Description of the medicine: Glucose (Glucosum)
Synonyms: Dextrose, Dextrosum, Glucosa.
Colorless crystals or odorless white crystalline powder, sweet in taste. It is soluble in water (1: 1, 5), it is difficult to alcohol.
The solutions are sterilized at a temperature of + 100 ° C for 60 minutes or at a temperature of + 119, + 121 ° C for 5 to 7 minutes; pH of solutions 3, 0 - 4, 0.
For medical purposes, isotonic (4, 5 - 5%) and hypertonic (10 - 40%) solutions are used.
Isotonic solution is used to replenish the body with liquid, however, at the same time it is a source of valuable nutrient readily assimilable by the body. When glucose is burned in tissues, a significant amount of energy is released, which serves to carry out body functions.
When hypertonic solutions are introduced into the vein, the osmotic pressure of the blood rises, the flow of fluid from the tissues into the blood increases, the metabolic processes increase, the detoxification function of the liver improves, the contractile activity of the heart muscle increases, the vessels expand, diuresis increases.
Glucose solutions are widely used in medical practice for hypoglycemia, infectious diseases, liver diseases (hepatitis, dystrophy and liver atrophy), cardiac decompensation, pulmonary edema, hemorrhagic diathesis, toxic infections, various intoxications (drug poisoning, hydrocyanic acid and its salts, carbon monoxide , aniline, arsenic hydrogen, phosgene and other substances) and other pathological conditions. Glucose solutions are widely used in the treatment of shock and collapse; they are components of various blood-replacing and anti-shock fluids and are also used to dilute various drugs when they are introduced into a vein.
Isotonic solutions are injected under the skin (300 - 500 ml or more), into a vein (drip) and in enemas (from 300 - 500 to 1000 - 2000 ml per day drip).
Hypertonic solutions are administered intravenously at 20 - 40 - 60 ml per administration. If necessary, injected by the drip method up to 250 - 300 ml per day. For faster and more complete absorption of glucose, sometimes insulin is simultaneously administered (4 to 5 units under the skin). Often, glucose is prescribed simultaneously with ascorbic acid.
Glucose solutions with methylene blue are used in case of hydrocyanic acid poisoning (see Methylene blue).
Glucose solutions are contraindicated in diabetes mellitus and various conditions accompanied by hyperglycemia. For dilution of drugs in these cases, use isotonic sodium chloride solution.
Method of release: powder; tablets of 0.5 and 1 g; 5%, 10%, 25% and 40% solutions in ampoules of 10; twenty; 25 and 50 ml; 5% solution (for injection) in glass bottles (for blood) of 400 ml; 5%, 10%, 20% and 40% solutions in glass bottles (for blood) of 200 and 400 ml (for injection).
Also produce ampoules containing 20 and 50 ml of a 25% glucose solution with 1% solution of methylene blue, and ampoules containing 10 and 25 ml of a 40% glucose solution with 1% solution of ascorbic acid.