Description of the medicine: Reserpinum (Reserpinum)
RESERPIN (Reserpinum). 3, 4, 5-Trimethoxybenzoate methylreserpate.
Reserpine is an alkaloid found in rauwolfia plants.
Rauwolfia (Rauwolfia; Rauwolfia serrentina Venth.) Is a perennial shrub of the kutra family (Arosunaseae), grows in south and southeast Asia (India, Sri Lanka, Java, Malay Peninsula). The botanical description of the plant was made in the XVI century. German doctor Leonhard Rauwolf. Extracts from the roots and leaves of the plant have long been used in Indian traditional medicine. The plant, especially the roots, contains a large amount of alkaloids (reserpine, rescinamine, aimalin, aimalicin, aimalinin, rauwolfin, serpin, serpagin, yohimbine, etc.).
Rauwolfia alkaloids have valuable pharmacological properties. Some of them, especially reserpine and, to a lesser extent, rescinamine, have a sedative and hypotensive effect, while others (aimalitsin, rauwolfin, serpagin, yohimbine) have an adrenolytic effect. Aymalin has an antiarrhythmic effect.
Reserpine and other of these alkaloids are also found in R. caensens Linn., R. micrantha Nok; R. tetraarchulla L., R. heterochloria Roem et Schut and other types of rauwolfia.
Overseas, reserpine is available under the names: Rausedil, Alserin, Crystoserpin, Escaserp, Hiposerpil, Quiescin, Raupasil, Rau-Sed, Rausedan, Rausedyl, Reserpoid, Roxinoid, Sedaraupin, Serfin, Serpasil, Serpate, Serpenine, Serpen, Drepid .
White or yellow crystalline powder. Easily soluble in glacial acetic acid and chloroform, very little in water, alcohol, ether.
The main pharmacological property of reserpine is its sympatholytic effect, due to the fact that under its influence, catecholamines from the granular depots of presynaptic nerve endings are accelerated to be released (released). The released catecholamines undergo the inactivating effect of monoamine oxidase, which leads to a decrease in the release of catecholamines into the synaptic cleft and weakening of adrenergic effects on the effector systems of peripheral organs, including blood vessel adrenergic receptors.
The effect of reserpine also extends to the central nervous system. Under its influence, the content in the brain tissues of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin is reduced, due to its ability to disrupt the transport of these substances from cell plasma (where their biosynthesis takes place) to the granules where they are deposited. In plasma, they are exposed to the monoamine oxidase contained in it and turn into inactive (deaminated) metabolites.
Reserpine has a complex effect on the body. The antihypertensive effect is largely associated with the effect on the peripheral nervous system, and the antipsychotic effect on the central neurochemical processes.
Initially, before the advent of modern antipsychotics, reserpine was used to treat mental illness. Currently, reserpine as an antipsychotic is rarely used, mainly it is used as an antihypertensive drug for the treatment of arterial hypertension.