Medication Description: Cocaine (Cocainum)
Alkaloid contained in the leaves of the South American plant (shrub) Еrythroxylon coca.
Cocaine hydrochloride (Cosaini hydro chloridum) is used in medical practice.
Synonym: Cocainum hydrochloricum.
Benzoylekgonin methyl ester hydrochloride.
Colorless needles or white crystalline powder of bitter taste, causing nausea when applied to the tongue. Very easily soluble in water (2: 1), easily in alcohol (1: 2, 6). Aqueous solutions are sterilized by tyndilization. To stabilize the solutions add a solution of hydrochloric (hydrochloric) acid to a pH of 3, 5 - 4, 0.
Cocaine is the first natural compound in which local anesthetic activity is found, that is, the ability to lower or completely suppress the excitability of sensitive nerve endings and inhibit the conduction of excitation along nerve fibers. Later, a large number of synthetic substances with similar activity were obtained.
Cocaine, along with the effect on sensitive nerve endings, has a pronounced effect on the central nervous system.
When absorbed, it can cause euphoria, agitation, then CNS depression. With prolonged use, the functions of the nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular system, respiration are violated; painful addiction can develop (cocaineism).
Currently, due to the high toxicity of cocaine used is limited. It is used only occasionally as a surface anesthetic for local anesthesia of the conjunctiva and cornea (1–3% solutions), mucous membranes of the oral cavity, nose, larynx (2–5%), for anesthesia of the dental pulp. Cocaine causes dilation of the pupil and desquamation of the corneal epithelium. Sometimes, especially in the elderly, under the influence of cocaine, an increase in intraocular pressure and an acute attack of glaucoma may be observed. It should also be borne in mind that after insertion into the conjunctival sac and application to the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, etc., cocaine is absorbed and may cause general intoxication. Special care should be taken when using the drug for anesthesia of the respiratory tract during bronchoscopy.
To reduce the absorption of cocaine and lengthen its anesthetic effect, an adrenaline solution is usually added to its solutions (3 to 5 drops of a 0.1% solution of adrenaline hydrochloride per 5 ml of cocaine).
In connection with the ability to cause vasoconstriction in the area of cocaine application (at a concentration of 0.2 - 1 - 2%) in the past included drops and ointments used in the treatment of rhinitis, conjunctivitis.
In recent years, due to the high narcotic potential, cocaine is practically not used for these purposes.
Higher doses for adults (single and daily) 0.03 g
Form release: powder.
Storage: List A. The well-sealed banks of orange glass in a dark place.
It is released with restrictions, as well as other narcotic drugs.