Medication Description: Glucose (Glucosum)
Synonyms: Dextrose, Dextrosum, Glucosa.
Colorless crystals or white odorless crystalline powder, sweet in taste. Soluble in water (1: 1, 5), it is difficult - in alcohol.
The solutions are sterilized at a temperature of + 100 ° C for 60 minutes or at a temperature of + 119, + 121 ° C for 5-7 minutes; pH of solutions 3, 0-4, 0.
Isotonic (4, 5–5%) and hypertonic (10–40%) solutions are used for medical purposes.
Isotonic solution is used to replenish the body with fluid, however, it is a source of valuable nutrient that is readily absorbed by the body. When glucose burns in tissues, a significant amount of energy is released, which serves to carry out body functions.
With the introduction of hypertonic solutions into the vein, the osmotic pressure of the blood rises, fluid flow from the tissues into the blood increases, metabolic processes increase, the detoxification function of the liver improves, the contractile activity of the heart muscle increases, the vessels expand, and diuresis increases.
Glucose solutions are widely used in medical practice for hypoglycemia, infectious diseases, liver diseases (hepatitis, degeneration and atrophy of the liver), cardiac decompensation, pulmonary edema, hemorrhagic diathesis, toxicoinfections, various intoxications (poisoning with drugs, hydrocyanic acid and its salts, oxyme and its salts, oxyme , aniline, arsenic hydrogen, phosgene and other substances) and other pathological conditions. Glucose solutions are widely used in the treatment of shock and collapse; they are components of various blood-substituting and anti-shock fluids and are also used for dilution of various drugs when injected into a vein.
Isotonic solutions are injected under the skin (300 - 500 ml or more), into a vein (drip) and in enemas (from 300 - 500 to 1000 - 2000 ml per day drip).
Hypertonic solutions are administered intravenously in a dose of 20-40 to 60 ml per injection. If necessary, administered by the drip method up to 250 - 300 ml per day. For more rapid and complete absorption of glucose, sometimes insulin is administered simultaneously (4-5 U under the skin). Often, glucose is administered simultaneously with ascorbic acid.
Solutions of glucose with methylene blue are used in hydrocyanic acid poisoning (see Methylene blue).
Glucose solutions are contraindicated in diabetes mellitus and various conditions accompanied by hyperglycemia. For dilution of drugs in these cases use isotonic sodium chloride solution.
Method of issuance: powder; tablets of 0.5 and 1 g; 5%, 10%, 25% and 40% solutions in ampoules of 10; 20; 25 and 50 ml; 5% solution (for injection) in glass bottles (for blood), 400 ml; 5%, 10%, 20% and 40% solutions in glass bottles (for blood) 200 and 400 ml each (for injections).
Ampoules containing 20 and 50 ml of 25% glucose solution with 1% methylene blue solution, and ampoules containing 10 and 25 ml of 40% glucose solution with 1% ascorbic acid solution are also produced.