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Brief, memorable and vivid description of the symptoms of certain diseases

Краткое описание симптомов болезней

Disease (Latin morbus) is a condition of the body, expressed in violation of its normal vital activity, life expectancy, and its ability to maintain its homeostasis. It is a consequence of the limited energy and functional capabilities of the living system in opposition to pathogenic factors.

Symptom (from other Greek cases, coincidences, signs) is one of the individual signs, a frequent manifestation of a disease, a pathological condition, or a disruption of any process of vital activity.

A brief, vivid and memorable description of the symptoms of all known diseases. Take it and give it to a friend!

Cholera

Cholera (from other Greek, "bile" and "flow") is an acute intestinal, sapronotic infection caused by bacteria of the species Vibrio cholerae. Characterized by the fecal-oral mechanism of infection, small intestine lesions, watery diarrhea, vomiting, rapid loss of body fluids and electrolytes with the development of varying degrees of dehydration up to hypovolemic shock and death.

It spreads, as a rule, in the form of epidemics. Endemic foci are located in Africa, South America, India and Southeast Asia.

The incubation period lasts from several hours to 5 days, more often 24-48 hours. The severity of the disease varies - from erased, subclinical forms to severe conditions with severe dehydration and death within 24-48 hours.

According to WHO, "many patients infected with V. cholerae do not develop cholera, despite the fact that the bacteria are present in their feces for 7-14 days. In 80-90% of cases when the disease develops, it takes on forms of mild or moderate severity that are difficult to distinguish clinically from other forms of acute diarrhea. Less than 20% of patients develop a typical cholera with signs of moderate or severe dehydration. "

Measles

Measles (Latin morbilli) is an acute infectious virus disease with a high level of susceptibility (the infectivity index is close to 100%), which is characterized by high fever (up to 40.5 ° C), inflammation of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract, conjunctivitis and characteristic patchy-papular rash of skin, general intoxication.

According to WHO estimates, in the world in 2011, 158,000 people died from measles, most of them children under the age of five. In 10% of children with malnutrition and in the absence of proper medical care, the disease ends in death.

The incubation period is 8-14 days (rarely up to 17 days). An acute onset is a rise in temperature to 38-40 ° C, dry cough, runny nose, photophobia, sneezing, hoarseness, headache, eyelid edema and reddening of the conjunctiva, hyperemia of the throat and measles enanthema - red spots on the hard and soft palate. On the second day of the disease, small whitish spots appear on the mucous cheeks in the region of the molars, surrounded by a narrow red rim - the Belsky-Filatov-Koplik spots are pathognomonic for measles. The measles rash (exanthema) appears on the 4-5th day of the disease, first on the face, neck, behind the ears, the next day on the trunk and on the third day of the rash cover the extensor surfaces of the hands and feet, including the fingers. The rash consists of small papules, surrounded by a stain and prone to fusion (this is its characteristic difference from rubella, the rash at which it does not merge).

The reverse development of the elements of the rash begins on the 4th day of rashes: the temperature is normalized, the rash darkens, browns, pigmented, flakes (in the same sequence as the rashes). Pigmentation lasts 1-1.5 weeks.

Adenovirus

Adenovirus infection is a group of human infectious diseases, caused by adenoviruses. They belong to the group of acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) and is characterized by the defeat of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, conjunctiva, lymphoid tissue. There is fever with mild symptoms of intoxication.

The incubation period is from 1 day to 2 weeks. The disease begins acutely, with a rise in temperature. Characteristic is the tetrad of symptoms: rhinitis - pharyngitis - conjunctivitis - fever. There are also symptoms of general intoxication - weakness, lethargy, headache, lack of appetite, drowsiness.

Laboratory diagnosis is ineffective. In general blood tests, nonspecific changes (lymphocytosis, leukopenia), washings from the nasopharynx in practical medicine are actively used.

Rhinovirus

Rhinovirus (Latin Rhinovirus, from other Greek-nasal) is a group of small RNA-containing species of viruses of the genus of enteroviruses, whose virions do not have an outer shell, and the genome is represented by a single-stranded linear unfragmented RNA molecule bound to the VPg protein; includes agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI). Nucleocapsid is organized by the type of icosahedral symmetry. After its removal, the extracted RNA remains infectious.

Rhinoviruses cause inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract in humans and animals, multiplying in the cells of the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx.

The duration of the incubation period for rhinovirus infections is 1-5 days, in rare cases - several hours.

In children, rhinovirus infections are accompanied by fever, in adults the temperature increase is rarely observed. The duration of rhinovirus infections is usually 5-9 days, a runny nose sometimes (usually in the absence of treatment) lasts up to 2 weeks.

Complications of rhinovirus infections in adults are rare; children sometimes develop bronchitis, sinusitis and otitis.

Rhinovirus infection causes the development of immunity only against a homologous strain for a period of 1-2 years.

