Description of the medicine: Cocainum (Cocainum)
Alkaloid contained in the leaves of a South American plant (shrub) erythroxylon coca.
In medical practice, cocaine hydrochloride (Сosaini hydrochloridum) is used.
Synonym: Cocainum hydrochloricum.
Benzoylegonin methyl ester hydrochloride.
Colorless needle crystals or a white crystalline powder of bitter taste, which causes a feeling of numbness when applied to the tongue. It is very easily soluble in water (2: 1), easily - in alcohol (1: 2, 6). Aqueous solutions are sterilized by tindalization. To stabilize the solutions, a solution of hydrochloric (hydrochloric) acid is added to pH 3, 5 - 4, 0.
Cocaine is the first natural compound in which local anesthetic activity is detected, i.e., the ability to reduce or completely suppress the excitability of sensitive nerve endings and inhibit the conduct of excitation through nerve fibers. Subsequently, a large number of synthetic substances with similar activity were obtained.
Cocaine, along with the action on sensitive nerve endings, has a pronounced effect on the central nervous system.
When absorbed, it can cause euphoria, agitation, then CNS depression. With prolonged use, the functions of the nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular system, respiration are disturbed; addiction (cocainism) may develop.
Due to its high toxicity, cocaine is currently used in a limited manner. It is used only occasionally as a surface anesthetic for local anesthesia of the conjunctiva and cornea (1 - 3% solutions), mucous membranes of the oral cavity, nose, larynx (2 - 5%), for anesthesia of the tooth pulp. Cocaine causes pupil dilation and desquamation of the corneal epithelium. Sometimes, especially in the elderly, under the influence of cocaine, an increase in intraocular pressure and an acute attack of glaucoma can be observed. It should also be borne in mind that after introduction into the conjunctival sac and application to the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, etc., cocaine is absorbed and can cause general intoxication phenomena. Particular care should be taken when using the drug for anesthesia of the respiratory tract with bronchoscopy.
To reduce the absorption of cocaine and lengthen its anesthetic effect, an adrenaline solution is usually added to its solutions (3 to 5 drops of a 0.1% solution of adrenaline hydrochloride per 5 ml of cocaine).
Due to the ability to cause vasoconstriction in the area of cocaine deposition (at a concentration of 0.2 - 1 - 2%), in the past, it was included in the composition of drops and ointments used in the treatment of rhinitis, conjunctivitis.
In recent years, due to the high drug potential, cocaine is practically not used for these purposes.
Highest doses for adults (single and daily) 0.03 g.
Release form: powder.
Storage: List A. In well-sealed jars of orange glass in a dark place.
It is released with restrictions, like other drugs.