Medication Description: Levomycetin (Laevomycetinum)
Synthetic substance identical to the natural antibiotic chloramphenicol, which is a product of the microorganism Streptomyces venezuelae.
D- (-) - threo-1-para-Nitrophenyl -2-dichloroacetylamino-propanediol - 1, 3.
Synonyms: Chloramphenicol, Chlorocide, Alficetin, Berlicetine, Biophenicol, Chemicetin, Chloramphenicolum, Chlornitromycin, Chlorocyclina, Chloromycetin, Chloronitrin, Chloroptic, Clobinecol, Detreomycina, Halomycetin, and actor, we will help you, and you will be able to take a break.
White or white with a faint yellowish-green tinge, crystalline powder, bitter in taste. Few soluble in water easily - in a spiter.
Levomycetin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic; it is effective against many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, rickettsia, spirochetes, and some large viruses (pathogens of trachoma, psittacosis, inguinal lymphoma granulomatosis, etc.); acts on bacteria strains resistant to penicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides. In normal doses, it acts bacteriostatic. It is weakly active against acid-resistant bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, clostridia and protozoa.
The mechanism of the antimicrobial action of chloramphenicol is associated with impaired protein synthesis of microorganisms.
Drug resistance to the drug develops relatively slowly, while, as a rule, cross-resistance to other chemotherapeutic agents does not occur.
Levomycetin is easily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. After ingestion, the maximum concentration in the blood is created in 2 to 3 hours; for 4–5 h after a single dose of a therapeutic dose, the therapeutically active concentration is maintained in the blood, then a significant decrease in the concentration occurs. The drug penetrates well into the organs and body fluids; penetrates the blood-brain barrier, through the placenta, is found in breast milk. Therapeutic concentrations of chloramphenicol in its appointment inside or locally created in the vitreous, cornea, iris, in the aqueous humor of the eye; the drug does not penetrate into the lens. Levomycetin is well absorbed when administered rectally. Excreted mainly in the urine, mainly in the form of inactive metabolites; partially - with bile and feces. In the intestine, under the action of intestinal bacteria, levomycetin hydrolysis occurs with the formation of inactive metabolites.
Chloramphenicol is used for typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, generalized forms of salmonellosis, brucellosis, tularemia, meningitis, rickettsiosis, and chlamydiases.
In infectious processes of a different etiology, caused by pathogens sensitive to the action of chloramphenicol, the drug is indicated in the case of the ineffectiveness of other chemotherapeutic drugs.
Levomycetin is also used topically for the prevention and treatment of eye infectious diseases (conjunctivitis, blepharitis, etc.).
Levomitsetin apply inside tablets and capsules, locally - in the form of aqueous solutions and ointments.