Botulism

Botulism (from Latin botulus - sausage) is a serious toxic infectious disease, characterized by the defeat of the nervous system, mainly the oblong and spinal cord, proceeding with the predominance of ophthalmoplegic and bulbar syndromes.

It develops as a result of ingestion of food products, water or aerosols containing botulinum toxin produced by the spore-forming rod Clostridium botulinum. Botulinum toxin affects motoneurons of the anterior horns of the spinal cord, as a result of which the innervation of muscles is broken, progressive acute respiratory failure develops.

The entrance gates are the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, the damaged skin and the lungs. From person to person, the infection is not transmitted. Despite the fact that botulism is registered much less frequently than other intestinal infections and poisoning, it continues to be a relevant and life-threatening disease.

The incubation period lasts from a few hours to 2-5 days, averaging 18-24 hours. With a shorter incubation period, although not always, a more severe course of the disease is observed. The clinical picture of botulism consists of three main syndromes: paralytic; gastrointestinal; general toxic.

Basically, the disease begins acutely with gastrointestinal syndrome (nausea, vomiting, sometimes abdominal pain, loose stools). Vomiting and diarrhea are short-lived, a consequence of toxemia. Then develop a feeling of raspiraniya in the stomach, flatulence, constipation, it means that the paresis of the gastrointestinal tract begins.

Neurological symptoms appear either simultaneously with gastrointestinal, or after their disappearance. The most typical early signs of botulism are visual impairment, dry mouth and muscle weakness. Patients complain of "fog", "grid before the eyes," they do not distinguish between nearby objects, reading is difficult or impossible because of the accommodation and accommodation cut-off.

On examination, patients are flaccid, adynamic, the face becomes masklike. Single or bilateral ptosis. The pupils are dilated, sluggish or not at all responsive to light; nystagmus, strabismus are possible, convergence and accommodation are violated. There may be mild anisocoria. The tongue protrudes with difficulty, sometimes with jerks. There is a headache, malaise, body temperature, as a rule, normal, less often - subfebrile. By the end of the day, the hypertension of the gastrointestinal tract is replaced by atony, the body temperature becomes normal, and the main neurological signs of the disease appear.

Muscular weakness is first expressed in the occipital muscles, as a result of which the head hangs and the patients are forced to support it with their hands. In connection with the weakness of intercostal muscles, breathing becomes superficial, hardly noticeable. It should be noted that when the motor activity decreases, the sensitivity is completely preserved.

The mucous membrane of the nasopharynx is dry, the pharynx is bright red, in the epigastrium there is a cluster of thick, viscous mucus, at first transparent, and then unclear, so sometimes patients are mistakenly diagnosed with angina. Botulism is accompanied by functional disorders of the cardiovascular system. Deflection of the boundaries of cardiac dullness to the left and significant muffling of heart tones with an accent of II tone on the pulmonary artery are determined. At the clinical analysis of a blood moderate leukocytosis with a neutrophilic shift to the left is marked.

Rubella

Rubella (Latin rubeolla) or the third disease is an epidemic viral disease with an incubation period of about 15-24 days. This is usually a non-dangerous disease that affects mostly children, but it can provoke serious congenital malformations if a woman becomes infected early in pregnancy. The name "third illness" comes from the time when a list of diseases provoking a childhood rash was compiled, in which rubella was on the third

After the incubation period lasting 2-3 weeks, there is a moderate temperature with a headache, pharyngitis, zaneshneynoy and occipital lymphadenopathy, conjunctivitis. (Lymphadenopathy can be attributed to the pathognomonic sign of the disease)

The rash appears after 48 hours, a maculate rash (spotty) not itchy, at first on the face, then descends on the entire body for several hours; In the beginning, the rash is morbilliform (reminiscent of measles), then scarlet-formiform.

It predominates on the face, in the region of the waist and buttocks, extensor surfaces of the hands, legs. The rash is kept 2-4, occasionally 5-7 days, then disappears without pigmentation and flaking. It should be noted that the softened and asymptomatic forms are quite frequent.

Salmonellosis

Salmonella is an acute intestinal infection of animals and humans caused by salmonella; acute infectious anthropozoonotic disease caused by salmonella and is characterized, in general, by the development of intoxication and lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.

The incubation period varies from 6 hours to 3 days, averaging 12-24 hours.

The disease develops 6-72 hours after the salmonella enters the body. Symptoms of the disease can be expressed clearly, and may not be manifested in any way. In the latter case, a person is a source of infection for others, but he does not suffer (bacteriocarrier).

Salmonella settle in the small intestine and colonize the wall of the intestine, releasing toxin. The action of the toxin is the loss of water through the intestine, the violation of the tone of the vessels, damage to the nervous system. With the expanded forms of salmonellosis, in most cases, the following symptoms are more or less pronounced: fever, general weakness, headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, multiple liquid watery stools.

In severe disease, dehydration, enlargement of the liver and spleen are observed. It is possible to develop kidney failure. With adequate treatment, salmonellosis passes approximately on the tenth day.

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