Description of the medicine: Cisplatin (Cisplatin)
Yellow to yellow-orange crystalline powder. Slowly and very slightly soluble in water and isotonic sodium chloride solution.
Synonyms: Platidiam, Platidiam, Platinol.
It is a complex compound of dibasic platinum with antitumor activity. The cis isomer is effective; the trans isomer does not have activity. The number II means the basicity (valency) of platinum.
The mechanism of the antitumor effect of the drug (and other platinum derivatives) is associated with the ability to bifunctional alkylation of DNA strands, leading to prolonged suppression of the biosynthesis of nucleic acids and cell death. The ability of the drug to cause regression of primary tumors and metastases is also associated with an effect on the body's immune system.
Cisplatin is not effective when taken orally. When administered intravenously, it quickly and in significant quantities enters the kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, liver, ovaries; found in skin, muscle, bone. It does not cross the blood-brain barrier. In a significant amount (90%) it binds to plasma proteins. Slowly excreted by the kidneys: in small quantities in the first hours and about 40% after 5-day administration.
Cisplatin is used alone or in combination therapy (in combination with methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, thioguanine, antitumor antibiotics and other antitumor drugs) for malignant tumors of the testis and ovaries, cervical cancer, bladder, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, and osteogenic sarcoma. Also used in the treatment of lymphogranulomatosis and lymphosarcoma.
A solution of cisplatin is administered intravenously. When monochemotherapy is usually administered at the rate of 20 mg per 1 m 2 of body surface daily for 5 days, or Z0 mg per 1 m 2 daily for 3 days, or 100-150 m 2 per 1 m 2 once every 3 weeks . The interval between courses is 3 weeks. The total number of courses is determined individually.
For injection, the drug is dissolved at the rate of 10 mg of dry matter per 10 ml of sterile water for injection and this solution is diluted in 1 l of isotonic sodium chloride solution or 5% glucose solution.
The solution is administered jet (slowly) or in the form of prolonged infusions (within 6 to 48 hours).
To reduce nephrotoxicity, it is recommended to hydrate the patient’s body before administering cisplatin, injecting 1 to 2 liters of an isotonic sodium chloride solution or 5% glucose solution for 8-12 hours.
When using cisplatin, violations, kidney function, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, dizziness, tinnitus, hearing loss, anaphylactic reactions, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia are possible. Neuropathies with predominant damage to the nerves of the lower extremities (especially the nerves of the calf muscles) were noted.
Perhaps the occurrence of pain along the vein after intravenous administration of the drug.