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A brief, memorable and vivid description of the symptoms of certain diseases.

Краткое описание симптомов болезней

Disease (lat. Morbus) - is a state of the body, expressed in violation of its normal life, life expectancy, and its ability to maintain its homeostasis. It is a consequence of the limited energy and functionality of the living system as opposed to pathogenic factors.

A symptom (from the ancient Greek case, coincidence, symptom) is one of the individual signs, the frequent manifestation of a disease, pathological condition or disruption of any process of vital activity.

A brief, vivid and memorable description of the symptoms of diseases known to all. Take it to yourself and tell a friend!

Cholera

Cholera (from the ancient Greek "bile" and "current") is an acute intestinal, sapronous infection caused by bacteria of the species Vibrio cholerae. It is characterized by the fecal-oral mechanism of infection, lesions of the small intestine, watery diarrhea, vomiting, rapid loss of body fluids and electrolytes with the development of varying degrees of dehydration up to hypovolemic shock and death.

Distributed, as a rule, in the form of epidemics. Endemic foci are located in Africa, South America, India and Southeast Asia.

The incubation period lasts from several hours to 5 days, usually 24-48 hours. The severity of the disease varies - from erased, subclinical forms to severe conditions with severe dehydration and death within 24-48 hours.

According to WHO, “many patients infected with V. cholerae do not develop cholera, despite the fact that bacteria are present in their feces for 7-14 days. In 80-90% of those cases when the disease develops, it takes the form of mild or moderate severity, which is difficult to distinguish clinically from other forms of acute diarrhea. Less than 20% of people who develop the disease develop typical cholera with signs of moderate or severe dehydration. ”

Measles

Measles (lat. Morbilli) is an acute infectious viral disease with a high level of susceptibility (the contagiousness index approaches 100%), which is characterized by a high temperature (up to 40.5 ° C), inflammation of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract, conjunctivitis and characteristic maculopapular rash of the skin, general intoxication.

According to WHO estimates, in the world in 2011, 158 thousand people died from measles, most of whom are children under the age of five. In 10% of children with malnutrition and in the absence of proper medical care, the disease is fatal.

The incubation period is 8-14 days (rarely up to 17 days). Acute onset — temperature rise to 38–40 ° C, dry cough, runny nose, photophobia, sneezing, hoarseness, headache, swelling of the eyelids and conjunctival redness, hyperemia of the pharynx and measles enanthema are red spots on the hard and soft palate. On the 2nd day of the disease small whitish specks appear on the mucous membrane of the cheeks in the area of ​​the molars, surrounded by a narrow red border - the spots of Belsky-Filatov-Koplik - pathognomonic for measles. Measles rash (exanthema) appears on the 4-5th day of the disease, first on the face, neck, behind the ears, the next day on the body and on the 3rd day of the rash cover the extensor surfaces of the arms and legs, including the fingers. The rash consists of small papules, surrounded by a spot and prone to merging (this is its characteristic difference from rubella, in which the rash does not merge).

The reverse development of rash elements begins on the 4th day of the rash: the temperature normalizes, the rash darkens, turns brown, pigments, peels off (in the same sequence as the rash). Pigmentation lasts 1-1.5 weeks.

Adenovirus

Adenovirus infection is a group of human infectious diseases that are caused by adenoviruses. They belong to the group of acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) and are characterized by lesions of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, conjunctiva, lymphoid tissue. There is a fever with moderate symptoms of intoxication.

The incubation period is from 1 day to 2 weeks. The disease begins acutely, with a rise in temperature. Characteristic is the tetrad of symptoms: rhinitis - pharyngitis - conjunctivitis - fever. Also symptoms of general intoxication are noted - weakness, lethargy, headache, lack of appetite, drowsiness.

Laboratory diagnosis is ineffective. In general blood tests, nonspecific changes (lymphocytosis, leukopenia), nasopharyngeal swabs are widely used in practical medicine.

Rhinovirus

Rhinoviruses (Latin Rhinovirus, from ancient Greek nose) are a group of small RNA-containing types of viruses of the enterovirus genus, the virions of which do not have an outer shell, and the genome is represented by a single-stranded, linear, non-fragmented RNA molecule bound to the VPg protein; includes causative agents of acute respiratory diseases (ARI). The nucleocapsid is organized according to the type of icosahedral symmetry. After its removal, the extracted RNA remains infectious.

Rhinoviruses cause inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract in humans and animals, multiplying in the cells of the nasopharyngeal mucosa.

The duration of the incubation period for rhinovirus infections is 1-5 days, in rare cases - a few hours.

In children, rhinovirus infections are accompanied by fever; in adults, fever is rarely observed. The duration of rhinovirus infections is usually 5-9 days, a runny nose sometimes (usually without treatment) lasts up to 2 weeks.

Complications of rhinovirus infections in adults are rare; children sometimes develop bronchitis, sinusitis and otitis.

Rhinovirus infection causes the development of immunity only against the homologous strain for a period of 1-2 years.

