Duration of drug delays in human biological materials
Alcohol (from the Arabic. الكحل, al-kuħl - "antimony" through Latin alcohol, in medieval Latin this word used to denote powders, distilled water) - in Russian, it most often acts as a synonym for ethanol (ethanol) and alcoholic drinks ( i.e. drinks containing significant amounts of ethyl alcohol).
Drug (from the Greek. Ναρκωτικός - numbing, Greek. Νάρκωσις - stupor) - according to the definition of WHO - a chemical agent that causes stupor, coma or insensitivity to pain. The term usually refers to opiates or opioids, which are called narcotic analgesics.
When reliable confirmation is needed, a person is using drugs or alcohol, a critical way to test tests. There are not many methods that can give a true assessment of the results. And there are not many laboratories in which it is possible to use these methods.
Acting Minister of Health of Ukraine Ulyana Suprun said that narcotic substances or alcohol are stored in human biological materials with different durations, which depends on how often a person takes them, she wrote about this on her Facebook page.
Paradoxically, no matter how destructive narcotic substances may be for our body, they are not as easy to detect as it seems at first glance.
That is why athletes or perpetrators of the crime undergo thorough examinations and donate body fluids to special laboratories.
For a thorough analysis, specific equipment is needed, it works according to a completely different method. This should be a long research process (2-3 days) based on analytical chemistry. Namely: chromato-mass spectrometry.
Everything else, such as test strips that promise a result in 15 minutes, is not a reliable indicator.
There are not many laboratories in Ukraine that can do such a study. Even less is to guarantee that it will be carried out with high quality.
The most advanced equipment for this is available only at the Olympic Committee's Anti-Doping Center. It is they who work with athletes to determine whether they use prohibited substances.
The following biological materials are analyzed on this equipment: urine, hair, nails and even blood, where drugs are metabolized very quickly. If a person regularly uses drugs (1-2 times a week), this method will confirm this.
The presence of alcohol in the body is easier to confirm than drugs. To do this, use the chromatographic method. However, it is more rapidly excreted from the body.
In sports competitions, the practice of collecting analysis samples under the supervision of experts. Such measures are carried out in order to avoid falsification or replacement of tests.
Narcotic substances or alcohol are stored in human biological materials with different durations. Duration of storage depends on how often a person takes
According to medical materials Objective Testing - urine and other drug tests website ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
- Alcohol 10-12 hours
- Amphetamine, methamphetamine: within 2-5 days
- Cannabis 1 to 30 days
- Barbiturates: up to 7 days
- Cocaine: 1 to 3 days
- Opiates like codeine, morphine and heroin from 2 to 5 days
- Alcohol 24 hours
- Amphetamines 10-14 hours
- Methamphetamine: 24 hours
- Barbiturates: 1-2 days
- Cannabis: 6-24 hours
- Cocaine: 12-24 hours
- Codeine: 6-12 hours
- LSD: 0-3 hours
In the hair
Traces of narcotic substances appear in the hair after one week from the time of use. But they are stored there for a very long time - up to 90 days and even more. Hair grows at a rate of about 1 cm per month, so depending on its length, you can determine the use of drugs in recent months.
In the nails
Traces of narcotic substances in nails can remain for a long time - from 3 to 5 months in fingernails and from 8 to 14 months in toenails.
Based on medical materials from the Detection of Drugs in Nails: Three Year Experience at /academic.oup.com.
A drug is a chemical agent that causes stupor, coma or insensitivity to pain. The term usually refers to opiates or opioids, which are called narcotic analgesics.
The 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs defines the term “drug” by a literal listing of substances:
Narcotic means - any of the substances included in lists I and II - natural and synthetic.
IN THE USA
According to the US Code, the term “narcotic drug” refers only to opium, cocaine, their derivatives and analogs, and opiates in general, however, many other substances belong to the first list of Schedule I drugs, criteria for which there are three conditions, two of which are subjective, and the third (B) follows from them:
(A) The drug or other substance has high potential for abuse.
(B) The drug has no accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.
(C) There is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision when using a drug under medical supervision.
The official recognition of a substance as narcotic is its inclusion in the list of drugs by order of the Minister of Health in Ukraine.
Narcotic A chemical agent that causes stupor, coma or insensitivity to pain. The term usually refers to opiates or opioids, which are called narcotic analgesics. In the generally accepted medical and legal sense, it is often used inaccurately to denote illicit narcotic drugs, regardless of their pharmacology.
It is believed that the term "ναρκωτικός" (drug) was first used by the Greek healer Hippocrates, in particular, to describe substances that cause loss of sensation or paralysis. This term was also used by the outstanding physician of antiquity Claudius Galen. As such substances, Galen, for example, mentioned the mandrake root, eclate and poppy seeds.
At the end of the 20th century, the meaning of the term in Russian expanded. The difference between the meaning and the initial one is related to the classification of substances that were not previously designated by this word (such as hemp products, psilocybin mushrooms, etc.).
In English, the word "narcotic" is still only called opioids. It should not be confused with the word “drug”, the most accurate translation of which is “drug”.
Currently, the term “drug” is sometimes used in Russian medicine and jurisprudence not quite accurately, in an expanded sense, denoting to them all prohibited psychoactive substances, regardless of their pharmacology, as well as in translations of English-language medical and legal documents in which illegal drugs are called illegal drugs, not narcotic drugs.
In most countries, drug trafficking is currently limited. As of November 1, 2009, the number of parties to the 1961 Convention or this Convention, as amended by the 1972 Protocol, reached 186, accounting for 96% of all states. Of these, 184 states were parties to the 1961 Convention, as amended by the 1972 Protocol. Afghanistan and Chad are parties only to the 1961 Convention, without amendment. Eight states did not join the 1961 Convention: Equatorial Guinea, Timor-Leste, Vanuatu, Kiribati, Nauru, Cook Islands, Samoa and Tuvalu.