Description of the medicine: Olivomycin (Olivomycinum)
It is an antibiotic produced by the radiant fungus Actinomyces olivoreticuli.
It is used in the form of sodium salt, which is a powder or a porous mass of yellow color with a greenish tint. Easily soluble in water, isotonic sodium chloride solution, novocaine solutions.
The drug has antitumor activity. The mechanism of action is associated with the selective suppression of DNA-dependent RNA synthesis.
Apply intravenously. Subcutaneously and intramuscularly are not administered due to the possible formation of infiltrates and tissue necrosis. When taken orally, it is poorly absorbed.
Olivomycin is used intravenously for testicular tumors (seminomas, embryonic cancers, teratoblastomas) in the generalization stage (with metastases), for tonsillar tumors (lymphoepitheliomas, reticulosarcomas, etc.), for reticulosarcomas with peripheral nodule involvement, and for uterus cancer.
It is administered intravenously to adults, starting with a dose of 5 mg (0.005 g). If the patient has tolerated the first administration well, the dose is increased to 10 mg, then gradually to 15 mg per administration (approximately 0.25 mg / kg). Enter slowly (within 2 - 3 min) or drip. Injections are repeated every 48 hours. A total of 150 - 300 mg (0.15 - 0.3 g) of olivomycin is consumed per course (10 - 20 administrations).
With favorable results, the course of treatment can be repeated after 1 - 1, 5 months.
Children are administered starting with a dose of 0.1 mg (0.0001 g) per 1 kg of body weight. Gradually, the dose is increased to 0.2 - 0.25 mg / kg; 2 to 5 mg / kg are used per course of treatment.
Olivomycin sodium salt solutions are prepared immediately before injection, diluting the contents of the vial (0.02 g of the preparation) in 10-15 ml of a sterile isotonic sodium chloride solution.
Olivomycin can be prescribed in combination with other antitumor drugs and with radiation therapy in cases where the use of other drugs is not possible, due to leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, as well as with the resistance of tumors to alkylating compounds and radiation treatment.
When using olivomycin, nausea, vomiting, and body temperature may occur. To prevent these side effects, it is recommended to give, before the introduction of the drug, diphenhydramine (or another antihistamine drug), and after administration, chlorpromazine (25 mg by mouth).
In case of the appearance of fungal lesions of the mucous membranes (oral cavity), nystatin (500,000 units 2 times a day) or caramel decamine is prescribed (see).
With severe dyspeptic symptoms (persistent nausea, vomiting, decreased or loss of appetite), reduce the dose or increase the interval between doses to 72 hours.
During treatment with olivomycin, it is necessary to monitor the cardiovascular system and blood picture.
Due to possible cardiotoxicity, the drug is contraindicated in severe diseases of the cardiovascular system, as well as with a sharp depletion of the patient and in the terminal stages of cancer.