Botulism

Botulism (from the Latin. Botulus - sausage) is a severe toxic and infectious disease, characterized by damage to the nervous system, mainly the medulla and spinal cord, occurring with a predominance of ophthalmoplegic and bulbar syndromes.

Develops as a result of ingestion of food, water or aerosols containing botulinum toxin, produced by Clostridium botulinum spore-forming stick. Botulinum toxin affects the motor neurons of the anterior horns of the spinal cord, as a result of which the innervation of muscles is disturbed, and progressive acute respiratory failure develops.

The entrance gates are the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, damaged skin and lungs. No infection is transmitted from person to person. Despite the fact that botulism is recorded much less frequently than other intestinal infections and poisoning, it continues to be a topical and life-threatening disease.

The incubation period lasts from several hours to 2-5 days, averaging 18-24 hours. With a shorter incubation period, a more severe course of the disease is observed, although not always. The clinical picture of botulism is made up of three main syndromes: paralytic; gastrointestinal; general toxic.

Basically, the disease begins acutely with gastrointestinal syndrome (nausea, vomiting, sometimes abdominal pain, diarrhea). Vomiting and diarrhea are short, are the result of toxemia. Then a feeling of distention in the stomach, flatulence, and constipation develop, which means that paresis of the gastrointestinal tract begins.

Neurological symptoms appear either simultaneously with gastrointestinal, or after their disappearance. The most common early signs of botulism are visual impairment, dry mouth and muscle weakness. Patients complain about the "fog", "grid before the eyes," poorly distinguish nearby objects, reading is difficult or impossible due to paresis of accommodation and doubling.

On examination, patients are sluggish, adynamic, face becomes mask-shaped. Single or bilateral ptosis. Pupils dilated, sluggish or do not react at all to light; nystagmus, strabismus, convergence and accommodation are violated. There may be a light anisocoria. The tongue protrudes with difficulty, sometimes in jolts. There are headache, malaise, body temperature, as a rule, normal, less often - subfebrile. By the end of the day, GI hypermotorism is replaced by atony, the body temperature becomes normal, the main neurological signs of the disease appear.

Muscle weakness is initially expressed in the occipital muscles, as a result of which the head hangs down and the patients are forced to support it with their hands. Due to the weakness of the intercostal muscles, breathing becomes shallow, barely noticeable. It should be noted that with a decrease in motor activity, sensitivity is fully preserved.

The mucous membrane of the nasopharynx is dry, the pharynx is bright red, in the epiglottis there is an accumulation of thick, viscous mucus, at first transparent and then unclear, therefore sometimes patients are mistakenly diagnosed with angina. Botulism is accompanied by functional disorders of the cardiovascular system. Determined by the displacement of the boundaries of cardiac dullness to the left and a significant muffling of heart sounds with an emphasis of tone II on the pulmonary artery. In the clinical analysis of blood, moderate leukocytosis is noted with a neutrophilic left shift.

Rubella

Rubella (lat. Rubeolla) or the third disease - an epidemic viral disease with an incubation period of about 15-24 days. It is usually a non-dangerous disease, affecting mostly children, but it can cause serious congenital malformations if a woman becomes infected at the beginning of pregnancy. The name “third disease” comes from the times when a list of diseases that provoked a childhood rash was made, in which the rubella stood on the third

After an incubation period of 2–3 weeks, a moderate temperature appears with headache, pharyngitis, posterior cervical and occipital lymphadenopathy, and conjunctivitis. (Lymphadenopathy can be attributed to the pathognomonic sign of the disease)

The rash appears after 48 hours, the macular (spotty) rash is not itchy, first on the face, then down to the whole body within a few hours; first, the morbiliform rash (reminiscent of measles), then the scarlet-shaped.

It prevails on the face, in the lumbar region and buttocks, extensor surfaces of the arms and legs. The rash lasts 2-4, occasionally 5-7 days, then disappears without pigmentation and peeling. It should be noted that softened and asymptomatic forms are quite frequent.

Salmonellosis

Salmonellosis is an acute intestinal infection of animals and humans caused by Salmonella; acute infectious anthropozoonosis disease caused by salmonella and characterized, in general, the development of intoxication and lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.

The incubation period ranges from 6 hours to 3 days, averaging 12 to 24 hours.

The disease develops 6–72 hours after salmonella ingestion. Symptoms of the disease can be expressed brightly, and may not manifest in any way. In the latter case, the person is a source of infection for others, but he himself does not suffer (bacteriocarrier).

Salmonella settle in the small intestine and colonize the intestinal wall, releasing toxin. The effect of the toxin is the loss of water through the intestines, the violation of vascular tone, damage to the nervous system. With the developed forms of salmonellosis, in most cases the following symptoms are noted (more or less pronounced): fever, general weakness, headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, multiple liquid watery stools.

In severe disease, dehydration, enlargement of the liver and spleen are observed. Development of a renal failure is possible. With adequate treatment, salmonellosis goes on about the tenth day.

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