Description of the medicine: Potassium iodide (Kalii iodidum)
POTASSIUM IODID (Kalii iodidum).
Synonyms: Potassium iodide, Kalium iodatum.
Colorless (white) cubic crystals or odorless white crystalline powder, salty and bitter in taste. Damp in moist air. Easily soluble in water (1: 0.75), alcohol (1:12), glycerin (1: 2, 5).
Potassium iodide is well absorbed in the digestive tract, excreted mainly by the kidneys.
It is used as an iodine preparation for hyperthyroidism, endemic goiter, to prepare for operations with severe forms of thyrotoxicosis; with inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract, bronchial asthma; with eye diseases (cataract, clouding of the cornea and vitreous body, hemorrhages in the membranes of the eye); as well as with fungal infections of the conjunctiva and cornea.
An important property of potassium iodide is its ability to prevent the accumulation of radioactive iodine in the thyroid gland and provide its protection against the effects of radiation.
Potassium iodide is taken orally in the form of tablets, solutions, and medicines. In order to avoid irritation of the gastrointestinal tract, they are washed down with milk, jelly or sweet tea.
Solutions of potassium iodide are not injected into a vein because of the inhibitory effect of potassium ions on the heart (see Sodium iodide).
In case of endemic goiter, 0.04 g is prescribed once a week. In endemic areas, salt is also used, to which 1, 0 - 2, 5 g of potassium iodide is added per 100 kg of salt.
With diffuse goiter, 0.04 g is prescribed 3 times a day, then 0.125 g 1 - 2 times a day in courses of 20 days with breaks of 10 days.
As a mucolytic agent, 1 - 3% solution is prescribed for 2 - 3 tablespoons (0.3 - 1, 0 g) 3-4 times a day.
As an adjuvant, potassium iodide is prescribed for patients with syphilis (mainly in the tertiary period). The drug promotes resorption of infiltrates, reducing pain. Assign in the form of a 3 - 4% solution of 1 tablespoon 3 times a day after meals.
Relatively large doses (1 tablespoon of 10 - 20% solution 4 times a day) are prescribed for lung actinomycosis.
In ophthalmic practice, eye drops of potassium iodide in the form of a 3% solution are used as a “resolving” agent. Buried in a conjunctival sac, 2 drops 3-4 times a day for 10-15 days. If necessary, treatment courses are repeated.
When there is a risk of radioactive iodine entering the body to protect against thyroid irradiation, it is prescribed to adults and children over 2 years old at 0.125 g once a day; children under 2 years old - 0.04 g per day. The tablet is crushed and given with a little jelly or sweet tea.
The drug is taken daily until the threat of the entry of radioactive iodine into the body disappears.
To protect the thyroid gland from the effects of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with radioactive iodine used in scanning, potassium iodide is given at 0.125 g once a day for 5 to 10 days.
When using potassium iodide, iodism phenomena are possible: runny nose, urticaria, Quincke's edema, etc., and when taken orally, there are unpleasant sensations in the epigastric region.