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When is it best to eat river fish ❉ Useful properties of river fish for the body ❉ Is it good for people to eat oily fish

Полезные свойства рыбы

Fish (lat. Pisces) - paraphyletic group (according to modern cladistic classification) of aquatic vertebrates. An extensive group of maxillofacials, which are characterized by gill respiration at all stages of the postembryonic development of the body. Fishes live both in salty and in fresh water reservoirs, from deep oceanic depressions to mountain streams. Fish play an important role in most aquatic ecosystems as part of the food chain. Many fish species are used by humans for food, and therefore are of great commercial importance. The sizes of modern fish range from 7.9 mm (Paedocypris progenetica) to 20 m (whale shark).

The fish becomes especially tasty in the fall, when it has already managed to get fat. Popular wisdom says that there is a river and pond fish, preferably in the months in the name of which there is the letter "p". Moreover, ponds are often lowered and cleaned in autumn, which means that crucian carp, carp, roach are plentiful. How are they useful?

Any fish is rich in protein, iodine, phosphorus, potassium, iron, magnesium and sodium. The chemical composition of fish is variable. It depends not only on the species and physiological state of the fish, but also on its age, sex, habitat, fishing time and environmental conditions. The content of basic substances in fish meat can fluctuate in the following ranges: water - from 46.1 to 92.9%, fat - from 0.1 to 54%, nitrogenous substances - from 5.4 to 26.8%, mineral substances - from 0.1 to 3%.

Nutrients in fish

- proteins; - lipids; - amino acids; - iodine; - fluorine; - calcium; - manganese; - zinc; - selenium; - iron; - magnesium; - phosphorus; - bromine; - vitamin A; - vitamin D; - vitamin F; - vitamin E; - vitamin C; - vitamin PP; - B vitamins; - vitamin H; - fish fat; - omega-3 acid.

Protein

Fish is a complete protein food product, it has all the essential amino acids, including those that are especially important for the human body - lysine, methionine and tryptophan. The amount of protein in fish meat is a fairly constant factor, so it fluctuates within small limits - from 15 to 20%.

When cooked, fish meat loses only about 20% moisture, while meat of warm-blooded animals is almost twice as much. Moreover, fish protein is easier to digest than meat protein, so after a hearty fish table there is no feeling of discomfort and heaviness in the stomach.

This is about the same as in the meat of warm-blooded animals. There are slightly more proteins in caviar and milk than in fish meat. The composition of protein substances consists mainly of simple complete proteins such as albumin and globulin.

Minerals

As for the phosphorus and iron contained in fish, recent scientific studies have shown that such phosphorus is not highly active and is poorly absorbed by the human body, and iron is moderately active and cannot compete with the digestibility of iron in beef or beef liver.

By consuming fish 2-3 times a week, you can provide the body with iodine, which is so necessary for the thyroid gland to function properly. It is especially useful for women during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

But the iodine, which is rich in fish, is in the optimal form for human assimilation.

Fats, Carbohydrates and Vitamins

There is no carbohydrate in fish at all, which should please supporters of carbohydrate-free diets and people with impaired carbohydrate metabolism. Today it is fashionable to lead a healthy lifestyle, stick to diets. Moreover, many are trying to completely abandon the use of fats. But fatty sea fish can and should be eaten, even if you are on a diet.

Eating about 100 g of oily marine fish per day, you get essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, the most important of which is Omega-3. Fish oil helps our body to produce the “right” cholesterol, which, in contrast to the “bad” cholesterol, fights the blockage of blood vessels.

So the use of this seemingly “non-dietary” product actually contributes to the improvement of the cardiovascular system, which ranks first in the group of mortal risk factors. In addition, any oily fish is rich in water-soluble vitamin B12 and fat-soluble vitamins A and D.

So what is the special value of fish?

The main indicator of the quality and nutritional value of fish is the content of fat and protein substances. In terms of protein content, different breeds of fish differ little from each other, but in terms of the amount of fat the difference is significant: in some species of fish, fat is up to 54% of their weight, in others - not more than 0.1%. Usually, the taste and culinary qualities of fish depend on fat content. The most delicious fish, such as sturgeon, salmon, eels, are also considered the fattest. Of course, there are exceptions, for example, fatty hamsa is less valued than skinny cod and pike perch. However, within the same species of fish, the best specimens are usually the fattest.

The amount of fat and its distribution over individual parts of the body of the fish is variable. In certain periods of the fish’s life (due to age, changes in food conditions, during the period of increased feeding, etc.), the fat content may change. So, with the formation of eggs in females and milk, in males, fat becomes much less, since it goes to the formation of eggs and milk, and in the first place, reserves of fat concentrated in the liver or abdominal cavity are consumed.

Harmful properties of fish

Scientific and technological achievements made people's lives comfortable, however, as various industries grew, harmful substances began to get into rivers, seas and oceans, accumulating in the organisms of fish and animals that eat them. This is because it was too late to pay attention to the environment. Many enterprises have been built along the banks of the rivers, the territory of the seas and oceans is plowed by huge airliners, garbage accumulates in large quantities, which is the result of human activity.

Pike, zander and perch can accumulate such harmful substances as mercury. Therefore, you should not buy fish if you are not sure of its quality and origin.

Smoked fish may also be harmful. Thin-skinned hot-smoked fish contain many carcinogens. It is safer to choose a similar fish with a thick skin and eat it no more than 1-2 times a week.

Some tips on choosing tasty and wholesome fish

  • The meat of young fish is lean and tasteless. Mature specimens are fatter and fatter.
  • The meat of very large, old fish is often coarse and unpleasant in taste.
  • The meat of males and females practically does not differ in chemical composition and culinary advantages, since almost the same amount of fat and protein is spent on the formation of caviar and milk.
  • Fish deteriorates faster than meat.
  • Elongated along the whole body and adjacent to the spine, the intestine can be an internal source of fish meat infection.

Our advice: The presence of mucus on the surface of the carcass, friability of connective tissue, the high activity of its own enzymes at low temperature and a large amount of water (up to 89%) contribute to the unhindered spread of microorganisms from the remote intestines of the fish, which is the reason for the rapid loss of its quality. Therefore, before cooking fish, it is very important to make sure its freshness.

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