Description of the medicine: Chloramphenicol (Laevomycetinum)
A synthetic substance identical to the natural antibiotic chloramphenicol, which is a waste product of the microorganism Streptomyces venezuelae.
D- (-) - threo-1- para- Nitrophenyl -2-dichloroacetylamino-propanediol - 1, 3.
Synonyms: Chloramphenicol, Chlorocide, Alficetin, Berlicetine, Biophenicol, Chemicetin, Chloramphenicolum, Chlornitromycin, Chlorocyclina, Chloromycetin, Chloronitrin, Chloroptic, Clobinecol, Detreomycina, Halomycetomyceinomycetin, Leukomin, Leukomycetomycetomycetomycetomycetinum
White or white with a faint yellowish-green tint, crystalline powder, bitter in taste. Slightly soluble in water easily - in spitra.
Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic; effective against many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, rickettsia, spirochetes and some large viruses (pathogens of trachoma, psittacosis, inguinal lymphogranulomatosis, etc.); acts on bacterial strains resistant to penicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides. In normal doses, it acts bacteriostatically. It is weakly active against acid-resistant bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, clostridia and protozoa.
The antimicrobial mechanism of chloramphenicol is associated with impaired synthesis of proteins of microorganisms.
Drug resistance to the drug develops relatively slowly, while, as a rule, cross-resistance to other chemotherapeutic agents does not occur.
Chloramphenicol is easily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. After oral administration, the maximum concentration in the blood is created after 2 - 3 hours; within 4 - 5 hours after a single dose of the therapeutic dose, the therapeutically active concentration is maintained in the blood, then a significant decrease in concentration occurs. The drug penetrates well into organs and body fluids; penetrates the blood-brain barrier, through the placenta, is found in breast milk. Therapeutic concentrations of chloramphenicol when administered orally or locally are created in the vitreous, cornea, iris, and aqueous humor of the eye; the drug does not penetrate the lens. Chloramphenicol is well absorbed by rectal administration. It is excreted mainly in urine, mainly in the form of inactive metabolites; partially with bile and feces. In the intestine under the influence of intestinal bacteria, hydrolysis of chloramphenicol occurs with the formation of inactive metabolites.
Chloramphenicol is used for typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, generalized forms of salmonella, brucellosis, tularemia, meningitis, rickettsiosis, chlamydia.
In infectious processes of a different etiology caused by pathogens sensitive to the action of chloramphenicol, the drug is indicated in case of ineffectiveness of other chemotherapeutic drugs.
Chloramphenicol is also used topically for the prevention and treatment of ocular infectious diseases (conjunctivitis, blepharitis, etc.).
Chloramphenicol is used orally in tablets and capsules, topically in the form of aqueous solutions and ointments.