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When is it best to eat river fish ❉ Useful properties of river fish for the body ❉ Is it good for humans to eat oily fish

Полезные свойства рыбы

Fish (Latin Pisces) is a paraphyletic group (according to the modern cladistic classification) of aquatic vertebrates. An extensive group of jaw-necks, which are characterized by gill breathing at all stages of the postembryonic development of the organism. Fish live in both saline and freshwater bodies, from deep ocean trenches to mountain streams. Fish play an important role in most aquatic ecosystems as part of the food chain. Many species of fish are eaten by man, and therefore have an important commercial value. The size of modern fish varies from 7.9 mm (Paedocypris progenetica) to 20 m (whale shark).

The fish becomes especially tasty in the fall when it has already managed to put on fat. Popular wisdom says that there is a river and pond fish, preferably in months, the name of which contains the letter "p". Moreover, in the fall often ponds are lowered and cleaned, which means crucians, carps, roaches are abundant. What are they useful for?

Any fish is rich in protein, iodine, phosphorus, potassium, iron, magnesium and sodium. The chemical composition of fish is not constant. It depends not only on the type and physiological state of the fish, but also on its age, sex, habitat, time of fishing and environmental conditions. The content of basic substances in fish meat can vary within the following limits: water - from 46.1 to 92.9%, fat - from 0.1 to 54%, nitrogenous substances - from 5.4 to 26.8%, mineral substances - from 0.1 to 3%.

Nutrients contained in fish

- proteins; - lipids; - amino acids; - iodine; - fluorine; - Calcium; - manganese; - zinc; - selenium; - iron; - magnesium; - phosphorus; - bromine; - vitamin A; - Vitamin D; - vitamin F; - Vitamin E; - vitamin C; - vitamin PP; - B vitamins; - Vitamin H; - fish fat; - Omega-3 acid.

Protein

Fish is a complete protein food product, it contains all the essential amino acids, including those that are particularly important for the human body - lysine, methionine and tryptophan. The amount of protein in fish meat is a fairly constant factor, so it fluctuates within a small range - from 15 to 20%.

During culinary processing, the fish meat loses only about 20% of moisture, while the meat of warm-blooded animals is almost twice as large. Moreover, fish protein is absorbed easier than meat, so after a nourishing fish table there is no feeling of discomfort and heaviness in the stomach.

This is about the same as in the meat of warm-blooded animals. In caviar and milk of proteins there is slightly more protein than in fish meat. The composition of the protein substances are mainly simple, full-fledged proteins such as albumin and globulins.

Minerals

As for phosphorus and iron, which are contained in fish, recent scientific studies have shown that such phosphorus does not have high activity and is poorly absorbed by the human body, and iron is moderately active and cannot compete on the digestibility of iron contained in beef or beef liver.

Eating fish 2-3 times a week, you can provide the body with iodine, so necessary for the proper operation of the thyroid gland. It is especially useful for women during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

But iodine, which is rich in fish, is in optimal form for human absorption.

Fats, carbohydrates and vitamins

There are no carbohydrates in fish at all, which should please supporters of non-carbohydrate diets and people with impaired carbohydrate metabolism. Today it is fashionable to lead a healthy lifestyle, stick to diets. And many are trying to completely abandon the use of fat. But fatty sea fish can and should be eaten, even if you are on a diet.

Eating about 100 grams of fatty marine fish a day, you get essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, the most important of which is Omega-3. Fish oil helps our body produce the "right" cholesterol, which, in contrast to the "harmful" cholesterol, fights against blockage of blood vessels.

So the use of this at first glance "non-dietary" product actually contributes to the recovery of the cardiovascular system, which is in the first place in the group of fatal risk factors. In addition, any fatty fish is rich in water-soluble vitamin B12 and fat-soluble vitamins A and D.

So what is the special value of fish?

The main indicator of the quality and nutritional value of fish is the content of fat and protein. In terms of protein content, different breeds of fish do not differ much from each other, but in terms of the amount of fat, the difference is significant: in some fish, fat is up to 54% of their mass, in others - no more than 0.1%. Usually, the taste and culinary qualities of fish depend on fat content. The most delicious fish, such as sturgeon, salmon, eels, are simultaneously considered the most fat. Of course, there are exceptions, for example, fatty hamsa is less appreciated than skinny cod and perch. However, within the same species of fish the best specimens are usually the most fat.

The amount of fat and its distribution in individual parts of the fish body is not constant. During certain periods of fish life (due to age, changes in feed conditions, during the period of increased feeding, etc.), the fat content may vary. Thus, during the formation of eggs in females and milt in males, the fat becomes much less, since it goes to the formation of caviar and milt, and the fat reserves concentrated in the liver or abdominal cavity are primarily consumed.

Harmful properties of fish

Scientific and technical achievements made the life of people comfortable, but as various industries grew, harmful substances accumulated in rivers, seas and oceans, accumulating in the organisms of fish and animals that eat them. This is because it is too late to pay attention to the environment. On the banks of rivers built many enterprises, the territory of the seas and oceans plowing huge liners, in large quantities of garbage accumulates, which is the result of human activity.

Pike, pikeperch and perch can accumulate in themselves such a harmful substance as mercury. Therefore, you should not buy fish if you are not sure about its quality and origin.

Smoked fish can also be harmful. There are many carcinogenic substances in hot smoked fish with thin skin. It is safer to choose a similar fish with thick skin and eat it no more than 1-2 times a week.

Some tips on how to choose a tasty and healthy fish

  • The meat of young fish is lean and tasteless. Mature specimens are more fatty and fleshy.
  • The meat of very large, old fish is often rough and unpleasant to taste.
  • The chemical composition and culinary merits of the meat of males and females is almost the same, since fish spends almost the same amount of fat and protein on the formation of caviar and milk.
  • Fish spoils faster than meat.
  • The intestine stretched along the whole body and adjacent to the spine can be an internal source of infection of fish meat.

Our advice: The presence of mucus on the surface of the carcass, loose connective tissue, high activity of its own enzymes at low temperatures and large amounts of water (up to 89%) contribute to the unhindered spread of microorganisms from the fish bowel that is not removed, which is the reason for the rapid loss of its quality. Therefore, before cooking the fish is very important to ensure its freshness.

Via Ogorodnik magazine & wiki