinal cord, proceeding with a predominance of ophthalmoplegic and bulbar syndromes.

It develops as a result of ingestion of food products, water or aerosols containing botulinum toxin produced by the spore-forming bacillus Clostridium botulinum. Botulinum toxin affects the motor neurons of the anterior horns of the spinal cord, as a result of which the innervation of the muscles is disturbed, and progressive acute respiratory failure develops.

The entrance gates are the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, damaged skin and lungs. From person to person, infection is not transmitted. Despite the fact that botulism is registered much less frequently than other intestinal infections and poisonings, it continues to be a relevant and life-threatening disease.

The incubation period lasts from several hours to 2-5 days, averaging 18-24 hours. With a shorter incubation period, although not always, a more severe course of the disease is observed. The clinical picture of botulism consists of three main syndromes: paralytic; gastrointestinal; general toxic.

Basically, the disease begins acutely with gastrointestinal syndrome (nausea, vomiting, sometimes abdominal pain, loose stools). Vomiting and diarrhea are short-lived, are the result of toxinemia. Then a feeling of fullness in the stomach, flatulence, constipation develop, which means that paresis of the gastrointestinal tract begins.

Neurological symptoms appear either simultaneously with gastrointestinal ones, or after their disappearance. The most common early signs of botulism are blurred vision, dry mouth, and muscle weakness. Patients complain of “fog”, “net before eyes”, poorly distinguish nearby objects, reading is difficult or impossible due to paresis of accommodation and double vision.

On examination, the patients are lethargic, dynamic, the face becomes masked. Single or bilateral ptosis. The pupils are dilated, sluggish or completely unresponsive to light; nystagmus, strabismus are possible, convergence and accommodation are broken. May be mild anisocoria. The tongue protrudes with difficulty, sometimes with tremors. Headache, malaise, body temperature, as a rule, are normal, less often subfebrile. By the end of the day, gastrointestinal hypermotility is replaced by atony, body temperature becomes normal, the main neurological signs of the disease appear.

Muscle weakness is initially expressed in the occipital muscles, as a result of which the head hangs and patients are forced to support it with their hands. Due to the weakness of the intercostal muscles, breathing becomes superficial, barely noticeable. It should be noted that with a decrease in motor activity, sensitivity is fully preserved.

The mucous membrane of the nasopharynx is dry, the pharynx is bright red, in the epiglottis there is an accumulation of thick, viscous mucus, initially transparent and then unclear, so sometimes patients are diagnosed with a sore throat. Botulism is accompanied by functional disorders of the cardiovascular system. The shift of the borders of cardiac dullness to the left and significant muffling of heart sounds with an emphasis of II tone on the pulmonary artery are determined. In a clinical blood test, moderate leukocytosis with a neutrophilic shift to the left is noted.

Rubella

Rubella (lat. Rubeolla) or the third disease is an epidemic viral disease with an incubation period of about 15-24 days. This is usually a non-hazardous disease that affects mainly children, but it can cause serious birth defects if a woman becomes infected at the beginning of pregnancy. The name "third disease" comes from the time when a list of diseases that provoked a baby rash was made, in which rubella was on the third

After an incubation period lasting 2-3 weeks, a moderate temperature appears with headache, pharyngitis, posterior cervical and occipital lymphadenopathy, conjunctivitis. (Lymphadenopathy can be attributed to the pathognomonic sign of this disease)

The rash appears after 48 hours, the rash is macular (spotted) not itchy, first on the face, then descends on the whole body for several hours; first, the rash is morbiform (resembles measles), then scarlet fever.

It prevails on the face, in the region of the lower back and buttocks, extensor surfaces of the arms and legs. The rash lasts 2-4, sometimes 5-7 days, then disappears without pigmentation and peeling. It should be noted that softened and asymptomatic forms are quite frequent.

Salmonellosis

Salmonellosis is an acute intestinal infection of animals and humans caused by salmonella; acute infectious anthropozoonosis disease caused by salmonella and characterized, in general, by the development of intoxication and damage to the gastrointestinal tract.

The incubation period ranges from 6 hours to 3 days, averaging 12-24 hours.

The disease develops 6–72 hours after salmonella enters the body. Symptoms of the disease can be pronounced, but may not be manifested. In the latter case, a person is a source of infection for others, but does not suffer (bacterial carriage).

Salmonella settle in the small intestine and colonize the intestinal wall, releasing toxin. The action of the toxin is the loss of water through the intestines, impaired vascular tone, damage to the nervous system. With the expanded forms of salmonellosis, in most cases the following symptoms are noted (more or less pronounced): fever, general weakness, headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, multiple watery loose stools.

In severe cases of the disease, dehydration, an increase in the liver and spleen are observed. Perhaps the development of renal failure. With adequate treatment, salmonellosis disappears on the tenth day.

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