Description of the medicine: Erythromycin (Erythromycinum)
Erythromycin is an antibacterial substance produced by Streptomyces erythreus or other related microorganisms.
It belongs to the group of macrolides - compounds containing a macrocyclic lactone ring in the molecule. Oleandomycin belongs to the same group.
Synonyms: Eritrocina, Ermycin, Erycinum, Erythran, Erythrocin, Erythromycin, Etromycin, Ilotycin, Lubomycin, Pantomicina, etc.
Crystalline powder, odorless white, taste bitter. It is slightly soluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol. Hygroscopic. Theoretically, 1 mg contains 1000 units; practically available with an activity of at least 900 units in 1 mg.
By the spectrum of antimicrobial action, erythromycin is close to penicillins. It is active against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms (staphylococci, pneumococci, streptococci, gonococci, meningococci). It also acts on a number of gram-positive bacteria, brucella, rickettsia, pathogens of trachoma and syphilis. Little or no effect on most gram-negative bacteria, mycobacteria, small and medium viruses, fungi.
Erythromycin is better tolerated by patients than penicillins, and can be used for allergies to penicillins.
In therapeutic doses, erythromycin acts bacteriostatically. Antibiotic resistance develops rapidly, and cross-resistance is observed with other antibiotics of the macrolide group (oleandomycin). When combined with streptomycin, tetracyclines and sulfonamides, an increase in the action of erythromycin is observed.
Erythromycin is used for pneumonia, pneumopleuritis, bronchiectasis and the stage of exacerbation and other infectious diseases of the lungs caused by antibiotic-sensitive microorganisms; with septic conditions, erysipelas, mastitis, osteomyelitis, peritonitis, purulent otitis media and other purulent-inflammatory processes. It is also prescribed for patients with syphilis with intolerance to antibiotics of the penicillin group. Erythromycin does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier, so it is not prescribed for meningitis.
Locally (in the form of an ointment), erythromycin is used for pustular skin lesions, infected wounds, bedsores, etc., as well as for conjunctivitis, blepharitis, trachoma.
In severe forms of infectious diseases, when taking the drug inside is ineffective or impossible, they resort to the intravenous administration of a soluble form of erythromycin - erythromycin phosphate.
For oral administration, erythromycin is prescribed in the form of tablets or in capsules. A single dose of adult dpa is 0.25 g, for severe diseases - 0.5 g. Take every 4 to 6 hours 1 to 1, 5 hours before meals.
The highest single dose for adults: inside 0.5 g, daily 2 g. Children under 14 years of age are prescribed in a daily dose of 20-40 mg / kg (in 4 doses), over 14 years old - in a dose for adults.
Side effects in the treatment of erythramycin are relatively rare (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea).