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When is it best to eat river fish ❉ Useful properties of river fish for the body ❉ Is it useful to eat fatty fish to a person

Полезные свойства рыбы

Pisces (Latin Pisces) is a paraphyletic group (according to the modern cladistic classification) of aquatic vertebrates. A large group of maxillofacients, for which gill respiration is characteristic at all stages of the postembryonic development of the organism. Fish live both in salt and fresh water, from deep ocean depressions to mountain streams. Fish play an important role in most aquatic ecosystems as part of food chains. Many species of fish are used by man for food, and therefore have important commercial importance. The size of modern fish varies from 7.9 mm (Paedocypris progenetica) to 20 m (whale shark).

Especially delicious fish becomes in the autumn, when she has already managed to work fat. Folk wisdom says that there is a river and pond fish preferably in months, in the name of which there is a letter "p". Especially in autumn, ponds are often lowered and cleaned, which means that carp, carp, and roach are abundant. What are they useful?

Any fish is rich in protein, iodine, phosphorus, potassium, iron, magnesium and sodium. The chemical composition of the fish is unstable. It depends not only on the species and physiological state of the fish, but also on its age, sex, habitat, fishing time and environmental conditions. The content of basic substances in fish meat can vary within the following limits: water - from 46.1 to 92.9%, fat - from 0.1 to 54%, nitrogenous substances - from 5.4 to 26.8%, minerals - from 0.1 to 3%.

Useful substances contained in fish

- proteins; - lipids; - amino acids; - iodine; - fluorine; - Calcium; - manganese; - Zinc; - selenium; - iron; - magnesium; - phosphorus; - bromine; - vitamin A; - vitamin D; - vitamin F; - vitamin E; - vitamin C; - vitamin PP; - vitamins of group B; - vitamin H; - fish fat; - an omega-3 acid.

Protein

Fish is a full-fledged protein food product, it contains all essential amino acids, including those that are especially important for the human body - lysine, methionine and tryptophan. The amount of protein in the meat of fish is quite a constant factor, so it fluctuates within small limits - from 15 to 20%.

Meat of fish at cooking only loses about 20% of moisture, while meat of warm-blooded animals is almost twice as large. And the protein of the fish is digested easier than meat, so after a hearty fish table there is no feeling of discomfort and heaviness in the stomach.

This is about the same as in the meat of warm-blooded animals. In caviar and milk proteins are somewhat larger than in meat of fish. The composition of protein substances includes, mainly, simple high-grade proteins such as albumins and globulins.

Minerals

As for the phosphorus and iron that are contained in the fish, recent scientific studies have shown that such a phosphorus is not highly active and poorly digested by the human body, while iron is medium active and can not compete with iron in beef or beef liver.

Using fish 2-3 times a week, you can provide the body with iodine, so necessary for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland. It is especially useful for women during pregnancy and feeding infants with breast milk.

But iodine, which is rich in fish, is in the form optimal for human absorption.

Fats, carbohydrates and vitamins

There are no carbohydrates in fish at all, which should please the supporters of carbohydrate diets and people with a violation of carbohydrate metabolism. Today it is fashionable to lead a healthy lifestyle, adhere to diets. And many are trying to completely abandon the use of fats. But fatty sea fish is and can be, even if you are on a diet.

Eating about 100 grams of oily sea fish a day, you get essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, the most important of which is Omega-3. Fish oil helps our body to produce the "right" cholesterol, which, as opposed to "harmful" cholesterol, fights with blood clots.

So the use of this seemingly "non-diet" product actually contributes to the recovery of the cardiovascular system, which ranks first in the group of factors of deadly risk. In addition, any fatty fish is rich in water-soluble vitamin B12 and fat-soluble vitamins A and D.

So what's the special value of fish?

The main indicator of the quality and nutritional value of fish is the content of fat and protein substances. According to the protein content, different breeds of fish differ little from each other, but by the amount of fat the difference is significant: in some fish species, fat amounts to 54% of their mass, in others - no more than 0.1%. Usually the taste and culinary qualities of the fish depend on the fat content. The most delicious fish, such as sturgeon, salmon, eels, are also considered the most fatty. Of course, there are exceptions, for example, fat hamsa is less valued than lean cod and pike perch. However, within the limits of one variety of fish, the best specimens are usually the most fatty.

The amount of fat and its distribution over the individual parts of the body of the fish is not constant. At certain periods in the life of fish (due to age, changes in food conditions, in the period of intensive foraging, etc.), the fat content may vary. Thus, in the formation of caviar in females and milk, the fat in males becomes much less, as it goes to the formation of eggs and milk, and first of all, the stores of fat concentrated in the liver or abdominal cavity are consumed.

Harmful properties of fish

Scientific and technological achievements have made people's lives comfortable, but as the various industries have grown into rivers, seas and oceans, harmful substances have accumulated, accumulating in the organisms of fish and animals that eat them. This is because it's too late to pay attention to the environment. Along the banks of the rivers, many enterprises are built, the territory of the seas and oceans plow huge liners, in large quantities accumulated garbage, which is the result of human activities.

Pike, pike perch and perch can accumulate in themselves such harmful substance as mercury. Therefore, do not buy fish, if you are not sure about its quality and origin.

Smoked fish may also be harmful. In hot smoked fish with thin skin there are many carcinogenic substances. It is safer to choose a similar fish with a thick skin and use it no more than 1-2 times a week.

Some tips on how to choose a tasty and healthy fish

  • Meat of young fish is skinny and tasteless. Mature specimens are more fatty and fleshy.
  • The meat of very large, old fish is often rough and unpleasant to the taste.
  • The meat of males and females in terms of chemical composition and culinary virtues is practically the same, since fish spend almost the same amount of fat and protein on caviar and milk production.
  • The fish spoils faster than meat.
  • Stretched along the entire body and adjacent to the spine, the intestine can be an internal source of infection of fish meat.

Our advice: The presence of mucus on the carcass surface, looseness of the connective tissue, high activity of its own enzymes at low temperature and a large amount of water (up to 89%) contribute to the unhindered spread of microorganisms from the uninfected fish intestine, which is the reason for the rapid loss of its quality. Therefore, before making fish it is very important to make sure of its freshness.

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